Abstract

A phase-shifting laser diode interferometer that uses direct pulse modulation is proposed and demonstrated. We found that a laser beam with a wide range of wavelength variation at constant optical power could be generated when a pulsed current was injected into the laser diode. We constructed a highly accurate interferometer by using a pair of interferometers. Several experiments, such as observations of temporal interference signals and spatial interferograms, measurement of a concave mirror, and duplicate measurements, confirmed the characteristics of pulse modulation and demonstrated the effectiveness of our technique.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. S. Kobayashi, Y. Yamamoto, M. Ito, and T. Kimura, “Direct frequency modulation in AlGaAs semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18, 582–595 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  2. Y. Ishii, “Laser-diode interferometry,” in Progress in OpticsE. Wolf, ed. (Elsevier, 2004), pp. 243–309.
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    [CrossRef]
  4. R. Onodera and Y. Ishii, “Frame rate phase-shifting interferometer with a frequency-modulated laser diode,” Opt. Eng. 38, 2045–2049 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  7. T. Suzuki, O. Sasaki, and T. Maruyama, “Phase-locked laser diode interferometry for surface profile measurement,” Appl. Opt. 28, 4407–4410 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  8. T. Suzuki, O. Sasaki, K. Higuchi, and T. Maruyama, “Real-time displacement measurement in sinusoidal phase modulating interferometry,” Appl. Opt. 28, 5270–5274 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  9. O. Sasaki, K. Takahashi, and T. Suzuki, “Sinusoidal phase modulating laser diode interferometer with a feedback control system to eliminate external disturbance,” Opt. Eng. 29, 1511–1515 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  10. P. Hariharan, “Phase-stepping interferometry with laser diodes: effect of changes in laser power with output wavelength,” Appl. Opt. 28, 27–29 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  11. R. Onodera and Y. Ishii, “Two-wavelength phase-shifting interferometry insensitive to the intensity modulation of dual laser diodes,” Appl. Opt. 33, 5052–5061 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  12. T. Suzuki, M. Matsuda, O. Sasaki, and T. Maruyama, “Laser-diode interferometer with a photothermal modulation,” Appl. Opt. 38, 7069–7075 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  13. T. Suzuki, X. Zhao, and O. Sasaki, “Phase-locked phase-shifting laser diode interferometer with photothermal modulation,” Appl. Opt. 40, 2126–2131 (2001).
    [CrossRef]

2001

1999

T. Suzuki, M. Matsuda, O. Sasaki, and T. Maruyama, “Laser-diode interferometer with a photothermal modulation,” Appl. Opt. 38, 7069–7075 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. Onodera and Y. Ishii, “Frame rate phase-shifting interferometer with a frequency-modulated laser diode,” Opt. Eng. 38, 2045–2049 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1994

1990

O. Sasaki, K. Takahashi, and T. Suzuki, “Sinusoidal phase modulating laser diode interferometer with a feedback control system to eliminate external disturbance,” Opt. Eng. 29, 1511–1515 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989

1988

1987

1982

S. Kobayashi, Y. Yamamoto, M. Ito, and T. Kimura, “Direct frequency modulation in AlGaAs semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18, 582–595 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J.

Hariharan, P.

Higuchi, K.

Ishii, Y.

Ito, M.

S. Kobayashi, Y. Yamamoto, M. Ito, and T. Kimura, “Direct frequency modulation in AlGaAs semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18, 582–595 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Kimura, T.

S. Kobayashi, Y. Yamamoto, M. Ito, and T. Kimura, “Direct frequency modulation in AlGaAs semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18, 582–595 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, S.

S. Kobayashi, Y. Yamamoto, M. Ito, and T. Kimura, “Direct frequency modulation in AlGaAs semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18, 582–595 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Maruyama, T.

Matsuda, M.

Murata, K.

Onodera, R.

R. Onodera and Y. Ishii, “Frame rate phase-shifting interferometer with a frequency-modulated laser diode,” Opt. Eng. 38, 2045–2049 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. Onodera and Y. Ishii, “Two-wavelength phase-shifting interferometry insensitive to the intensity modulation of dual laser diodes,” Appl. Opt. 33, 5052–5061 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Sasaki, O.

Suzuki, T.

Takahashi, K.

O. Sasaki, K. Takahashi, and T. Suzuki, “Sinusoidal phase modulating laser diode interferometer with a feedback control system to eliminate external disturbance,” Opt. Eng. 29, 1511–1515 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Tatsuno, K.

Tsunoda, Y.

Yamamoto, Y.

S. Kobayashi, Y. Yamamoto, M. Ito, and T. Kimura, “Direct frequency modulation in AlGaAs semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18, 582–595 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, X.

Appl. Opt.

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

S. Kobayashi, Y. Yamamoto, M. Ito, and T. Kimura, “Direct frequency modulation in AlGaAs semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18, 582–595 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng.

O. Sasaki, K. Takahashi, and T. Suzuki, “Sinusoidal phase modulating laser diode interferometer with a feedback control system to eliminate external disturbance,” Opt. Eng. 29, 1511–1515 (1990).
[CrossRef]

R. Onodera and Y. Ishii, “Frame rate phase-shifting interferometer with a frequency-modulated laser diode,” Opt. Eng. 38, 2045–2049 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Other

Y. Ishii, “Laser-diode interferometry,” in Progress in OpticsE. Wolf, ed. (Elsevier, 2004), pp. 243–309.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of pulse modulation.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Experimental setup. INT, interferometer; LD, laser diode; L, lens; BS, beam splitter; M, mirror; PH, pin hole; PD, photodiode; OSC, oscillator; ADC, analog-to-digital converter; TRG, trigger circuit.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Block diagram of TRG.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Temporal interference signal observed with pulse modulation. (a) whole trace; (b) magnified plot of circled section in (a).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Dependency of wavelength change on pulse height.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Temporal interference signals observed in (a) INT1 and (b) INT2 at the condition of 3L1=L2.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Phase-shifting fringes observed with pulse modulation by using a flat mirror at under 4L1=L2.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Surface profile of concave mirror whose radius of curvature is 2500 mm.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Sectional profiles of concave mirror obtained after a time interval of 2 min.

Equations (1)

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Δαi=2πLiλ02Δλ(i=1,2).

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