Abstract

A compact laser transmitter, which takes advantage of an optical subassembly module, was proposed and demonstrated, providing precisely aligned collinear IR and visible beams. The collimated IR beam acts as a long-range projectile for simulated combat, carrying an optical pulsed signal, whereas the visible beam plays the role of tracking the IR beam. The proposed laser transmitter utilizes IR (λ1=905nm) and visible (λ2=660nm) light sources, a fiber-optic collimator, and a beam combiner, which includes a wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) filter in conjunction with optical fiber. The device was built via the laser welding technique and then evaluated by investigating the characteristics of the generated light beams. The IR collimated beam produced had a Gaussian profile and a divergence angle of 1.3mrad, and the visible monitoring beam was appropriately collimated to be readily discernible in the vicinity of the transmitter. The two beams were highly aligned within an angle of 0.004 deg as anticipated. Finally, we performed a practical outdoor field test to assess the IR beam with the help of a receiver. An effective trajectory was observed ranging up to 660 m with an overall detectable beam width of 60cm.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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  1. T. Tsujimura, K. Yoshida, T. Kurashima, and M. Mikawa, “Trans-window free space optics transmission system,” in Proceedings of SICE Annual Conference (IEEE, 2008), pp. 79–82.
  2. J. Akella, M. Yuksel, and S. Kalyanaraman, “Multi-channel communication in free-space optical networks for the last mile,” in Proceedings of the 15th IEEE Workshop on Local and Metropolitan Area Networks (IEEE, 2007), pp. 43–48.
  3. J. C. Juarez, A. Dwivedi, A. R. Hammons, S. D. Jones, V. Weerackody, and R. A. Nichols, “Free space optical communications for next-generation military networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 44, 46–51 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. K. Majumdar, and J. C. Ricklin, Free-Space Laser Communications Principles and Advances (Springer Science, 2008).
  5. C. W. Chen, “Beam combining device for multi-spectral laser diodes,” U.S. patent 7081978B2 (2006).
  6. J. E. Nettleton, D. N. Barr, and J. S. Lei, “Multi-function combat laser for the dismounted soldier,” U.S. patent 7068699B2 (2006).
  7. O. Andrusyak, V. Smirnov, G. Venus, and L. Glebov, “Beam combining of lasers with high spectral density using volume Bragg gratings,” Opt. Commun. 282, 2560–2563 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  8. L. Ali, S. M. J. Akhtar, S. Mehmood, M. Ashraf, S. I. Bhatti, F. Ahmed, A. Ilyas, and S. H. Khan, “Design and development of an optical beam splitter assembly and high precision colinearity measurements of laser beams,” Opt. Laser Technol. 44, 549–554 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  9. H. S. Lee, S. S. Lee, and Y. S. Son, “CWDM based HDMI interconnect incorporating passively aligned POF linked optical subassembly modules,” Opt. Express 19, 15380–15387 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. Y. Park, H. S. Lee, S. S. Lee, and Y. S. Son, “Passively aligned transmit optical subassembly module based on a WDM incorporating VCSELs,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1790–1792 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  11. C. Y. Tseng, and J. P. Wang, “Automation of multi-degree-of-freedom fiber-optic alignment using a modified simplex method,” Int. J. Mach. Tools Manufact. 45, 1109–1119 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  12. K. N. Park, T. Erdogan, and K. S. Lee, “Cladding mode coupling in long-period gratings formed in photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Commun. 266, 541–545 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  13. Y. Li, and T. Erdogan, “Cladding-mode assisted fiber-to-fiber and fiber-to-freespace coupling,” Opt. Commun. 183, 377–388 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  14. MILES Communication Code (MCC), PMT 90-S002M standard, Feb. 8, 2011, http://www.peostri.army.mil/PRODUCTS/MCC/ECP_FILES/MCC_Standard_PMT_90-S002M-8Feb2011.pdf .

2012

L. Ali, S. M. J. Akhtar, S. Mehmood, M. Ashraf, S. I. Bhatti, F. Ahmed, A. Ilyas, and S. H. Khan, “Design and development of an optical beam splitter assembly and high precision colinearity measurements of laser beams,” Opt. Laser Technol. 44, 549–554 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

2010

J. Y. Park, H. S. Lee, S. S. Lee, and Y. S. Son, “Passively aligned transmit optical subassembly module based on a WDM incorporating VCSELs,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1790–1792 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

O. Andrusyak, V. Smirnov, G. Venus, and L. Glebov, “Beam combining of lasers with high spectral density using volume Bragg gratings,” Opt. Commun. 282, 2560–2563 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2006

J. C. Juarez, A. Dwivedi, A. R. Hammons, S. D. Jones, V. Weerackody, and R. A. Nichols, “Free space optical communications for next-generation military networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 44, 46–51 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. N. Park, T. Erdogan, and K. S. Lee, “Cladding mode coupling in long-period gratings formed in photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Commun. 266, 541–545 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

C. Y. Tseng, and J. P. Wang, “Automation of multi-degree-of-freedom fiber-optic alignment using a modified simplex method,” Int. J. Mach. Tools Manufact. 45, 1109–1119 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2000

Y. Li, and T. Erdogan, “Cladding-mode assisted fiber-to-fiber and fiber-to-freespace coupling,” Opt. Commun. 183, 377–388 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ahmed, F.

L. Ali, S. M. J. Akhtar, S. Mehmood, M. Ashraf, S. I. Bhatti, F. Ahmed, A. Ilyas, and S. H. Khan, “Design and development of an optical beam splitter assembly and high precision colinearity measurements of laser beams,” Opt. Laser Technol. 44, 549–554 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Akella, J.

J. Akella, M. Yuksel, and S. Kalyanaraman, “Multi-channel communication in free-space optical networks for the last mile,” in Proceedings of the 15th IEEE Workshop on Local and Metropolitan Area Networks (IEEE, 2007), pp. 43–48.

Akhtar, S. M. J.

L. Ali, S. M. J. Akhtar, S. Mehmood, M. Ashraf, S. I. Bhatti, F. Ahmed, A. Ilyas, and S. H. Khan, “Design and development of an optical beam splitter assembly and high precision colinearity measurements of laser beams,” Opt. Laser Technol. 44, 549–554 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ali, L.

L. Ali, S. M. J. Akhtar, S. Mehmood, M. Ashraf, S. I. Bhatti, F. Ahmed, A. Ilyas, and S. H. Khan, “Design and development of an optical beam splitter assembly and high precision colinearity measurements of laser beams,” Opt. Laser Technol. 44, 549–554 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Andrusyak, O.

O. Andrusyak, V. Smirnov, G. Venus, and L. Glebov, “Beam combining of lasers with high spectral density using volume Bragg gratings,” Opt. Commun. 282, 2560–2563 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ashraf, M.

L. Ali, S. M. J. Akhtar, S. Mehmood, M. Ashraf, S. I. Bhatti, F. Ahmed, A. Ilyas, and S. H. Khan, “Design and development of an optical beam splitter assembly and high precision colinearity measurements of laser beams,” Opt. Laser Technol. 44, 549–554 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Barr, D. N.

J. E. Nettleton, D. N. Barr, and J. S. Lei, “Multi-function combat laser for the dismounted soldier,” U.S. patent 7068699B2 (2006).

Bhatti, S. I.

L. Ali, S. M. J. Akhtar, S. Mehmood, M. Ashraf, S. I. Bhatti, F. Ahmed, A. Ilyas, and S. H. Khan, “Design and development of an optical beam splitter assembly and high precision colinearity measurements of laser beams,” Opt. Laser Technol. 44, 549–554 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C. W.

C. W. Chen, “Beam combining device for multi-spectral laser diodes,” U.S. patent 7081978B2 (2006).

Dwivedi, A.

J. C. Juarez, A. Dwivedi, A. R. Hammons, S. D. Jones, V. Weerackody, and R. A. Nichols, “Free space optical communications for next-generation military networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 44, 46–51 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Erdogan, T.

K. N. Park, T. Erdogan, and K. S. Lee, “Cladding mode coupling in long-period gratings formed in photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Commun. 266, 541–545 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Li, and T. Erdogan, “Cladding-mode assisted fiber-to-fiber and fiber-to-freespace coupling,” Opt. Commun. 183, 377–388 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Glebov, L.

O. Andrusyak, V. Smirnov, G. Venus, and L. Glebov, “Beam combining of lasers with high spectral density using volume Bragg gratings,” Opt. Commun. 282, 2560–2563 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hammons, A. R.

J. C. Juarez, A. Dwivedi, A. R. Hammons, S. D. Jones, V. Weerackody, and R. A. Nichols, “Free space optical communications for next-generation military networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 44, 46–51 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ilyas, A.

L. Ali, S. M. J. Akhtar, S. Mehmood, M. Ashraf, S. I. Bhatti, F. Ahmed, A. Ilyas, and S. H. Khan, “Design and development of an optical beam splitter assembly and high precision colinearity measurements of laser beams,” Opt. Laser Technol. 44, 549–554 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Jones, S. D.

J. C. Juarez, A. Dwivedi, A. R. Hammons, S. D. Jones, V. Weerackody, and R. A. Nichols, “Free space optical communications for next-generation military networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 44, 46–51 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Juarez, J. C.

J. C. Juarez, A. Dwivedi, A. R. Hammons, S. D. Jones, V. Weerackody, and R. A. Nichols, “Free space optical communications for next-generation military networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 44, 46–51 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kalyanaraman, S.

J. Akella, M. Yuksel, and S. Kalyanaraman, “Multi-channel communication in free-space optical networks for the last mile,” in Proceedings of the 15th IEEE Workshop on Local and Metropolitan Area Networks (IEEE, 2007), pp. 43–48.

Khan, S. H.

L. Ali, S. M. J. Akhtar, S. Mehmood, M. Ashraf, S. I. Bhatti, F. Ahmed, A. Ilyas, and S. H. Khan, “Design and development of an optical beam splitter assembly and high precision colinearity measurements of laser beams,” Opt. Laser Technol. 44, 549–554 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kurashima, T.

T. Tsujimura, K. Yoshida, T. Kurashima, and M. Mikawa, “Trans-window free space optics transmission system,” in Proceedings of SICE Annual Conference (IEEE, 2008), pp. 79–82.

Lee, H. S.

H. S. Lee, S. S. Lee, and Y. S. Son, “CWDM based HDMI interconnect incorporating passively aligned POF linked optical subassembly modules,” Opt. Express 19, 15380–15387 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Y. Park, H. S. Lee, S. S. Lee, and Y. S. Son, “Passively aligned transmit optical subassembly module based on a WDM incorporating VCSELs,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1790–1792 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K. S.

K. N. Park, T. Erdogan, and K. S. Lee, “Cladding mode coupling in long-period gratings formed in photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Commun. 266, 541–545 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. S.

H. S. Lee, S. S. Lee, and Y. S. Son, “CWDM based HDMI interconnect incorporating passively aligned POF linked optical subassembly modules,” Opt. Express 19, 15380–15387 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Y. Park, H. S. Lee, S. S. Lee, and Y. S. Son, “Passively aligned transmit optical subassembly module based on a WDM incorporating VCSELs,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1790–1792 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lei, J. S.

J. E. Nettleton, D. N. Barr, and J. S. Lei, “Multi-function combat laser for the dismounted soldier,” U.S. patent 7068699B2 (2006).

Li, Y.

Y. Li, and T. Erdogan, “Cladding-mode assisted fiber-to-fiber and fiber-to-freespace coupling,” Opt. Commun. 183, 377–388 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Majumdar, A. K.

A. K. Majumdar, and J. C. Ricklin, Free-Space Laser Communications Principles and Advances (Springer Science, 2008).

Mehmood, S.

L. Ali, S. M. J. Akhtar, S. Mehmood, M. Ashraf, S. I. Bhatti, F. Ahmed, A. Ilyas, and S. H. Khan, “Design and development of an optical beam splitter assembly and high precision colinearity measurements of laser beams,” Opt. Laser Technol. 44, 549–554 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Mikawa, M.

T. Tsujimura, K. Yoshida, T. Kurashima, and M. Mikawa, “Trans-window free space optics transmission system,” in Proceedings of SICE Annual Conference (IEEE, 2008), pp. 79–82.

Nettleton, J. E.

J. E. Nettleton, D. N. Barr, and J. S. Lei, “Multi-function combat laser for the dismounted soldier,” U.S. patent 7068699B2 (2006).

Nichols, R. A.

J. C. Juarez, A. Dwivedi, A. R. Hammons, S. D. Jones, V. Weerackody, and R. A. Nichols, “Free space optical communications for next-generation military networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 44, 46–51 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Park, J. Y.

J. Y. Park, H. S. Lee, S. S. Lee, and Y. S. Son, “Passively aligned transmit optical subassembly module based on a WDM incorporating VCSELs,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1790–1792 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Park, K. N.

K. N. Park, T. Erdogan, and K. S. Lee, “Cladding mode coupling in long-period gratings formed in photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Commun. 266, 541–545 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ricklin, J. C.

A. K. Majumdar, and J. C. Ricklin, Free-Space Laser Communications Principles and Advances (Springer Science, 2008).

Smirnov, V.

O. Andrusyak, V. Smirnov, G. Venus, and L. Glebov, “Beam combining of lasers with high spectral density using volume Bragg gratings,” Opt. Commun. 282, 2560–2563 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Son, Y. S.

H. S. Lee, S. S. Lee, and Y. S. Son, “CWDM based HDMI interconnect incorporating passively aligned POF linked optical subassembly modules,” Opt. Express 19, 15380–15387 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Y. Park, H. S. Lee, S. S. Lee, and Y. S. Son, “Passively aligned transmit optical subassembly module based on a WDM incorporating VCSELs,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1790–1792 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tseng, C. Y.

C. Y. Tseng, and J. P. Wang, “Automation of multi-degree-of-freedom fiber-optic alignment using a modified simplex method,” Int. J. Mach. Tools Manufact. 45, 1109–1119 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tsujimura, T.

T. Tsujimura, K. Yoshida, T. Kurashima, and M. Mikawa, “Trans-window free space optics transmission system,” in Proceedings of SICE Annual Conference (IEEE, 2008), pp. 79–82.

Venus, G.

O. Andrusyak, V. Smirnov, G. Venus, and L. Glebov, “Beam combining of lasers with high spectral density using volume Bragg gratings,” Opt. Commun. 282, 2560–2563 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J. P.

C. Y. Tseng, and J. P. Wang, “Automation of multi-degree-of-freedom fiber-optic alignment using a modified simplex method,” Int. J. Mach. Tools Manufact. 45, 1109–1119 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Weerackody, V.

J. C. Juarez, A. Dwivedi, A. R. Hammons, S. D. Jones, V. Weerackody, and R. A. Nichols, “Free space optical communications for next-generation military networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 44, 46–51 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yoshida, K.

T. Tsujimura, K. Yoshida, T. Kurashima, and M. Mikawa, “Trans-window free space optics transmission system,” in Proceedings of SICE Annual Conference (IEEE, 2008), pp. 79–82.

Yuksel, M.

J. Akella, M. Yuksel, and S. Kalyanaraman, “Multi-channel communication in free-space optical networks for the last mile,” in Proceedings of the 15th IEEE Workshop on Local and Metropolitan Area Networks (IEEE, 2007), pp. 43–48.

IEEE Commun. Mag.

J. C. Juarez, A. Dwivedi, A. R. Hammons, S. D. Jones, V. Weerackody, and R. A. Nichols, “Free space optical communications for next-generation military networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 44, 46–51 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

J. Y. Park, H. S. Lee, S. S. Lee, and Y. S. Son, “Passively aligned transmit optical subassembly module based on a WDM incorporating VCSELs,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1790–1792 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Mach. Tools Manufact.

C. Y. Tseng, and J. P. Wang, “Automation of multi-degree-of-freedom fiber-optic alignment using a modified simplex method,” Int. J. Mach. Tools Manufact. 45, 1109–1119 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

K. N. Park, T. Erdogan, and K. S. Lee, “Cladding mode coupling in long-period gratings formed in photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Commun. 266, 541–545 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Li, and T. Erdogan, “Cladding-mode assisted fiber-to-fiber and fiber-to-freespace coupling,” Opt. Commun. 183, 377–388 (2000).
[CrossRef]

O. Andrusyak, V. Smirnov, G. Venus, and L. Glebov, “Beam combining of lasers with high spectral density using volume Bragg gratings,” Opt. Commun. 282, 2560–2563 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Laser Technol.

L. Ali, S. M. J. Akhtar, S. Mehmood, M. Ashraf, S. I. Bhatti, F. Ahmed, A. Ilyas, and S. H. Khan, “Design and development of an optical beam splitter assembly and high precision colinearity measurements of laser beams,” Opt. Laser Technol. 44, 549–554 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Other

T. Tsujimura, K. Yoshida, T. Kurashima, and M. Mikawa, “Trans-window free space optics transmission system,” in Proceedings of SICE Annual Conference (IEEE, 2008), pp. 79–82.

J. Akella, M. Yuksel, and S. Kalyanaraman, “Multi-channel communication in free-space optical networks for the last mile,” in Proceedings of the 15th IEEE Workshop on Local and Metropolitan Area Networks (IEEE, 2007), pp. 43–48.

A. K. Majumdar, and J. C. Ricklin, Free-Space Laser Communications Principles and Advances (Springer Science, 2008).

C. W. Chen, “Beam combining device for multi-spectral laser diodes,” U.S. patent 7081978B2 (2006).

J. E. Nettleton, D. N. Barr, and J. S. Lei, “Multi-function combat laser for the dismounted soldier,” U.S. patent 7068699B2 (2006).

MILES Communication Code (MCC), PMT 90-S002M standard, Feb. 8, 2011, http://www.peostri.army.mil/PRODUCTS/MCC/ECP_FILES/MCC_Standard_PMT_90-S002M-8Feb2011.pdf .

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic configuration of the proposed compact laser transmitter.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Operation of the proposed laser transmitter.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Calculated performance of the IR-visible light beams emitted by the laser transmitter: (a) divergence angle with the focal length; (b) beam spots with the propagation distance.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Implementation of the proposed laser transmitter.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Constructed laser transmitter.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Alignment between the IR and visible beams at a distance of 3 m from the transmitter.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Observed characteristics of the IR light beam.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Evaluation of the transmitter by an outdoor field test: (a) optical pulses encoded by the MCC standard; (b) detectable beam position with the propagation distance.

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