Abstract

In this research, the recovery process of the optical stopping effect on an amorphous arsenic sulfide thin-film waveguide is studied, both on the net As2S8 and doping As2S8 waveguide. Based on the experimental results, we analyzed the chemical bond structure of the samples. The hybrid orbital theory and electron energy bandgap theory are applied in order to establish the model of optical stopping and the recovery process. The numerical analysis results are well matched with the experiment data, which indicates that the model properly explains the optical stopping effect phenomenon. The model also can be applied to predict the recovery process of the optical stopping effect.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  3. B. Bureau, X. H. Zhang, F. Smektala, J. L. Adam, and J. Troles, “Recent advances in chalcogenide glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 345–346, 276–283 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. Troles, F. Smektala, G. Boudebs, A. Monteil, B. Bureau, and J. Lucas, “Chalcogenide glasses as solid state optical limiters at 1.064 μm,” Opt. Mater. 25, 231–237 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  5. D. Adler, M. S. Shur, M. Silver, and S. R. Ovshinsky, “Threshold switching in chalcogenide-glass thin film,” J. Appl. Phys. 51, 3289–3309 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  6. L. E. Zou, B. X. Chen, L. Chen, Y. F. Yuan, H. Hamanaka, and M. Iso, “Optical-stopping effect of As2S8 channel waveguide fabricate by method of photoinduced refractive index changes,” Acta Phys. Sin. 55, 1868–1872 (2006) (in Chinese).
  7. L. E. Zou, B. X. Chen, L. P. Du, H. Hamanaka, and M. Iso, “Photo- and thermally induced changes in the refractive index and film thichness of amorphous As2S8 film,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 123523-1 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  12. R. A. Street and N. F. Mott, “States in the glassy semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 35, 1293–1296 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  13. P. W. Anderson, “Model for the electronic structure of amorphous semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 34, 953–955 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  14. M. Kastner, D. Adler, and H. Fritzsche, “Valence-alternation model for localized gap states in lone-pair semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 37, 1504–1507 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  15. N. Asha Bhat, K. S. Sangunni, and K. S. R. K. Rao, “A Fourier-transform photoluminescence study of radiative recombination mechanism in chalcogenide glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 319, 192–199 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  16. L. E. Zou, S. T. Yao, B. X. Chen, Y. Shen, H. Hamanaka, and M. Iso, “Recovery response of optical stopping effect on P2As20S78 and Sn1As20S79 film waveguide,” AIP Adv. 2, 012146 (2012).
    [CrossRef]

2012

L. E. Zou, S. T. Yao, B. X. Chen, Y. Shen, H. Hamanaka, and M. Iso, “Recovery response of optical stopping effect on P2As20S78 and Sn1As20S79 film waveguide,” AIP Adv. 2, 012146 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2008

L. E. Zou, B. X. Chen, L. P. Du, H. Hamanaka, and M. Iso, “Photo- and thermally induced changes in the refractive index and film thichness of amorphous As2S8 film,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 123523-1 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

2006

L. E. Zou, B. X. Chen, L. Chen, Y. F. Yuan, H. Hamanaka, and M. Iso, “Fabrication of an As2S8 stripe waveguide with an optical stopping effect by exposure to ultraviolet irradiation,” Appl. Phy. Lett. 88, 153510 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. E. Zou, B. X. Chen, L. Chen, Y. F. Yuan, H. Hamanaka, and M. Iso, “Optical-stopping effect of As2S8 channel waveguide fabricate by method of photoinduced refractive index changes,” Acta Phys. Sin. 55, 1868–1872 (2006) (in Chinese).

2004

B. Bureau, X. H. Zhang, F. Smektala, J. L. Adam, and J. Troles, “Recent advances in chalcogenide glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 345–346, 276–283 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Troles, F. Smektala, G. Boudebs, A. Monteil, B. Bureau, and J. Lucas, “Chalcogenide glasses as solid state optical limiters at 1.064 μm,” Opt. Mater. 25, 231–237 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

N. Asha Bhat, K. S. Sangunni, and K. S. R. K. Rao, “A Fourier-transform photoluminescence study of radiative recombination mechanism in chalcogenide glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 319, 192–199 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1993

1980

D. Adler, M. S. Shur, M. Silver, and S. R. Ovshinsky, “Threshold switching in chalcogenide-glass thin film,” J. Appl. Phys. 51, 3289–3309 (1980).
[CrossRef]

R. Ishikawa and M. Kikuchi, “Photovoltaic study on the photo-enhanced diffusion of Ag in amorphous films of Ge2S3,” J. Non-Cryst. Solid 35–36, 1061–1066 (1980).
[CrossRef]

D. Adler, “Defects in amorphous semiconductors,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 35–36, 819–824 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1976

M. Kastner, D. Adler, and H. Fritzsche, “Valence-alternation model for localized gap states in lone-pair semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 37, 1504–1507 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1975

R. A. Street and N. F. Mott, “States in the glassy semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 35, 1293–1296 (1975).
[CrossRef]

P. W. Anderson, “Model for the electronic structure of amorphous semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 34, 953–955 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1973

Adam, J. L.

B. Bureau, X. H. Zhang, F. Smektala, J. L. Adam, and J. Troles, “Recent advances in chalcogenide glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 345–346, 276–283 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Adler, D.

D. Adler, M. S. Shur, M. Silver, and S. R. Ovshinsky, “Threshold switching in chalcogenide-glass thin film,” J. Appl. Phys. 51, 3289–3309 (1980).
[CrossRef]

D. Adler, “Defects in amorphous semiconductors,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 35–36, 819–824 (1980).
[CrossRef]

M. Kastner, D. Adler, and H. Fritzsche, “Valence-alternation model for localized gap states in lone-pair semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 37, 1504–1507 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, P. W.

P. W. Anderson, “Model for the electronic structure of amorphous semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 34, 953–955 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Asha Bhat, N.

N. Asha Bhat, K. S. Sangunni, and K. S. R. K. Rao, “A Fourier-transform photoluminescence study of radiative recombination mechanism in chalcogenide glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 319, 192–199 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Asobe, M.

Boudebs, G.

J. Troles, F. Smektala, G. Boudebs, A. Monteil, B. Bureau, and J. Lucas, “Chalcogenide glasses as solid state optical limiters at 1.064 μm,” Opt. Mater. 25, 231–237 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Boussard-Plédel, C.

Bureau, B.

P. Houizot, C. Boussard-Plédel, A. J. Faber, L. K. Cheng, B. Bureau, P. A. Van Nijnatten, W. L. M. Gielesen, and J. Lucas, “Infrared single mode chalcogenide glass for space,” Opt. Express 15, 12529–12538 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Troles, F. Smektala, G. Boudebs, A. Monteil, B. Bureau, and J. Lucas, “Chalcogenide glasses as solid state optical limiters at 1.064 μm,” Opt. Mater. 25, 231–237 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. Bureau, X. H. Zhang, F. Smektala, J. L. Adam, and J. Troles, “Recent advances in chalcogenide glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 345–346, 276–283 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chen, B. X.

L. E. Zou, S. T. Yao, B. X. Chen, Y. Shen, H. Hamanaka, and M. Iso, “Recovery response of optical stopping effect on P2As20S78 and Sn1As20S79 film waveguide,” AIP Adv. 2, 012146 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. E. Zou, B. X. Chen, L. P. Du, H. Hamanaka, and M. Iso, “Photo- and thermally induced changes in the refractive index and film thichness of amorphous As2S8 film,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 123523-1 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. E. Zou, B. X. Chen, L. Chen, Y. F. Yuan, H. Hamanaka, and M. Iso, “Optical-stopping effect of As2S8 channel waveguide fabricate by method of photoinduced refractive index changes,” Acta Phys. Sin. 55, 1868–1872 (2006) (in Chinese).

L. E. Zou, B. X. Chen, L. Chen, Y. F. Yuan, H. Hamanaka, and M. Iso, “Fabrication of an As2S8 stripe waveguide with an optical stopping effect by exposure to ultraviolet irradiation,” Appl. Phy. Lett. 88, 153510 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L.

L. E. Zou, B. X. Chen, L. Chen, Y. F. Yuan, H. Hamanaka, and M. Iso, “Fabrication of an As2S8 stripe waveguide with an optical stopping effect by exposure to ultraviolet irradiation,” Appl. Phy. Lett. 88, 153510 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. E. Zou, B. X. Chen, L. Chen, Y. F. Yuan, H. Hamanaka, and M. Iso, “Optical-stopping effect of As2S8 channel waveguide fabricate by method of photoinduced refractive index changes,” Acta Phys. Sin. 55, 1868–1872 (2006) (in Chinese).

Cheng, L. K.

Du, L. P.

L. E. Zou, B. X. Chen, L. P. Du, H. Hamanaka, and M. Iso, “Photo- and thermally induced changes in the refractive index and film thichness of amorphous As2S8 film,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 123523-1 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Faber, A. J.

Fritzsche, H.

M. Kastner, D. Adler, and H. Fritzsche, “Valence-alternation model for localized gap states in lone-pair semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 37, 1504–1507 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Gielesen, W. L. M.

Hamanaka, H.

L. E. Zou, S. T. Yao, B. X. Chen, Y. Shen, H. Hamanaka, and M. Iso, “Recovery response of optical stopping effect on P2As20S78 and Sn1As20S79 film waveguide,” AIP Adv. 2, 012146 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. E. Zou, B. X. Chen, L. P. Du, H. Hamanaka, and M. Iso, “Photo- and thermally induced changes in the refractive index and film thichness of amorphous As2S8 film,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 123523-1 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. E. Zou, B. X. Chen, L. Chen, Y. F. Yuan, H. Hamanaka, and M. Iso, “Optical-stopping effect of As2S8 channel waveguide fabricate by method of photoinduced refractive index changes,” Acta Phys. Sin. 55, 1868–1872 (2006) (in Chinese).

L. E. Zou, B. X. Chen, L. Chen, Y. F. Yuan, H. Hamanaka, and M. Iso, “Fabrication of an As2S8 stripe waveguide with an optical stopping effect by exposure to ultraviolet irradiation,” Appl. Phy. Lett. 88, 153510 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Houizot, P.

Ishikawa, R.

R. Ishikawa and M. Kikuchi, “Photovoltaic study on the photo-enhanced diffusion of Ag in amorphous films of Ge2S3,” J. Non-Cryst. Solid 35–36, 1061–1066 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Iso, M.

L. E. Zou, S. T. Yao, B. X. Chen, Y. Shen, H. Hamanaka, and M. Iso, “Recovery response of optical stopping effect on P2As20S78 and Sn1As20S79 film waveguide,” AIP Adv. 2, 012146 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. E. Zou, B. X. Chen, L. P. Du, H. Hamanaka, and M. Iso, “Photo- and thermally induced changes in the refractive index and film thichness of amorphous As2S8 film,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 123523-1 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. E. Zou, B. X. Chen, L. Chen, Y. F. Yuan, H. Hamanaka, and M. Iso, “Fabrication of an As2S8 stripe waveguide with an optical stopping effect by exposure to ultraviolet irradiation,” Appl. Phy. Lett. 88, 153510 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. E. Zou, B. X. Chen, L. Chen, Y. F. Yuan, H. Hamanaka, and M. Iso, “Optical-stopping effect of As2S8 channel waveguide fabricate by method of photoinduced refractive index changes,” Acta Phys. Sin. 55, 1868–1872 (2006) (in Chinese).

Itoh, H.

Kanamori, T.

Kastner, M.

M. Kastner, D. Adler, and H. Fritzsche, “Valence-alternation model for localized gap states in lone-pair semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 37, 1504–1507 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Kikuchi, M.

R. Ishikawa and M. Kikuchi, “Photovoltaic study on the photo-enhanced diffusion of Ag in amorphous films of Ge2S3,” J. Non-Cryst. Solid 35–36, 1061–1066 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, H.

Lucas, J.

P. Houizot, C. Boussard-Plédel, A. J. Faber, L. K. Cheng, B. Bureau, P. A. Van Nijnatten, W. L. M. Gielesen, and J. Lucas, “Infrared single mode chalcogenide glass for space,” Opt. Express 15, 12529–12538 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Troles, F. Smektala, G. Boudebs, A. Monteil, B. Bureau, and J. Lucas, “Chalcogenide glasses as solid state optical limiters at 1.064 μm,” Opt. Mater. 25, 231–237 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Monteil, A.

J. Troles, F. Smektala, G. Boudebs, A. Monteil, B. Bureau, and J. Lucas, “Chalcogenide glasses as solid state optical limiters at 1.064 μm,” Opt. Mater. 25, 231–237 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mott, N. F.

R. A. Street and N. F. Mott, “States in the glassy semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 35, 1293–1296 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Ovshinsky, S. R.

D. Adler, M. S. Shur, M. Silver, and S. R. Ovshinsky, “Threshold switching in chalcogenide-glass thin film,” J. Appl. Phys. 51, 3289–3309 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Rao, K. S. R. K.

N. Asha Bhat, K. S. Sangunni, and K. S. R. K. Rao, “A Fourier-transform photoluminescence study of radiative recombination mechanism in chalcogenide glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 319, 192–199 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sangunni, K. S.

N. Asha Bhat, K. S. Sangunni, and K. S. R. K. Rao, “A Fourier-transform photoluminescence study of radiative recombination mechanism in chalcogenide glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 319, 192–199 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shen, Y.

L. E. Zou, S. T. Yao, B. X. Chen, Y. Shen, H. Hamanaka, and M. Iso, “Recovery response of optical stopping effect on P2As20S78 and Sn1As20S79 film waveguide,” AIP Adv. 2, 012146 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Shur, M. S.

D. Adler, M. S. Shur, M. Silver, and S. R. Ovshinsky, “Threshold switching in chalcogenide-glass thin film,” J. Appl. Phys. 51, 3289–3309 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Silver, M.

D. Adler, M. S. Shur, M. Silver, and S. R. Ovshinsky, “Threshold switching in chalcogenide-glass thin film,” J. Appl. Phys. 51, 3289–3309 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Smektala, F.

B. Bureau, X. H. Zhang, F. Smektala, J. L. Adam, and J. Troles, “Recent advances in chalcogenide glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 345–346, 276–283 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Troles, F. Smektala, G. Boudebs, A. Monteil, B. Bureau, and J. Lucas, “Chalcogenide glasses as solid state optical limiters at 1.064 μm,” Opt. Mater. 25, 231–237 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Street, R. A.

R. A. Street and N. F. Mott, “States in the glassy semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 35, 1293–1296 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Torge, R.

Troles, J.

J. Troles, F. Smektala, G. Boudebs, A. Monteil, B. Bureau, and J. Lucas, “Chalcogenide glasses as solid state optical limiters at 1.064 μm,” Opt. Mater. 25, 231–237 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. Bureau, X. H. Zhang, F. Smektala, J. L. Adam, and J. Troles, “Recent advances in chalcogenide glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 345–346, 276–283 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ulrich, R.

Van Nijnatten, P. A.

Yao, S. T.

L. E. Zou, S. T. Yao, B. X. Chen, Y. Shen, H. Hamanaka, and M. Iso, “Recovery response of optical stopping effect on P2As20S78 and Sn1As20S79 film waveguide,” AIP Adv. 2, 012146 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yuan, Y. F.

L. E. Zou, B. X. Chen, L. Chen, Y. F. Yuan, H. Hamanaka, and M. Iso, “Optical-stopping effect of As2S8 channel waveguide fabricate by method of photoinduced refractive index changes,” Acta Phys. Sin. 55, 1868–1872 (2006) (in Chinese).

L. E. Zou, B. X. Chen, L. Chen, Y. F. Yuan, H. Hamanaka, and M. Iso, “Fabrication of an As2S8 stripe waveguide with an optical stopping effect by exposure to ultraviolet irradiation,” Appl. Phy. Lett. 88, 153510 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X. H.

B. Bureau, X. H. Zhang, F. Smektala, J. L. Adam, and J. Troles, “Recent advances in chalcogenide glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 345–346, 276–283 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zou, L. E.

L. E. Zou, S. T. Yao, B. X. Chen, Y. Shen, H. Hamanaka, and M. Iso, “Recovery response of optical stopping effect on P2As20S78 and Sn1As20S79 film waveguide,” AIP Adv. 2, 012146 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. E. Zou, B. X. Chen, L. P. Du, H. Hamanaka, and M. Iso, “Photo- and thermally induced changes in the refractive index and film thichness of amorphous As2S8 film,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 123523-1 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. E. Zou, B. X. Chen, L. Chen, Y. F. Yuan, H. Hamanaka, and M. Iso, “Fabrication of an As2S8 stripe waveguide with an optical stopping effect by exposure to ultraviolet irradiation,” Appl. Phy. Lett. 88, 153510 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. E. Zou, B. X. Chen, L. Chen, Y. F. Yuan, H. Hamanaka, and M. Iso, “Optical-stopping effect of As2S8 channel waveguide fabricate by method of photoinduced refractive index changes,” Acta Phys. Sin. 55, 1868–1872 (2006) (in Chinese).

Acta Phys. Sin.

L. E. Zou, B. X. Chen, L. Chen, Y. F. Yuan, H. Hamanaka, and M. Iso, “Optical-stopping effect of As2S8 channel waveguide fabricate by method of photoinduced refractive index changes,” Acta Phys. Sin. 55, 1868–1872 (2006) (in Chinese).

AIP Adv.

L. E. Zou, S. T. Yao, B. X. Chen, Y. Shen, H. Hamanaka, and M. Iso, “Recovery response of optical stopping effect on P2As20S78 and Sn1As20S79 film waveguide,” AIP Adv. 2, 012146 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phy. Lett.

L. E. Zou, B. X. Chen, L. Chen, Y. F. Yuan, H. Hamanaka, and M. Iso, “Fabrication of an As2S8 stripe waveguide with an optical stopping effect by exposure to ultraviolet irradiation,” Appl. Phy. Lett. 88, 153510 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

L. E. Zou, B. X. Chen, L. P. Du, H. Hamanaka, and M. Iso, “Photo- and thermally induced changes in the refractive index and film thichness of amorphous As2S8 film,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 123523-1 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Adler, M. S. Shur, M. Silver, and S. R. Ovshinsky, “Threshold switching in chalcogenide-glass thin film,” J. Appl. Phys. 51, 3289–3309 (1980).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solid

R. Ishikawa and M. Kikuchi, “Photovoltaic study on the photo-enhanced diffusion of Ag in amorphous films of Ge2S3,” J. Non-Cryst. Solid 35–36, 1061–1066 (1980).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids

D. Adler, “Defects in amorphous semiconductors,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 35–36, 819–824 (1980).
[CrossRef]

B. Bureau, X. H. Zhang, F. Smektala, J. L. Adam, and J. Troles, “Recent advances in chalcogenide glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 345–346, 276–283 (2004).
[CrossRef]

N. Asha Bhat, K. S. Sangunni, and K. S. R. K. Rao, “A Fourier-transform photoluminescence study of radiative recombination mechanism in chalcogenide glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 319, 192–199 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Opt. Mater.

J. Troles, F. Smektala, G. Boudebs, A. Monteil, B. Bureau, and J. Lucas, “Chalcogenide glasses as solid state optical limiters at 1.064 μm,” Opt. Mater. 25, 231–237 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

R. A. Street and N. F. Mott, “States in the glassy semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 35, 1293–1296 (1975).
[CrossRef]

P. W. Anderson, “Model for the electronic structure of amorphous semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 34, 953–955 (1975).
[CrossRef]

M. Kastner, D. Adler, and H. Fritzsche, “Valence-alternation model for localized gap states in lone-pair semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 37, 1504–1507 (1976).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Experimental setup of the optical stopping effect in As 2 S 8 waveguide.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

The effect of He-Cd laser power to He-Ne laser transmission.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Measurement results of optical stopping effect in As 2 S 8 waveguides of (a)  As 2 S 8 , (b)  Sn 1 As 20 S 79 , and (c)  P 2 As 20 S 78 .

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Recovery process model of optical stopping effect in As 2 S 8 waveguide.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Numerical fitting of the recovery process of optical stopping effect in As 2 S 8 .

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Numerical fitting of the recovery process of optical stopping effect in Sn 1 As 20 S 79 .

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Numerical fitting of the recovery process of optical stopping effect in P 2 As 20 S 78 .

Equations (3)

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d Δ N d t = N l u β l Δ N r Δ N 2 + η N l u β l Δ N .
1 Δ N Δ N 0 = 1 exp ( t τ 1 ) 1 + τ 1 τ 0 [ 1 exp ( t τ 1 ) ] .
d d t ( 1 Δ N Δ N 0 ) | t = 0 = 1 τ 1 + 1 τ 0 .

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