Abstract

Technology development for a space-based infrared nulling interferometer capable of earthlike exoplanet detection and characterization started in earnest in the last 10 years. At the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, the planet detection testbed was developed to demonstrate the principal components of the beam combiner train for a high performance four-beam nulling interferometer. Early in the development of the testbed, the importance of “instability noise” for nulling interferometer sensitivity was recognized, and the four-beam testbed would produce this noise, allowing investigation of methods for mitigating this noise source. The testbed contains the required features of a four-beam combiner for a space interferometer and performs at a level matching that needed for the space mission. This paper describes in detail the design, functions, and controls of the testbed.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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2011 (1)

S. Martin, A. Ksendzov, O. Lay, R. D. Peters, and D. P. Scharf, “TPF-Interferometer: a decade of development in exoplanet detection technology,” Proc. SPIE 8151, 81510D (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

S. R. Martin and A. J. Booth, “Strong starlight suppression sufficient to enable direct detection of exoplanets in the habitable zone,” Astron. Astrophys. 511, L1 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Martin and A. J. Booth, “Demonstration of exoplanet detection using an infrared telescope array,” Astron. Astrophys. 520, A96 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

C. S. Cockell, A. Leger, M. Fridlund, T. Herbst, L. Kaltenegger, O. Absil, C. Beichman, W. Benz, M. Blanc, A. Brack, A. Chelli, L. Colangeli, H. Cottin, V. C. d. Foresto, W. Danchi, D. Defrere, J.-W. d. Herder, C. Eiroa, J. Greaves, T. Henning, K. Johnston, H. Jones, L. Labadie, H. Lammer, R. Launhardt, P. Lawson, O. P. Lay, J.-M. LeDuigou, R. Liseau, F. Malbet, S. R. Martin, D. Mawet, D. Mourard, C. Moutou, L. Mugnier, F. Paresce, A. Quirrenbach, Y. Rabbia, J. A. Raven, H. J. A. Rottgering, D. Rouan, N. Santos, F. Selsis, E. Serabyn, H. Shibai, M. Tamura, E. Thiebaut, F. W. White, and J. Glenn, “Darwin—a mission to detect, and search for life on, extrasolar planets,” Astrobiology 9, 1–22 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. O. Gappinger, R. T. Diaz, A. Ksendzov, P. R. Lawson, O. P. Lay, K. M. Liewer, F. M. Loya, S. R. Martin, E. Serabyn, and J. K. Wallace, “Experimental evaluation of achromatic phase shifters for mid-infrared starlight suppression,” Appl. Opt. 48, 868–880 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

R. D. Peters, O. P. Lay, and M. Jeganathan, “Broadband phase and intensity compensation with a deformable mirror for an interferometric nuller,” Appl. Opt. 47, 3920–3926 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Booth, S. R. Martin, and F. Loya, “Exoplanet exploration program planet detection testbed: latest results of planet light detection in the presence of starlight,” Proc. SPIE 7013, 701320 (2008).

S. Martin, E. Serabyn, K. Liewer, F. Loya, B. Mennesson, C. Hanot, and D. Mawet, “The development and applications of a ground-based fiber nulling coronagraph,” Proc. SPIE 7013, 70131Y (2008).

2007 (1)

O. P. Lay, S. R. Martin, and S. L. Hunyadi, “Planet-finding performance of the TPF-I Emma architecture,” Proc. SPIE 6693, 66930A (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

M. M. Colavita, G. Serabyn, P. L. Wizinowich, and R. L. Akeson, “Nulling at the keck interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 6268, 626803 (2006).

O. P. Lay, “Removing instability noise in nulling interferometers,” Proc. SPIE 6268, 62681A (2006).

2005 (2)

S. Martin, “The Flight instrument design for the terrestrial planet finder interferometer, techniques and instrumentation for detection of exoplanets II,” Proc. SPIE 5905, 590503 (2005).

L. Kaltenegger and M. Fridlund, “The Darwin mission: search for extra-solar planets,” Adv. Space Res. 36, 1114–1122 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

S. R. Martin, E. Serabyn, and G. Hardy, “Deep nulling of laser light in a rotational shearing interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 4838, 656–667 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

2000 (1)

R. M. Morgan, J. H. Burge, and N. J. Woolf, “Nulling interferometric beam combiner utilizing dielectric plates: experimental results in the visible broadband,” Proc. SPIE 4006, 340–348 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Absil, O.

C. S. Cockell, A. Leger, M. Fridlund, T. Herbst, L. Kaltenegger, O. Absil, C. Beichman, W. Benz, M. Blanc, A. Brack, A. Chelli, L. Colangeli, H. Cottin, V. C. d. Foresto, W. Danchi, D. Defrere, J.-W. d. Herder, C. Eiroa, J. Greaves, T. Henning, K. Johnston, H. Jones, L. Labadie, H. Lammer, R. Launhardt, P. Lawson, O. P. Lay, J.-M. LeDuigou, R. Liseau, F. Malbet, S. R. Martin, D. Mawet, D. Mourard, C. Moutou, L. Mugnier, F. Paresce, A. Quirrenbach, Y. Rabbia, J. A. Raven, H. J. A. Rottgering, D. Rouan, N. Santos, F. Selsis, E. Serabyn, H. Shibai, M. Tamura, E. Thiebaut, F. W. White, and J. Glenn, “Darwin—a mission to detect, and search for life on, extrasolar planets,” Astrobiology 9, 1–22 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Akeson, R. L.

M. M. Colavita, G. Serabyn, P. L. Wizinowich, and R. L. Akeson, “Nulling at the keck interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 6268, 626803 (2006).

Beichman, C.

C. S. Cockell, A. Leger, M. Fridlund, T. Herbst, L. Kaltenegger, O. Absil, C. Beichman, W. Benz, M. Blanc, A. Brack, A. Chelli, L. Colangeli, H. Cottin, V. C. d. Foresto, W. Danchi, D. Defrere, J.-W. d. Herder, C. Eiroa, J. Greaves, T. Henning, K. Johnston, H. Jones, L. Labadie, H. Lammer, R. Launhardt, P. Lawson, O. P. Lay, J.-M. LeDuigou, R. Liseau, F. Malbet, S. R. Martin, D. Mawet, D. Mourard, C. Moutou, L. Mugnier, F. Paresce, A. Quirrenbach, Y. Rabbia, J. A. Raven, H. J. A. Rottgering, D. Rouan, N. Santos, F. Selsis, E. Serabyn, H. Shibai, M. Tamura, E. Thiebaut, F. W. White, and J. Glenn, “Darwin—a mission to detect, and search for life on, extrasolar planets,” Astrobiology 9, 1–22 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Beichman, N. Woolf, and C. Lindensmith, The Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF): A NASA Origins Program to Search for Habitable Planets (Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 1999).

Beichman, C. A.

P. R. Lawson, S. C. Unwin, and C. A. Beichman, “Precursor science for the Terrestrial Planet Finder,” JPL Publication 04-014 (Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 2005), http://hdl.handle.net/2014/37449 .

Benz, W.

C. S. Cockell, A. Leger, M. Fridlund, T. Herbst, L. Kaltenegger, O. Absil, C. Beichman, W. Benz, M. Blanc, A. Brack, A. Chelli, L. Colangeli, H. Cottin, V. C. d. Foresto, W. Danchi, D. Defrere, J.-W. d. Herder, C. Eiroa, J. Greaves, T. Henning, K. Johnston, H. Jones, L. Labadie, H. Lammer, R. Launhardt, P. Lawson, O. P. Lay, J.-M. LeDuigou, R. Liseau, F. Malbet, S. R. Martin, D. Mawet, D. Mourard, C. Moutou, L. Mugnier, F. Paresce, A. Quirrenbach, Y. Rabbia, J. A. Raven, H. J. A. Rottgering, D. Rouan, N. Santos, F. Selsis, E. Serabyn, H. Shibai, M. Tamura, E. Thiebaut, F. W. White, and J. Glenn, “Darwin—a mission to detect, and search for life on, extrasolar planets,” Astrobiology 9, 1–22 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Blanc, M.

C. S. Cockell, A. Leger, M. Fridlund, T. Herbst, L. Kaltenegger, O. Absil, C. Beichman, W. Benz, M. Blanc, A. Brack, A. Chelli, L. Colangeli, H. Cottin, V. C. d. Foresto, W. Danchi, D. Defrere, J.-W. d. Herder, C. Eiroa, J. Greaves, T. Henning, K. Johnston, H. Jones, L. Labadie, H. Lammer, R. Launhardt, P. Lawson, O. P. Lay, J.-M. LeDuigou, R. Liseau, F. Malbet, S. R. Martin, D. Mawet, D. Mourard, C. Moutou, L. Mugnier, F. Paresce, A. Quirrenbach, Y. Rabbia, J. A. Raven, H. J. A. Rottgering, D. Rouan, N. Santos, F. Selsis, E. Serabyn, H. Shibai, M. Tamura, E. Thiebaut, F. W. White, and J. Glenn, “Darwin—a mission to detect, and search for life on, extrasolar planets,” Astrobiology 9, 1–22 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Booth, A. J.

S. R. Martin and A. J. Booth, “Strong starlight suppression sufficient to enable direct detection of exoplanets in the habitable zone,” Astron. Astrophys. 511, L1 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Martin and A. J. Booth, “Demonstration of exoplanet detection using an infrared telescope array,” Astron. Astrophys. 520, A96 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Booth, S. R. Martin, and F. Loya, “Exoplanet exploration program planet detection testbed: latest results of planet light detection in the presence of starlight,” Proc. SPIE 7013, 701320 (2008).

S. R. Martin, A. J. Booth, and F. Loya, “Demonstration of the exoplanet detection process using four-beam nulling interferometry,” in Aerospace Conference 2009 (IEEE, 2009), pp. 1–9.

S. R. Martin, A. J. Booth, O. P. Lay, and P. R. Lawson, Exoplanet Interferometry Technology Milestone 4 Whitepaper: Planet Detection Demonstration (Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 2008).

Brack, A.

C. S. Cockell, A. Leger, M. Fridlund, T. Herbst, L. Kaltenegger, O. Absil, C. Beichman, W. Benz, M. Blanc, A. Brack, A. Chelli, L. Colangeli, H. Cottin, V. C. d. Foresto, W. Danchi, D. Defrere, J.-W. d. Herder, C. Eiroa, J. Greaves, T. Henning, K. Johnston, H. Jones, L. Labadie, H. Lammer, R. Launhardt, P. Lawson, O. P. Lay, J.-M. LeDuigou, R. Liseau, F. Malbet, S. R. Martin, D. Mawet, D. Mourard, C. Moutou, L. Mugnier, F. Paresce, A. Quirrenbach, Y. Rabbia, J. A. Raven, H. J. A. Rottgering, D. Rouan, N. Santos, F. Selsis, E. Serabyn, H. Shibai, M. Tamura, E. Thiebaut, F. W. White, and J. Glenn, “Darwin—a mission to detect, and search for life on, extrasolar planets,” Astrobiology 9, 1–22 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Burge, J. H.

R. M. Morgan, J. H. Burge, and N. J. Woolf, “Nulling interferometric beam combiner utilizing dielectric plates: experimental results in the visible broadband,” Proc. SPIE 4006, 340–348 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chelli, A.

C. S. Cockell, A. Leger, M. Fridlund, T. Herbst, L. Kaltenegger, O. Absil, C. Beichman, W. Benz, M. Blanc, A. Brack, A. Chelli, L. Colangeli, H. Cottin, V. C. d. Foresto, W. Danchi, D. Defrere, J.-W. d. Herder, C. Eiroa, J. Greaves, T. Henning, K. Johnston, H. Jones, L. Labadie, H. Lammer, R. Launhardt, P. Lawson, O. P. Lay, J.-M. LeDuigou, R. Liseau, F. Malbet, S. R. Martin, D. Mawet, D. Mourard, C. Moutou, L. Mugnier, F. Paresce, A. Quirrenbach, Y. Rabbia, J. A. Raven, H. J. A. Rottgering, D. Rouan, N. Santos, F. Selsis, E. Serabyn, H. Shibai, M. Tamura, E. Thiebaut, F. W. White, and J. Glenn, “Darwin—a mission to detect, and search for life on, extrasolar planets,” Astrobiology 9, 1–22 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cockell, C. S.

C. S. Cockell, A. Leger, M. Fridlund, T. Herbst, L. Kaltenegger, O. Absil, C. Beichman, W. Benz, M. Blanc, A. Brack, A. Chelli, L. Colangeli, H. Cottin, V. C. d. Foresto, W. Danchi, D. Defrere, J.-W. d. Herder, C. Eiroa, J. Greaves, T. Henning, K. Johnston, H. Jones, L. Labadie, H. Lammer, R. Launhardt, P. Lawson, O. P. Lay, J.-M. LeDuigou, R. Liseau, F. Malbet, S. R. Martin, D. Mawet, D. Mourard, C. Moutou, L. Mugnier, F. Paresce, A. Quirrenbach, Y. Rabbia, J. A. Raven, H. J. A. Rottgering, D. Rouan, N. Santos, F. Selsis, E. Serabyn, H. Shibai, M. Tamura, E. Thiebaut, F. W. White, and J. Glenn, “Darwin—a mission to detect, and search for life on, extrasolar planets,” Astrobiology 9, 1–22 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Colangeli, L.

C. S. Cockell, A. Leger, M. Fridlund, T. Herbst, L. Kaltenegger, O. Absil, C. Beichman, W. Benz, M. Blanc, A. Brack, A. Chelli, L. Colangeli, H. Cottin, V. C. d. Foresto, W. Danchi, D. Defrere, J.-W. d. Herder, C. Eiroa, J. Greaves, T. Henning, K. Johnston, H. Jones, L. Labadie, H. Lammer, R. Launhardt, P. Lawson, O. P. Lay, J.-M. LeDuigou, R. Liseau, F. Malbet, S. R. Martin, D. Mawet, D. Mourard, C. Moutou, L. Mugnier, F. Paresce, A. Quirrenbach, Y. Rabbia, J. A. Raven, H. J. A. Rottgering, D. Rouan, N. Santos, F. Selsis, E. Serabyn, H. Shibai, M. Tamura, E. Thiebaut, F. W. White, and J. Glenn, “Darwin—a mission to detect, and search for life on, extrasolar planets,” Astrobiology 9, 1–22 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Colavita, M. M.

M. M. Colavita, G. Serabyn, P. L. Wizinowich, and R. L. Akeson, “Nulling at the keck interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 6268, 626803 (2006).

E. Serabyn and M. M. Colavita, “Fully symmetric nulling beam combiners,” Appl. Opt. 40, 1668–1671 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Cottin, H.

C. S. Cockell, A. Leger, M. Fridlund, T. Herbst, L. Kaltenegger, O. Absil, C. Beichman, W. Benz, M. Blanc, A. Brack, A. Chelli, L. Colangeli, H. Cottin, V. C. d. Foresto, W. Danchi, D. Defrere, J.-W. d. Herder, C. Eiroa, J. Greaves, T. Henning, K. Johnston, H. Jones, L. Labadie, H. Lammer, R. Launhardt, P. Lawson, O. P. Lay, J.-M. LeDuigou, R. Liseau, F. Malbet, S. R. Martin, D. Mawet, D. Mourard, C. Moutou, L. Mugnier, F. Paresce, A. Quirrenbach, Y. Rabbia, J. A. Raven, H. J. A. Rottgering, D. Rouan, N. Santos, F. Selsis, E. Serabyn, H. Shibai, M. Tamura, E. Thiebaut, F. W. White, and J. Glenn, “Darwin—a mission to detect, and search for life on, extrasolar planets,” Astrobiology 9, 1–22 (2009).
[CrossRef]

d. Foresto, V. C.

C. S. Cockell, A. Leger, M. Fridlund, T. Herbst, L. Kaltenegger, O. Absil, C. Beichman, W. Benz, M. Blanc, A. Brack, A. Chelli, L. Colangeli, H. Cottin, V. C. d. Foresto, W. Danchi, D. Defrere, J.-W. d. Herder, C. Eiroa, J. Greaves, T. Henning, K. Johnston, H. Jones, L. Labadie, H. Lammer, R. Launhardt, P. Lawson, O. P. Lay, J.-M. LeDuigou, R. Liseau, F. Malbet, S. R. Martin, D. Mawet, D. Mourard, C. Moutou, L. Mugnier, F. Paresce, A. Quirrenbach, Y. Rabbia, J. A. Raven, H. J. A. Rottgering, D. Rouan, N. Santos, F. Selsis, E. Serabyn, H. Shibai, M. Tamura, E. Thiebaut, F. W. White, and J. Glenn, “Darwin—a mission to detect, and search for life on, extrasolar planets,” Astrobiology 9, 1–22 (2009).
[CrossRef]

d. Herder, J.-W.

C. S. Cockell, A. Leger, M. Fridlund, T. Herbst, L. Kaltenegger, O. Absil, C. Beichman, W. Benz, M. Blanc, A. Brack, A. Chelli, L. Colangeli, H. Cottin, V. C. d. Foresto, W. Danchi, D. Defrere, J.-W. d. Herder, C. Eiroa, J. Greaves, T. Henning, K. Johnston, H. Jones, L. Labadie, H. Lammer, R. Launhardt, P. Lawson, O. P. Lay, J.-M. LeDuigou, R. Liseau, F. Malbet, S. R. Martin, D. Mawet, D. Mourard, C. Moutou, L. Mugnier, F. Paresce, A. Quirrenbach, Y. Rabbia, J. A. Raven, H. J. A. Rottgering, D. Rouan, N. Santos, F. Selsis, E. Serabyn, H. Shibai, M. Tamura, E. Thiebaut, F. W. White, and J. Glenn, “Darwin—a mission to detect, and search for life on, extrasolar planets,” Astrobiology 9, 1–22 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Danchi, W.

C. S. Cockell, A. Leger, M. Fridlund, T. Herbst, L. Kaltenegger, O. Absil, C. Beichman, W. Benz, M. Blanc, A. Brack, A. Chelli, L. Colangeli, H. Cottin, V. C. d. Foresto, W. Danchi, D. Defrere, J.-W. d. Herder, C. Eiroa, J. Greaves, T. Henning, K. Johnston, H. Jones, L. Labadie, H. Lammer, R. Launhardt, P. Lawson, O. P. Lay, J.-M. LeDuigou, R. Liseau, F. Malbet, S. R. Martin, D. Mawet, D. Mourard, C. Moutou, L. Mugnier, F. Paresce, A. Quirrenbach, Y. Rabbia, J. A. Raven, H. J. A. Rottgering, D. Rouan, N. Santos, F. Selsis, E. Serabyn, H. Shibai, M. Tamura, E. Thiebaut, F. W. White, and J. Glenn, “Darwin—a mission to detect, and search for life on, extrasolar planets,” Astrobiology 9, 1–22 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Defrere, D.

C. S. Cockell, A. Leger, M. Fridlund, T. Herbst, L. Kaltenegger, O. Absil, C. Beichman, W. Benz, M. Blanc, A. Brack, A. Chelli, L. Colangeli, H. Cottin, V. C. d. Foresto, W. Danchi, D. Defrere, J.-W. d. Herder, C. Eiroa, J. Greaves, T. Henning, K. Johnston, H. Jones, L. Labadie, H. Lammer, R. Launhardt, P. Lawson, O. P. Lay, J.-M. LeDuigou, R. Liseau, F. Malbet, S. R. Martin, D. Mawet, D. Mourard, C. Moutou, L. Mugnier, F. Paresce, A. Quirrenbach, Y. Rabbia, J. A. Raven, H. J. A. Rottgering, D. Rouan, N. Santos, F. Selsis, E. Serabyn, H. Shibai, M. Tamura, E. Thiebaut, F. W. White, and J. Glenn, “Darwin—a mission to detect, and search for life on, extrasolar planets,” Astrobiology 9, 1–22 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Diaz, R. T.

Eiroa, C.

C. S. Cockell, A. Leger, M. Fridlund, T. Herbst, L. Kaltenegger, O. Absil, C. Beichman, W. Benz, M. Blanc, A. Brack, A. Chelli, L. Colangeli, H. Cottin, V. C. d. Foresto, W. Danchi, D. Defrere, J.-W. d. Herder, C. Eiroa, J. Greaves, T. Henning, K. Johnston, H. Jones, L. Labadie, H. Lammer, R. Launhardt, P. Lawson, O. P. Lay, J.-M. LeDuigou, R. Liseau, F. Malbet, S. R. Martin, D. Mawet, D. Mourard, C. Moutou, L. Mugnier, F. Paresce, A. Quirrenbach, Y. Rabbia, J. A. Raven, H. J. A. Rottgering, D. Rouan, N. Santos, F. Selsis, E. Serabyn, H. Shibai, M. Tamura, E. Thiebaut, F. W. White, and J. Glenn, “Darwin—a mission to detect, and search for life on, extrasolar planets,” Astrobiology 9, 1–22 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Enright, P.

B. Lurie and P. Enright, Classical Feedback Control: with MATLAB and Simulink, 2nd ed. (CRC Press, 2011).

Fridlund, M.

C. S. Cockell, A. Leger, M. Fridlund, T. Herbst, L. Kaltenegger, O. Absil, C. Beichman, W. Benz, M. Blanc, A. Brack, A. Chelli, L. Colangeli, H. Cottin, V. C. d. Foresto, W. Danchi, D. Defrere, J.-W. d. Herder, C. Eiroa, J. Greaves, T. Henning, K. Johnston, H. Jones, L. Labadie, H. Lammer, R. Launhardt, P. Lawson, O. P. Lay, J.-M. LeDuigou, R. Liseau, F. Malbet, S. R. Martin, D. Mawet, D. Mourard, C. Moutou, L. Mugnier, F. Paresce, A. Quirrenbach, Y. Rabbia, J. A. Raven, H. J. A. Rottgering, D. Rouan, N. Santos, F. Selsis, E. Serabyn, H. Shibai, M. Tamura, E. Thiebaut, F. W. White, and J. Glenn, “Darwin—a mission to detect, and search for life on, extrasolar planets,” Astrobiology 9, 1–22 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Kaltenegger and M. Fridlund, “The Darwin mission: search for extra-solar planets,” Adv. Space Res. 36, 1114–1122 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gappinger, R. O.

Glenn, J.

C. S. Cockell, A. Leger, M. Fridlund, T. Herbst, L. Kaltenegger, O. Absil, C. Beichman, W. Benz, M. Blanc, A. Brack, A. Chelli, L. Colangeli, H. Cottin, V. C. d. Foresto, W. Danchi, D. Defrere, J.-W. d. Herder, C. Eiroa, J. Greaves, T. Henning, K. Johnston, H. Jones, L. Labadie, H. Lammer, R. Launhardt, P. Lawson, O. P. Lay, J.-M. LeDuigou, R. Liseau, F. Malbet, S. R. Martin, D. Mawet, D. Mourard, C. Moutou, L. Mugnier, F. Paresce, A. Quirrenbach, Y. Rabbia, J. A. Raven, H. J. A. Rottgering, D. Rouan, N. Santos, F. Selsis, E. Serabyn, H. Shibai, M. Tamura, E. Thiebaut, F. W. White, and J. Glenn, “Darwin—a mission to detect, and search for life on, extrasolar planets,” Astrobiology 9, 1–22 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Greaves, J.

C. S. Cockell, A. Leger, M. Fridlund, T. Herbst, L. Kaltenegger, O. Absil, C. Beichman, W. Benz, M. Blanc, A. Brack, A. Chelli, L. Colangeli, H. Cottin, V. C. d. Foresto, W. Danchi, D. Defrere, J.-W. d. Herder, C. Eiroa, J. Greaves, T. Henning, K. Johnston, H. Jones, L. Labadie, H. Lammer, R. Launhardt, P. Lawson, O. P. Lay, J.-M. LeDuigou, R. Liseau, F. Malbet, S. R. Martin, D. Mawet, D. Mourard, C. Moutou, L. Mugnier, F. Paresce, A. Quirrenbach, Y. Rabbia, J. A. Raven, H. J. A. Rottgering, D. Rouan, N. Santos, F. Selsis, E. Serabyn, H. Shibai, M. Tamura, E. Thiebaut, F. W. White, and J. Glenn, “Darwin—a mission to detect, and search for life on, extrasolar planets,” Astrobiology 9, 1–22 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hanot, C.

S. Martin, E. Serabyn, K. Liewer, F. Loya, B. Mennesson, C. Hanot, and D. Mawet, “The development and applications of a ground-based fiber nulling coronagraph,” Proc. SPIE 7013, 70131Y (2008).

Hardy, G.

S. R. Martin, E. Serabyn, and G. Hardy, “Deep nulling of laser light in a rotational shearing interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 4838, 656–667 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Henning, T.

C. S. Cockell, A. Leger, M. Fridlund, T. Herbst, L. Kaltenegger, O. Absil, C. Beichman, W. Benz, M. Blanc, A. Brack, A. Chelli, L. Colangeli, H. Cottin, V. C. d. Foresto, W. Danchi, D. Defrere, J.-W. d. Herder, C. Eiroa, J. Greaves, T. Henning, K. Johnston, H. Jones, L. Labadie, H. Lammer, R. Launhardt, P. Lawson, O. P. Lay, J.-M. LeDuigou, R. Liseau, F. Malbet, S. R. Martin, D. Mawet, D. Mourard, C. Moutou, L. Mugnier, F. Paresce, A. Quirrenbach, Y. Rabbia, J. A. Raven, H. J. A. Rottgering, D. Rouan, N. Santos, F. Selsis, E. Serabyn, H. Shibai, M. Tamura, E. Thiebaut, F. W. White, and J. Glenn, “Darwin—a mission to detect, and search for life on, extrasolar planets,” Astrobiology 9, 1–22 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Herbst, T.

C. S. Cockell, A. Leger, M. Fridlund, T. Herbst, L. Kaltenegger, O. Absil, C. Beichman, W. Benz, M. Blanc, A. Brack, A. Chelli, L. Colangeli, H. Cottin, V. C. d. Foresto, W. Danchi, D. Defrere, J.-W. d. Herder, C. Eiroa, J. Greaves, T. Henning, K. Johnston, H. Jones, L. Labadie, H. Lammer, R. Launhardt, P. Lawson, O. P. Lay, J.-M. LeDuigou, R. Liseau, F. Malbet, S. R. Martin, D. Mawet, D. Mourard, C. Moutou, L. Mugnier, F. Paresce, A. Quirrenbach, Y. Rabbia, J. A. Raven, H. J. A. Rottgering, D. Rouan, N. Santos, F. Selsis, E. Serabyn, H. Shibai, M. Tamura, E. Thiebaut, F. W. White, and J. Glenn, “Darwin—a mission to detect, and search for life on, extrasolar planets,” Astrobiology 9, 1–22 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hunyadi, S. L.

O. P. Lay, S. R. Martin, and S. L. Hunyadi, “Planet-finding performance of the TPF-I Emma architecture,” Proc. SPIE 6693, 66930A (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jeganathan, M.

Johnston, K.

C. S. Cockell, A. Leger, M. Fridlund, T. Herbst, L. Kaltenegger, O. Absil, C. Beichman, W. Benz, M. Blanc, A. Brack, A. Chelli, L. Colangeli, H. Cottin, V. C. d. Foresto, W. Danchi, D. Defrere, J.-W. d. Herder, C. Eiroa, J. Greaves, T. Henning, K. Johnston, H. Jones, L. Labadie, H. Lammer, R. Launhardt, P. Lawson, O. P. Lay, J.-M. LeDuigou, R. Liseau, F. Malbet, S. R. Martin, D. Mawet, D. Mourard, C. Moutou, L. Mugnier, F. Paresce, A. Quirrenbach, Y. Rabbia, J. A. Raven, H. J. A. Rottgering, D. Rouan, N. Santos, F. Selsis, E. Serabyn, H. Shibai, M. Tamura, E. Thiebaut, F. W. White, and J. Glenn, “Darwin—a mission to detect, and search for life on, extrasolar planets,” Astrobiology 9, 1–22 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jones, H.

C. S. Cockell, A. Leger, M. Fridlund, T. Herbst, L. Kaltenegger, O. Absil, C. Beichman, W. Benz, M. Blanc, A. Brack, A. Chelli, L. Colangeli, H. Cottin, V. C. d. Foresto, W. Danchi, D. Defrere, J.-W. d. Herder, C. Eiroa, J. Greaves, T. Henning, K. Johnston, H. Jones, L. Labadie, H. Lammer, R. Launhardt, P. Lawson, O. P. Lay, J.-M. LeDuigou, R. Liseau, F. Malbet, S. R. Martin, D. Mawet, D. Mourard, C. Moutou, L. Mugnier, F. Paresce, A. Quirrenbach, Y. Rabbia, J. A. Raven, H. J. A. Rottgering, D. Rouan, N. Santos, F. Selsis, E. Serabyn, H. Shibai, M. Tamura, E. Thiebaut, F. W. White, and J. Glenn, “Darwin—a mission to detect, and search for life on, extrasolar planets,” Astrobiology 9, 1–22 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kaltenegger, L.

C. S. Cockell, A. Leger, M. Fridlund, T. Herbst, L. Kaltenegger, O. Absil, C. Beichman, W. Benz, M. Blanc, A. Brack, A. Chelli, L. Colangeli, H. Cottin, V. C. d. Foresto, W. Danchi, D. Defrere, J.-W. d. Herder, C. Eiroa, J. Greaves, T. Henning, K. Johnston, H. Jones, L. Labadie, H. Lammer, R. Launhardt, P. Lawson, O. P. Lay, J.-M. LeDuigou, R. Liseau, F. Malbet, S. R. Martin, D. Mawet, D. Mourard, C. Moutou, L. Mugnier, F. Paresce, A. Quirrenbach, Y. Rabbia, J. A. Raven, H. J. A. Rottgering, D. Rouan, N. Santos, F. Selsis, E. Serabyn, H. Shibai, M. Tamura, E. Thiebaut, F. W. White, and J. Glenn, “Darwin—a mission to detect, and search for life on, extrasolar planets,” Astrobiology 9, 1–22 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Kaltenegger and M. Fridlund, “The Darwin mission: search for extra-solar planets,” Adv. Space Res. 36, 1114–1122 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ksendzov, A.

Labadie, L.

C. S. Cockell, A. Leger, M. Fridlund, T. Herbst, L. Kaltenegger, O. Absil, C. Beichman, W. Benz, M. Blanc, A. Brack, A. Chelli, L. Colangeli, H. Cottin, V. C. d. Foresto, W. Danchi, D. Defrere, J.-W. d. Herder, C. Eiroa, J. Greaves, T. Henning, K. Johnston, H. Jones, L. Labadie, H. Lammer, R. Launhardt, P. Lawson, O. P. Lay, J.-M. LeDuigou, R. Liseau, F. Malbet, S. R. Martin, D. Mawet, D. Mourard, C. Moutou, L. Mugnier, F. Paresce, A. Quirrenbach, Y. Rabbia, J. A. Raven, H. J. A. Rottgering, D. Rouan, N. Santos, F. Selsis, E. Serabyn, H. Shibai, M. Tamura, E. Thiebaut, F. W. White, and J. Glenn, “Darwin—a mission to detect, and search for life on, extrasolar planets,” Astrobiology 9, 1–22 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lammer, H.

C. S. Cockell, A. Leger, M. Fridlund, T. Herbst, L. Kaltenegger, O. Absil, C. Beichman, W. Benz, M. Blanc, A. Brack, A. Chelli, L. Colangeli, H. Cottin, V. C. d. Foresto, W. Danchi, D. Defrere, J.-W. d. Herder, C. Eiroa, J. Greaves, T. Henning, K. Johnston, H. Jones, L. Labadie, H. Lammer, R. Launhardt, P. Lawson, O. P. Lay, J.-M. LeDuigou, R. Liseau, F. Malbet, S. R. Martin, D. Mawet, D. Mourard, C. Moutou, L. Mugnier, F. Paresce, A. Quirrenbach, Y. Rabbia, J. A. Raven, H. J. A. Rottgering, D. Rouan, N. Santos, F. Selsis, E. Serabyn, H. Shibai, M. Tamura, E. Thiebaut, F. W. White, and J. Glenn, “Darwin—a mission to detect, and search for life on, extrasolar planets,” Astrobiology 9, 1–22 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Launhardt, R.

C. S. Cockell, A. Leger, M. Fridlund, T. Herbst, L. Kaltenegger, O. Absil, C. Beichman, W. Benz, M. Blanc, A. Brack, A. Chelli, L. Colangeli, H. Cottin, V. C. d. Foresto, W. Danchi, D. Defrere, J.-W. d. Herder, C. Eiroa, J. Greaves, T. Henning, K. Johnston, H. Jones, L. Labadie, H. Lammer, R. Launhardt, P. Lawson, O. P. Lay, J.-M. LeDuigou, R. Liseau, F. Malbet, S. R. Martin, D. Mawet, D. Mourard, C. Moutou, L. Mugnier, F. Paresce, A. Quirrenbach, Y. Rabbia, J. A. Raven, H. J. A. Rottgering, D. Rouan, N. Santos, F. Selsis, E. Serabyn, H. Shibai, M. Tamura, E. Thiebaut, F. W. White, and J. Glenn, “Darwin—a mission to detect, and search for life on, extrasolar planets,” Astrobiology 9, 1–22 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lawson, P.

C. S. Cockell, A. Leger, M. Fridlund, T. Herbst, L. Kaltenegger, O. Absil, C. Beichman, W. Benz, M. Blanc, A. Brack, A. Chelli, L. Colangeli, H. Cottin, V. C. d. Foresto, W. Danchi, D. Defrere, J.-W. d. Herder, C. Eiroa, J. Greaves, T. Henning, K. Johnston, H. Jones, L. Labadie, H. Lammer, R. Launhardt, P. Lawson, O. P. Lay, J.-M. LeDuigou, R. Liseau, F. Malbet, S. R. Martin, D. Mawet, D. Mourard, C. Moutou, L. Mugnier, F. Paresce, A. Quirrenbach, Y. Rabbia, J. A. Raven, H. J. A. Rottgering, D. Rouan, N. Santos, F. Selsis, E. Serabyn, H. Shibai, M. Tamura, E. Thiebaut, F. W. White, and J. Glenn, “Darwin—a mission to detect, and search for life on, extrasolar planets,” Astrobiology 9, 1–22 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lawson, P. R.

R. O. Gappinger, R. T. Diaz, A. Ksendzov, P. R. Lawson, O. P. Lay, K. M. Liewer, F. M. Loya, S. R. Martin, E. Serabyn, and J. K. Wallace, “Experimental evaluation of achromatic phase shifters for mid-infrared starlight suppression,” Appl. Opt. 48, 868–880 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Martin, A. J. Booth, O. P. Lay, and P. R. Lawson, Exoplanet Interferometry Technology Milestone 4 Whitepaper: Planet Detection Demonstration (Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 2008).

P. R. Lawson, S. C. Unwin, and C. A. Beichman, “Precursor science for the Terrestrial Planet Finder,” JPL Publication 04-014 (Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 2005), http://hdl.handle.net/2014/37449 .

Lay, O.

S. Martin, A. Ksendzov, O. Lay, R. D. Peters, and D. P. Scharf, “TPF-Interferometer: a decade of development in exoplanet detection technology,” Proc. SPIE 8151, 81510D (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lay, O. P.

C. S. Cockell, A. Leger, M. Fridlund, T. Herbst, L. Kaltenegger, O. Absil, C. Beichman, W. Benz, M. Blanc, A. Brack, A. Chelli, L. Colangeli, H. Cottin, V. C. d. Foresto, W. Danchi, D. Defrere, J.-W. d. Herder, C. Eiroa, J. Greaves, T. Henning, K. Johnston, H. Jones, L. Labadie, H. Lammer, R. Launhardt, P. Lawson, O. P. Lay, J.-M. LeDuigou, R. Liseau, F. Malbet, S. R. Martin, D. Mawet, D. Mourard, C. Moutou, L. Mugnier, F. Paresce, A. Quirrenbach, Y. Rabbia, J. A. Raven, H. J. A. Rottgering, D. Rouan, N. Santos, F. Selsis, E. Serabyn, H. Shibai, M. Tamura, E. Thiebaut, F. W. White, and J. Glenn, “Darwin—a mission to detect, and search for life on, extrasolar planets,” Astrobiology 9, 1–22 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. O. Gappinger, R. T. Diaz, A. Ksendzov, P. R. Lawson, O. P. Lay, K. M. Liewer, F. M. Loya, S. R. Martin, E. Serabyn, and J. K. Wallace, “Experimental evaluation of achromatic phase shifters for mid-infrared starlight suppression,” Appl. Opt. 48, 868–880 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. D. Peters, O. P. Lay, and M. Jeganathan, “Broadband phase and intensity compensation with a deformable mirror for an interferometric nuller,” Appl. Opt. 47, 3920–3926 (2008).
[CrossRef]

O. P. Lay, S. R. Martin, and S. L. Hunyadi, “Planet-finding performance of the TPF-I Emma architecture,” Proc. SPIE 6693, 66930A (2007).
[CrossRef]

O. P. Lay, “Removing instability noise in nulling interferometers,” Proc. SPIE 6268, 62681A (2006).

S. R. Martin, A. J. Booth, O. P. Lay, and P. R. Lawson, Exoplanet Interferometry Technology Milestone 4 Whitepaper: Planet Detection Demonstration (Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 2008).

LeDuigou, J.-M.

C. S. Cockell, A. Leger, M. Fridlund, T. Herbst, L. Kaltenegger, O. Absil, C. Beichman, W. Benz, M. Blanc, A. Brack, A. Chelli, L. Colangeli, H. Cottin, V. C. d. Foresto, W. Danchi, D. Defrere, J.-W. d. Herder, C. Eiroa, J. Greaves, T. Henning, K. Johnston, H. Jones, L. Labadie, H. Lammer, R. Launhardt, P. Lawson, O. P. Lay, J.-M. LeDuigou, R. Liseau, F. Malbet, S. R. Martin, D. Mawet, D. Mourard, C. Moutou, L. Mugnier, F. Paresce, A. Quirrenbach, Y. Rabbia, J. A. Raven, H. J. A. Rottgering, D. Rouan, N. Santos, F. Selsis, E. Serabyn, H. Shibai, M. Tamura, E. Thiebaut, F. W. White, and J. Glenn, “Darwin—a mission to detect, and search for life on, extrasolar planets,” Astrobiology 9, 1–22 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Leger, A.

C. S. Cockell, A. Leger, M. Fridlund, T. Herbst, L. Kaltenegger, O. Absil, C. Beichman, W. Benz, M. Blanc, A. Brack, A. Chelli, L. Colangeli, H. Cottin, V. C. d. Foresto, W. Danchi, D. Defrere, J.-W. d. Herder, C. Eiroa, J. Greaves, T. Henning, K. Johnston, H. Jones, L. Labadie, H. Lammer, R. Launhardt, P. Lawson, O. P. Lay, J.-M. LeDuigou, R. Liseau, F. Malbet, S. R. Martin, D. Mawet, D. Mourard, C. Moutou, L. Mugnier, F. Paresce, A. Quirrenbach, Y. Rabbia, J. A. Raven, H. J. A. Rottgering, D. Rouan, N. Santos, F. Selsis, E. Serabyn, H. Shibai, M. Tamura, E. Thiebaut, F. W. White, and J. Glenn, “Darwin—a mission to detect, and search for life on, extrasolar planets,” Astrobiology 9, 1–22 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liewer, K.

S. Martin, E. Serabyn, K. Liewer, F. Loya, B. Mennesson, C. Hanot, and D. Mawet, “The development and applications of a ground-based fiber nulling coronagraph,” Proc. SPIE 7013, 70131Y (2008).

Liewer, K. M.

Lindensmith, C.

C. Beichman, N. Woolf, and C. Lindensmith, The Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF): A NASA Origins Program to Search for Habitable Planets (Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 1999).

Liseau, R.

C. S. Cockell, A. Leger, M. Fridlund, T. Herbst, L. Kaltenegger, O. Absil, C. Beichman, W. Benz, M. Blanc, A. Brack, A. Chelli, L. Colangeli, H. Cottin, V. C. d. Foresto, W. Danchi, D. Defrere, J.-W. d. Herder, C. Eiroa, J. Greaves, T. Henning, K. Johnston, H. Jones, L. Labadie, H. Lammer, R. Launhardt, P. Lawson, O. P. Lay, J.-M. LeDuigou, R. Liseau, F. Malbet, S. R. Martin, D. Mawet, D. Mourard, C. Moutou, L. Mugnier, F. Paresce, A. Quirrenbach, Y. Rabbia, J. A. Raven, H. J. A. Rottgering, D. Rouan, N. Santos, F. Selsis, E. Serabyn, H. Shibai, M. Tamura, E. Thiebaut, F. W. White, and J. Glenn, “Darwin—a mission to detect, and search for life on, extrasolar planets,” Astrobiology 9, 1–22 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Loya, F.

A. J. Booth, S. R. Martin, and F. Loya, “Exoplanet exploration program planet detection testbed: latest results of planet light detection in the presence of starlight,” Proc. SPIE 7013, 701320 (2008).

S. Martin, E. Serabyn, K. Liewer, F. Loya, B. Mennesson, C. Hanot, and D. Mawet, “The development and applications of a ground-based fiber nulling coronagraph,” Proc. SPIE 7013, 70131Y (2008).

E. Serabyn and F. Loya, “Concept for null tracking,” discussion at Palomar Observatory (2009).

S. R. Martin, A. J. Booth, and F. Loya, “Demonstration of the exoplanet detection process using four-beam nulling interferometry,” in Aerospace Conference 2009 (IEEE, 2009), pp. 1–9.

Loya, F. M.

Lurie, B.

B. Lurie and P. Enright, Classical Feedback Control: with MATLAB and Simulink, 2nd ed. (CRC Press, 2011).

Malbet, F.

C. S. Cockell, A. Leger, M. Fridlund, T. Herbst, L. Kaltenegger, O. Absil, C. Beichman, W. Benz, M. Blanc, A. Brack, A. Chelli, L. Colangeli, H. Cottin, V. C. d. Foresto, W. Danchi, D. Defrere, J.-W. d. Herder, C. Eiroa, J. Greaves, T. Henning, K. Johnston, H. Jones, L. Labadie, H. Lammer, R. Launhardt, P. Lawson, O. P. Lay, J.-M. LeDuigou, R. Liseau, F. Malbet, S. R. Martin, D. Mawet, D. Mourard, C. Moutou, L. Mugnier, F. Paresce, A. Quirrenbach, Y. Rabbia, J. A. Raven, H. J. A. Rottgering, D. Rouan, N. Santos, F. Selsis, E. Serabyn, H. Shibai, M. Tamura, E. Thiebaut, F. W. White, and J. Glenn, “Darwin—a mission to detect, and search for life on, extrasolar planets,” Astrobiology 9, 1–22 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Martin, S.

S. Martin, A. Ksendzov, O. Lay, R. D. Peters, and D. P. Scharf, “TPF-Interferometer: a decade of development in exoplanet detection technology,” Proc. SPIE 8151, 81510D (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Martin, E. Serabyn, K. Liewer, F. Loya, B. Mennesson, C. Hanot, and D. Mawet, “The development and applications of a ground-based fiber nulling coronagraph,” Proc. SPIE 7013, 70131Y (2008).

S. Martin, “The Flight instrument design for the terrestrial planet finder interferometer, techniques and instrumentation for detection of exoplanets II,” Proc. SPIE 5905, 590503 (2005).

Martin, S. R.

S. R. Martin and A. J. Booth, “Demonstration of exoplanet detection using an infrared telescope array,” Astron. Astrophys. 520, A96 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Martin and A. J. Booth, “Strong starlight suppression sufficient to enable direct detection of exoplanets in the habitable zone,” Astron. Astrophys. 511, L1 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. O. Gappinger, R. T. Diaz, A. Ksendzov, P. R. Lawson, O. P. Lay, K. M. Liewer, F. M. Loya, S. R. Martin, E. Serabyn, and J. K. Wallace, “Experimental evaluation of achromatic phase shifters for mid-infrared starlight suppression,” Appl. Opt. 48, 868–880 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Cockell, A. Leger, M. Fridlund, T. Herbst, L. Kaltenegger, O. Absil, C. Beichman, W. Benz, M. Blanc, A. Brack, A. Chelli, L. Colangeli, H. Cottin, V. C. d. Foresto, W. Danchi, D. Defrere, J.-W. d. Herder, C. Eiroa, J. Greaves, T. Henning, K. Johnston, H. Jones, L. Labadie, H. Lammer, R. Launhardt, P. Lawson, O. P. Lay, J.-M. LeDuigou, R. Liseau, F. Malbet, S. R. Martin, D. Mawet, D. Mourard, C. Moutou, L. Mugnier, F. Paresce, A. Quirrenbach, Y. Rabbia, J. A. Raven, H. J. A. Rottgering, D. Rouan, N. Santos, F. Selsis, E. Serabyn, H. Shibai, M. Tamura, E. Thiebaut, F. W. White, and J. Glenn, “Darwin—a mission to detect, and search for life on, extrasolar planets,” Astrobiology 9, 1–22 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Booth, S. R. Martin, and F. Loya, “Exoplanet exploration program planet detection testbed: latest results of planet light detection in the presence of starlight,” Proc. SPIE 7013, 701320 (2008).

O. P. Lay, S. R. Martin, and S. L. Hunyadi, “Planet-finding performance of the TPF-I Emma architecture,” Proc. SPIE 6693, 66930A (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Martin, E. Serabyn, and G. Hardy, “Deep nulling of laser light in a rotational shearing interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 4838, 656–667 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Martin and P. Szwaykowski, “Optical beam-shear sensors,” NASA Tech. Briefs, NPO-41746.

S. R. Martin, A. J. Booth, O. P. Lay, and P. R. Lawson, Exoplanet Interferometry Technology Milestone 4 Whitepaper: Planet Detection Demonstration (Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 2008).

S. R. Martin, A. J. Booth, and F. Loya, “Demonstration of the exoplanet detection process using four-beam nulling interferometry,” in Aerospace Conference 2009 (IEEE, 2009), pp. 1–9.

Mawet, D.

C. S. Cockell, A. Leger, M. Fridlund, T. Herbst, L. Kaltenegger, O. Absil, C. Beichman, W. Benz, M. Blanc, A. Brack, A. Chelli, L. Colangeli, H. Cottin, V. C. d. Foresto, W. Danchi, D. Defrere, J.-W. d. Herder, C. Eiroa, J. Greaves, T. Henning, K. Johnston, H. Jones, L. Labadie, H. Lammer, R. Launhardt, P. Lawson, O. P. Lay, J.-M. LeDuigou, R. Liseau, F. Malbet, S. R. Martin, D. Mawet, D. Mourard, C. Moutou, L. Mugnier, F. Paresce, A. Quirrenbach, Y. Rabbia, J. A. Raven, H. J. A. Rottgering, D. Rouan, N. Santos, F. Selsis, E. Serabyn, H. Shibai, M. Tamura, E. Thiebaut, F. W. White, and J. Glenn, “Darwin—a mission to detect, and search for life on, extrasolar planets,” Astrobiology 9, 1–22 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Martin, E. Serabyn, K. Liewer, F. Loya, B. Mennesson, C. Hanot, and D. Mawet, “The development and applications of a ground-based fiber nulling coronagraph,” Proc. SPIE 7013, 70131Y (2008).

Mennesson, B.

S. Martin, E. Serabyn, K. Liewer, F. Loya, B. Mennesson, C. Hanot, and D. Mawet, “The development and applications of a ground-based fiber nulling coronagraph,” Proc. SPIE 7013, 70131Y (2008).

Morgan, R. M.

R. M. Morgan, J. H. Burge, and N. J. Woolf, “Nulling interferometric beam combiner utilizing dielectric plates: experimental results in the visible broadband,” Proc. SPIE 4006, 340–348 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mourard, D.

C. S. Cockell, A. Leger, M. Fridlund, T. Herbst, L. Kaltenegger, O. Absil, C. Beichman, W. Benz, M. Blanc, A. Brack, A. Chelli, L. Colangeli, H. Cottin, V. C. d. Foresto, W. Danchi, D. Defrere, J.-W. d. Herder, C. Eiroa, J. Greaves, T. Henning, K. Johnston, H. Jones, L. Labadie, H. Lammer, R. Launhardt, P. Lawson, O. P. Lay, J.-M. LeDuigou, R. Liseau, F. Malbet, S. R. Martin, D. Mawet, D. Mourard, C. Moutou, L. Mugnier, F. Paresce, A. Quirrenbach, Y. Rabbia, J. A. Raven, H. J. A. Rottgering, D. Rouan, N. Santos, F. Selsis, E. Serabyn, H. Shibai, M. Tamura, E. Thiebaut, F. W. White, and J. Glenn, “Darwin—a mission to detect, and search for life on, extrasolar planets,” Astrobiology 9, 1–22 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Moutou, C.

C. S. Cockell, A. Leger, M. Fridlund, T. Herbst, L. Kaltenegger, O. Absil, C. Beichman, W. Benz, M. Blanc, A. Brack, A. Chelli, L. Colangeli, H. Cottin, V. C. d. Foresto, W. Danchi, D. Defrere, J.-W. d. Herder, C. Eiroa, J. Greaves, T. Henning, K. Johnston, H. Jones, L. Labadie, H. Lammer, R. Launhardt, P. Lawson, O. P. Lay, J.-M. LeDuigou, R. Liseau, F. Malbet, S. R. Martin, D. Mawet, D. Mourard, C. Moutou, L. Mugnier, F. Paresce, A. Quirrenbach, Y. Rabbia, J. A. Raven, H. J. A. Rottgering, D. Rouan, N. Santos, F. Selsis, E. Serabyn, H. Shibai, M. Tamura, E. Thiebaut, F. W. White, and J. Glenn, “Darwin—a mission to detect, and search for life on, extrasolar planets,” Astrobiology 9, 1–22 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mugnier, L.

C. S. Cockell, A. Leger, M. Fridlund, T. Herbst, L. Kaltenegger, O. Absil, C. Beichman, W. Benz, M. Blanc, A. Brack, A. Chelli, L. Colangeli, H. Cottin, V. C. d. Foresto, W. Danchi, D. Defrere, J.-W. d. Herder, C. Eiroa, J. Greaves, T. Henning, K. Johnston, H. Jones, L. Labadie, H. Lammer, R. Launhardt, P. Lawson, O. P. Lay, J.-M. LeDuigou, R. Liseau, F. Malbet, S. R. Martin, D. Mawet, D. Mourard, C. Moutou, L. Mugnier, F. Paresce, A. Quirrenbach, Y. Rabbia, J. A. Raven, H. J. A. Rottgering, D. Rouan, N. Santos, F. Selsis, E. Serabyn, H. Shibai, M. Tamura, E. Thiebaut, F. W. White, and J. Glenn, “Darwin—a mission to detect, and search for life on, extrasolar planets,” Astrobiology 9, 1–22 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Paresce, F.

C. S. Cockell, A. Leger, M. Fridlund, T. Herbst, L. Kaltenegger, O. Absil, C. Beichman, W. Benz, M. Blanc, A. Brack, A. Chelli, L. Colangeli, H. Cottin, V. C. d. Foresto, W. Danchi, D. Defrere, J.-W. d. Herder, C. Eiroa, J. Greaves, T. Henning, K. Johnston, H. Jones, L. Labadie, H. Lammer, R. Launhardt, P. Lawson, O. P. Lay, J.-M. LeDuigou, R. Liseau, F. Malbet, S. R. Martin, D. Mawet, D. Mourard, C. Moutou, L. Mugnier, F. Paresce, A. Quirrenbach, Y. Rabbia, J. A. Raven, H. J. A. Rottgering, D. Rouan, N. Santos, F. Selsis, E. Serabyn, H. Shibai, M. Tamura, E. Thiebaut, F. W. White, and J. Glenn, “Darwin—a mission to detect, and search for life on, extrasolar planets,” Astrobiology 9, 1–22 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Peters, R. D.

S. Martin, A. Ksendzov, O. Lay, R. D. Peters, and D. P. Scharf, “TPF-Interferometer: a decade of development in exoplanet detection technology,” Proc. SPIE 8151, 81510D (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. D. Peters, O. P. Lay, and M. Jeganathan, “Broadband phase and intensity compensation with a deformable mirror for an interferometric nuller,” Appl. Opt. 47, 3920–3926 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Quirrenbach, A.

C. S. Cockell, A. Leger, M. Fridlund, T. Herbst, L. Kaltenegger, O. Absil, C. Beichman, W. Benz, M. Blanc, A. Brack, A. Chelli, L. Colangeli, H. Cottin, V. C. d. Foresto, W. Danchi, D. Defrere, J.-W. d. Herder, C. Eiroa, J. Greaves, T. Henning, K. Johnston, H. Jones, L. Labadie, H. Lammer, R. Launhardt, P. Lawson, O. P. Lay, J.-M. LeDuigou, R. Liseau, F. Malbet, S. R. Martin, D. Mawet, D. Mourard, C. Moutou, L. Mugnier, F. Paresce, A. Quirrenbach, Y. Rabbia, J. A. Raven, H. J. A. Rottgering, D. Rouan, N. Santos, F. Selsis, E. Serabyn, H. Shibai, M. Tamura, E. Thiebaut, F. W. White, and J. Glenn, “Darwin—a mission to detect, and search for life on, extrasolar planets,” Astrobiology 9, 1–22 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rabbia, Y.

C. S. Cockell, A. Leger, M. Fridlund, T. Herbst, L. Kaltenegger, O. Absil, C. Beichman, W. Benz, M. Blanc, A. Brack, A. Chelli, L. Colangeli, H. Cottin, V. C. d. Foresto, W. Danchi, D. Defrere, J.-W. d. Herder, C. Eiroa, J. Greaves, T. Henning, K. Johnston, H. Jones, L. Labadie, H. Lammer, R. Launhardt, P. Lawson, O. P. Lay, J.-M. LeDuigou, R. Liseau, F. Malbet, S. R. Martin, D. Mawet, D. Mourard, C. Moutou, L. Mugnier, F. Paresce, A. Quirrenbach, Y. Rabbia, J. A. Raven, H. J. A. Rottgering, D. Rouan, N. Santos, F. Selsis, E. Serabyn, H. Shibai, M. Tamura, E. Thiebaut, F. W. White, and J. Glenn, “Darwin—a mission to detect, and search for life on, extrasolar planets,” Astrobiology 9, 1–22 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Raven, J. A.

C. S. Cockell, A. Leger, M. Fridlund, T. Herbst, L. Kaltenegger, O. Absil, C. Beichman, W. Benz, M. Blanc, A. Brack, A. Chelli, L. Colangeli, H. Cottin, V. C. d. Foresto, W. Danchi, D. Defrere, J.-W. d. Herder, C. Eiroa, J. Greaves, T. Henning, K. Johnston, H. Jones, L. Labadie, H. Lammer, R. Launhardt, P. Lawson, O. P. Lay, J.-M. LeDuigou, R. Liseau, F. Malbet, S. R. Martin, D. Mawet, D. Mourard, C. Moutou, L. Mugnier, F. Paresce, A. Quirrenbach, Y. Rabbia, J. A. Raven, H. J. A. Rottgering, D. Rouan, N. Santos, F. Selsis, E. Serabyn, H. Shibai, M. Tamura, E. Thiebaut, F. W. White, and J. Glenn, “Darwin—a mission to detect, and search for life on, extrasolar planets,” Astrobiology 9, 1–22 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rottgering, H. J. A.

C. S. Cockell, A. Leger, M. Fridlund, T. Herbst, L. Kaltenegger, O. Absil, C. Beichman, W. Benz, M. Blanc, A. Brack, A. Chelli, L. Colangeli, H. Cottin, V. C. d. Foresto, W. Danchi, D. Defrere, J.-W. d. Herder, C. Eiroa, J. Greaves, T. Henning, K. Johnston, H. Jones, L. Labadie, H. Lammer, R. Launhardt, P. Lawson, O. P. Lay, J.-M. LeDuigou, R. Liseau, F. Malbet, S. R. Martin, D. Mawet, D. Mourard, C. Moutou, L. Mugnier, F. Paresce, A. Quirrenbach, Y. Rabbia, J. A. Raven, H. J. A. Rottgering, D. Rouan, N. Santos, F. Selsis, E. Serabyn, H. Shibai, M. Tamura, E. Thiebaut, F. W. White, and J. Glenn, “Darwin—a mission to detect, and search for life on, extrasolar planets,” Astrobiology 9, 1–22 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rouan, D.

C. S. Cockell, A. Leger, M. Fridlund, T. Herbst, L. Kaltenegger, O. Absil, C. Beichman, W. Benz, M. Blanc, A. Brack, A. Chelli, L. Colangeli, H. Cottin, V. C. d. Foresto, W. Danchi, D. Defrere, J.-W. d. Herder, C. Eiroa, J. Greaves, T. Henning, K. Johnston, H. Jones, L. Labadie, H. Lammer, R. Launhardt, P. Lawson, O. P. Lay, J.-M. LeDuigou, R. Liseau, F. Malbet, S. R. Martin, D. Mawet, D. Mourard, C. Moutou, L. Mugnier, F. Paresce, A. Quirrenbach, Y. Rabbia, J. A. Raven, H. J. A. Rottgering, D. Rouan, N. Santos, F. Selsis, E. Serabyn, H. Shibai, M. Tamura, E. Thiebaut, F. W. White, and J. Glenn, “Darwin—a mission to detect, and search for life on, extrasolar planets,” Astrobiology 9, 1–22 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Santos, N.

C. S. Cockell, A. Leger, M. Fridlund, T. Herbst, L. Kaltenegger, O. Absil, C. Beichman, W. Benz, M. Blanc, A. Brack, A. Chelli, L. Colangeli, H. Cottin, V. C. d. Foresto, W. Danchi, D. Defrere, J.-W. d. Herder, C. Eiroa, J. Greaves, T. Henning, K. Johnston, H. Jones, L. Labadie, H. Lammer, R. Launhardt, P. Lawson, O. P. Lay, J.-M. LeDuigou, R. Liseau, F. Malbet, S. R. Martin, D. Mawet, D. Mourard, C. Moutou, L. Mugnier, F. Paresce, A. Quirrenbach, Y. Rabbia, J. A. Raven, H. J. A. Rottgering, D. Rouan, N. Santos, F. Selsis, E. Serabyn, H. Shibai, M. Tamura, E. Thiebaut, F. W. White, and J. Glenn, “Darwin—a mission to detect, and search for life on, extrasolar planets,” Astrobiology 9, 1–22 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Scharf, D. P.

S. Martin, A. Ksendzov, O. Lay, R. D. Peters, and D. P. Scharf, “TPF-Interferometer: a decade of development in exoplanet detection technology,” Proc. SPIE 8151, 81510D (2011).
[CrossRef]

Selsis, F.

C. S. Cockell, A. Leger, M. Fridlund, T. Herbst, L. Kaltenegger, O. Absil, C. Beichman, W. Benz, M. Blanc, A. Brack, A. Chelli, L. Colangeli, H. Cottin, V. C. d. Foresto, W. Danchi, D. Defrere, J.-W. d. Herder, C. Eiroa, J. Greaves, T. Henning, K. Johnston, H. Jones, L. Labadie, H. Lammer, R. Launhardt, P. Lawson, O. P. Lay, J.-M. LeDuigou, R. Liseau, F. Malbet, S. R. Martin, D. Mawet, D. Mourard, C. Moutou, L. Mugnier, F. Paresce, A. Quirrenbach, Y. Rabbia, J. A. Raven, H. J. A. Rottgering, D. Rouan, N. Santos, F. Selsis, E. Serabyn, H. Shibai, M. Tamura, E. Thiebaut, F. W. White, and J. Glenn, “Darwin—a mission to detect, and search for life on, extrasolar planets,” Astrobiology 9, 1–22 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Serabyn, E.

C. S. Cockell, A. Leger, M. Fridlund, T. Herbst, L. Kaltenegger, O. Absil, C. Beichman, W. Benz, M. Blanc, A. Brack, A. Chelli, L. Colangeli, H. Cottin, V. C. d. Foresto, W. Danchi, D. Defrere, J.-W. d. Herder, C. Eiroa, J. Greaves, T. Henning, K. Johnston, H. Jones, L. Labadie, H. Lammer, R. Launhardt, P. Lawson, O. P. Lay, J.-M. LeDuigou, R. Liseau, F. Malbet, S. R. Martin, D. Mawet, D. Mourard, C. Moutou, L. Mugnier, F. Paresce, A. Quirrenbach, Y. Rabbia, J. A. Raven, H. J. A. Rottgering, D. Rouan, N. Santos, F. Selsis, E. Serabyn, H. Shibai, M. Tamura, E. Thiebaut, F. W. White, and J. Glenn, “Darwin—a mission to detect, and search for life on, extrasolar planets,” Astrobiology 9, 1–22 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. O. Gappinger, R. T. Diaz, A. Ksendzov, P. R. Lawson, O. P. Lay, K. M. Liewer, F. M. Loya, S. R. Martin, E. Serabyn, and J. K. Wallace, “Experimental evaluation of achromatic phase shifters for mid-infrared starlight suppression,” Appl. Opt. 48, 868–880 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Martin, E. Serabyn, K. Liewer, F. Loya, B. Mennesson, C. Hanot, and D. Mawet, “The development and applications of a ground-based fiber nulling coronagraph,” Proc. SPIE 7013, 70131Y (2008).

S. R. Martin, E. Serabyn, and G. Hardy, “Deep nulling of laser light in a rotational shearing interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 4838, 656–667 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. Serabyn and M. M. Colavita, “Fully symmetric nulling beam combiners,” Appl. Opt. 40, 1668–1671 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. Serabyn and F. Loya, “Concept for null tracking,” discussion at Palomar Observatory (2009).

Serabyn, G.

M. M. Colavita, G. Serabyn, P. L. Wizinowich, and R. L. Akeson, “Nulling at the keck interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 6268, 626803 (2006).

Shibai, H.

C. S. Cockell, A. Leger, M. Fridlund, T. Herbst, L. Kaltenegger, O. Absil, C. Beichman, W. Benz, M. Blanc, A. Brack, A. Chelli, L. Colangeli, H. Cottin, V. C. d. Foresto, W. Danchi, D. Defrere, J.-W. d. Herder, C. Eiroa, J. Greaves, T. Henning, K. Johnston, H. Jones, L. Labadie, H. Lammer, R. Launhardt, P. Lawson, O. P. Lay, J.-M. LeDuigou, R. Liseau, F. Malbet, S. R. Martin, D. Mawet, D. Mourard, C. Moutou, L. Mugnier, F. Paresce, A. Quirrenbach, Y. Rabbia, J. A. Raven, H. J. A. Rottgering, D. Rouan, N. Santos, F. Selsis, E. Serabyn, H. Shibai, M. Tamura, E. Thiebaut, F. W. White, and J. Glenn, “Darwin—a mission to detect, and search for life on, extrasolar planets,” Astrobiology 9, 1–22 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Szwaykowski, P.

S. R. Martin and P. Szwaykowski, “Optical beam-shear sensors,” NASA Tech. Briefs, NPO-41746.

Tamura, M.

C. S. Cockell, A. Leger, M. Fridlund, T. Herbst, L. Kaltenegger, O. Absil, C. Beichman, W. Benz, M. Blanc, A. Brack, A. Chelli, L. Colangeli, H. Cottin, V. C. d. Foresto, W. Danchi, D. Defrere, J.-W. d. Herder, C. Eiroa, J. Greaves, T. Henning, K. Johnston, H. Jones, L. Labadie, H. Lammer, R. Launhardt, P. Lawson, O. P. Lay, J.-M. LeDuigou, R. Liseau, F. Malbet, S. R. Martin, D. Mawet, D. Mourard, C. Moutou, L. Mugnier, F. Paresce, A. Quirrenbach, Y. Rabbia, J. A. Raven, H. J. A. Rottgering, D. Rouan, N. Santos, F. Selsis, E. Serabyn, H. Shibai, M. Tamura, E. Thiebaut, F. W. White, and J. Glenn, “Darwin—a mission to detect, and search for life on, extrasolar planets,” Astrobiology 9, 1–22 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Thiebaut, E.

C. S. Cockell, A. Leger, M. Fridlund, T. Herbst, L. Kaltenegger, O. Absil, C. Beichman, W. Benz, M. Blanc, A. Brack, A. Chelli, L. Colangeli, H. Cottin, V. C. d. Foresto, W. Danchi, D. Defrere, J.-W. d. Herder, C. Eiroa, J. Greaves, T. Henning, K. Johnston, H. Jones, L. Labadie, H. Lammer, R. Launhardt, P. Lawson, O. P. Lay, J.-M. LeDuigou, R. Liseau, F. Malbet, S. R. Martin, D. Mawet, D. Mourard, C. Moutou, L. Mugnier, F. Paresce, A. Quirrenbach, Y. Rabbia, J. A. Raven, H. J. A. Rottgering, D. Rouan, N. Santos, F. Selsis, E. Serabyn, H. Shibai, M. Tamura, E. Thiebaut, F. W. White, and J. Glenn, “Darwin—a mission to detect, and search for life on, extrasolar planets,” Astrobiology 9, 1–22 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Traub, W.

W. Traub, “Beam combination and fringe measurement,” in Principles of Long Baseline Interferometry, P. R. Lawson, ed. (Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 2000), pp 31–58.

Unwin, S. C.

P. R. Lawson, S. C. Unwin, and C. A. Beichman, “Precursor science for the Terrestrial Planet Finder,” JPL Publication 04-014 (Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 2005), http://hdl.handle.net/2014/37449 .

Wallace, J. K.

White, F. W.

C. S. Cockell, A. Leger, M. Fridlund, T. Herbst, L. Kaltenegger, O. Absil, C. Beichman, W. Benz, M. Blanc, A. Brack, A. Chelli, L. Colangeli, H. Cottin, V. C. d. Foresto, W. Danchi, D. Defrere, J.-W. d. Herder, C. Eiroa, J. Greaves, T. Henning, K. Johnston, H. Jones, L. Labadie, H. Lammer, R. Launhardt, P. Lawson, O. P. Lay, J.-M. LeDuigou, R. Liseau, F. Malbet, S. R. Martin, D. Mawet, D. Mourard, C. Moutou, L. Mugnier, F. Paresce, A. Quirrenbach, Y. Rabbia, J. A. Raven, H. J. A. Rottgering, D. Rouan, N. Santos, F. Selsis, E. Serabyn, H. Shibai, M. Tamura, E. Thiebaut, F. W. White, and J. Glenn, “Darwin—a mission to detect, and search for life on, extrasolar planets,” Astrobiology 9, 1–22 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wizinowich, P. L.

M. M. Colavita, G. Serabyn, P. L. Wizinowich, and R. L. Akeson, “Nulling at the keck interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 6268, 626803 (2006).

Woolf, N.

C. Beichman, N. Woolf, and C. Lindensmith, The Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF): A NASA Origins Program to Search for Habitable Planets (Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 1999).

Woolf, N. J.

R. M. Morgan, J. H. Burge, and N. J. Woolf, “Nulling interferometric beam combiner utilizing dielectric plates: experimental results in the visible broadband,” Proc. SPIE 4006, 340–348 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Space Res. (1)

L. Kaltenegger and M. Fridlund, “The Darwin mission: search for extra-solar planets,” Adv. Space Res. 36, 1114–1122 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Astrobiology (1)

C. S. Cockell, A. Leger, M. Fridlund, T. Herbst, L. Kaltenegger, O. Absil, C. Beichman, W. Benz, M. Blanc, A. Brack, A. Chelli, L. Colangeli, H. Cottin, V. C. d. Foresto, W. Danchi, D. Defrere, J.-W. d. Herder, C. Eiroa, J. Greaves, T. Henning, K. Johnston, H. Jones, L. Labadie, H. Lammer, R. Launhardt, P. Lawson, O. P. Lay, J.-M. LeDuigou, R. Liseau, F. Malbet, S. R. Martin, D. Mawet, D. Mourard, C. Moutou, L. Mugnier, F. Paresce, A. Quirrenbach, Y. Rabbia, J. A. Raven, H. J. A. Rottgering, D. Rouan, N. Santos, F. Selsis, E. Serabyn, H. Shibai, M. Tamura, E. Thiebaut, F. W. White, and J. Glenn, “Darwin—a mission to detect, and search for life on, extrasolar planets,” Astrobiology 9, 1–22 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Astron. Astrophys. (2)

S. R. Martin and A. J. Booth, “Strong starlight suppression sufficient to enable direct detection of exoplanets in the habitable zone,” Astron. Astrophys. 511, L1 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Martin and A. J. Booth, “Demonstration of exoplanet detection using an infrared telescope array,” Astron. Astrophys. 520, A96 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (9)

S. Martin, E. Serabyn, K. Liewer, F. Loya, B. Mennesson, C. Hanot, and D. Mawet, “The development and applications of a ground-based fiber nulling coronagraph,” Proc. SPIE 7013, 70131Y (2008).

S. R. Martin, E. Serabyn, and G. Hardy, “Deep nulling of laser light in a rotational shearing interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 4838, 656–667 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Martin, A. Ksendzov, O. Lay, R. D. Peters, and D. P. Scharf, “TPF-Interferometer: a decade of development in exoplanet detection technology,” Proc. SPIE 8151, 81510D (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Booth, S. R. Martin, and F. Loya, “Exoplanet exploration program planet detection testbed: latest results of planet light detection in the presence of starlight,” Proc. SPIE 7013, 701320 (2008).

M. M. Colavita, G. Serabyn, P. L. Wizinowich, and R. L. Akeson, “Nulling at the keck interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 6268, 626803 (2006).

O. P. Lay, S. R. Martin, and S. L. Hunyadi, “Planet-finding performance of the TPF-I Emma architecture,” Proc. SPIE 6693, 66930A (2007).
[CrossRef]

O. P. Lay, “Removing instability noise in nulling interferometers,” Proc. SPIE 6268, 62681A (2006).

S. Martin, “The Flight instrument design for the terrestrial planet finder interferometer, techniques and instrumentation for detection of exoplanets II,” Proc. SPIE 5905, 590503 (2005).

R. M. Morgan, J. H. Burge, and N. J. Woolf, “Nulling interferometric beam combiner utilizing dielectric plates: experimental results in the visible broadband,” Proc. SPIE 4006, 340–348 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Other (8)

W. Traub, “Beam combination and fringe measurement,” in Principles of Long Baseline Interferometry, P. R. Lawson, ed. (Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 2000), pp 31–58.

P. R. Lawson, S. C. Unwin, and C. A. Beichman, “Precursor science for the Terrestrial Planet Finder,” JPL Publication 04-014 (Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 2005), http://hdl.handle.net/2014/37449 .

S. R. Martin, A. J. Booth, and F. Loya, “Demonstration of the exoplanet detection process using four-beam nulling interferometry,” in Aerospace Conference 2009 (IEEE, 2009), pp. 1–9.

S. R. Martin and P. Szwaykowski, “Optical beam-shear sensors,” NASA Tech. Briefs, NPO-41746.

B. Lurie and P. Enright, Classical Feedback Control: with MATLAB and Simulink, 2nd ed. (CRC Press, 2011).

E. Serabyn and F. Loya, “Concept for null tracking,” discussion at Palomar Observatory (2009).

S. R. Martin, A. J. Booth, O. P. Lay, and P. R. Lawson, Exoplanet Interferometry Technology Milestone 4 Whitepaper: Planet Detection Demonstration (Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 2008).

C. Beichman, N. Woolf, and C. Lindensmith, The Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF): A NASA Origins Program to Search for Habitable Planets (Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 1999).

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Artist’s conception of the Emma design. Four collecting mirrors in a rectangular formation of aspect ratio 6 to 1 focus starlight near a separate beam combiner spacecraft. The formation dimensions would be the following: long baseline variable from 60 m to 400 m, short baseline variable from 10 m to 65 m. Distance to beam combiner spacecraft 1km (shown greatly foreshortened).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Simplified layout of the testbed. To the left is the source area and to the right, the beam combiner. Star and planet light (dashed lines) enter at the the lower left between synchronized tuning fork choppers. The input beams are then split twice and combined to create four beams (solid lines) containing both star and planet light. These beams are then passed in pairs through the nullers and on to the cross-combiner. One output of the cross-combiner goes to a detector (in flight, both outputs would be used for higher efficiency). Numerous moving optics (illustrated by double arrows) are used to control path lengths.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

The Planet Detection Testbed seen from the source end.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Physical layout of the testbed from the sources through interstellar space to the nulling beam splitters. The call-outs show mainly just one of each item, since the four beam trains are nearly identical.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Various testbed components: Clockwise from top left: A, metrology launcher, enables measurement of the optical path external to the testbed beam train for subtraction from the overall path measured including the beam train; B, back view of metrology dichroic with attached retroreflector; C, slow piston stage with piezo and picomotor actuators and tip/tilt mirror; D, cross-combiner chopping stage, showing mass at rear that compensates for the moving beam splitter mass; E, reactuated fast delay line; F, intensity control wires; G, shearing sensor showing lens element sectioned into four quadrants; H, planet beam fine delay stage with picomotor actuator for initial positioning.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Operation of the pointing dither loop for initial alignment. Main figure: angles of the pointing mirror as the loop drives the mirror angles from (0,0) to (60,50)μrad. Inset: effect of the loop in increasing the detected signal.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Signals from the testbed illustrating the chopping function. The traces show two cycles of the chop with a 2 s cycle time. Lower trace, metrology signal for the cross-combiner position, showing the 5μm chop with ballistic ramps. During each ramp, the cross-combiner fringe tracker sweeps through two fringes (center trace), and the field of view of the array sweeps across the star. During the dwell phase of each half-cycle, the mean level of the null detector is calculated. The difference between the two means of the dwell phases is the chopped output and is composed of any planet light present plus the stellar leakage. To illustrate this, the top trace shows an example of the mean signal from the nulling output as a function of time during the chop cycle, for a half rotation of the array. (For individual whole chop cycles, the natural variability of the nulling signal obscures the difference in levels.) The periodic peaks arise from stellar leakage as the field of view crosses the star; those sections of the signal are ignored. Over a 360° array rotation, the leakage averages to zero mean and the residual signal may be searched for characteristic planet signatures.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Left: markers indicate planet signal from nulling detector with star shuttered off. On this scale, the star would be 250 V. Each point is an item of data from the 2 s chop cycle and the whole trace shows one effective rotation of the interferometer array. The line is a fit to the signal from a planet at a nominal angular radius of 6.35×107rad from the star. By comparison, the equivalent angular fringe distance from the short baseline is 4.7×107rad. Near the center and at the ends of the plot, the planet crosses the null fringe. Right: equivalent sensitivity map of the interferometer array. Array rotation causes the planet location to orbit (solid line) around the central null fringe (gray), and thus its signal is modulated both by the higher frequency fringes on the long baseline and by the chopping.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Upper: intensity difference between beams 1 and 2 over a 1 hour period. Lower: Allan variance of beam 1 and (lower trace) Allan variance with the beam shuttered off, showing the contribution of signal chain noise.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Upper graph: null depth smoothed by a rolling average over 2 s. Inset: histogram showing the full range of values at the 500 Hz sampling rate. The mean null depth is 6.5×107 over the 1000 s test. Lower graph: square root of the Allan variance of the signal showing, lower curve, the signal with the laser shutter closed, and upper curve, the signal with the shutter open. Most of the high frequency noise can be seen to arise from the detector signal chain, and this noise produces the apparently unphysical negative null values seen in the histogram. The null stability is very good over periods extending out to 200 s.

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

Signals are normalized by the stellar intensity. A, signal from null detector showing the 120,000 s long data acquisition series. The periodic large excursions are at the reset intervals. B, signal after chopping and with reset intervals removed. Array rotation is stopped during these intervals. C, trace is summed and averaged by rotation angle. D, cleaning removes dc offset and first and second harmonics of the rotation period. E, test for the presence of a planet at all spatial locations near the center of the field of view produces correlation map (shown in units of contrast with star). A small region of radius 0.2×106rad near the star is excluded. Planet is located near (0.6,0.25)×106rad. F, correlation map for similar conditions but over a larger field of view, with planet turned off, showing clean area. The choice of angular units was made as an illustration since the testbed does not have a baseline per se; we chose here a nulling baseline of 10 m, suitable for detecting an exoplanet at 1 AU from its parent star at a distance of 10 pc, and thereby converted optical path to angle.

Fig. 12.
Fig. 12.

Left: a selection of published experimental data for nulling in the region near 10 μm band. The PDT’s performance (Martin and Szwaykowski [20], lower left) as a four-beam nuller running in a flight-like regime exceeds all other published results and meets (right) the performance needed for planet detection, based on starlight suppression capability. Near center is the result of Peters et al. [19] showing nulling capability at 32% bandwidth at the flight contrast ratio. Right, the contrast ratio expected between a star and an earthlike planet, and the performance of the testbed.

Tables (1)

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Table 1. Example of Planet Detection and Starlight Suppression Results

Equations (9)

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IN=2I0RT(1+sin2πx/λ)andIS=I0(TT+RR2RTsin2πx/λ)
S=IN(m+1/m)/2ISIN+IS=sin2πxλ,
I=I0(1cos(2π(α+γsin2πωt)/κ)),
II04π2κ2(α2sin2πωt+2αγsin22πωt+γ2sin32πωt)
Ψ1Ψ2=4πLΩλsin(2πωt)sin(θ)
Ψ1Ψ4=4πLΩλcos(2πωt)cos(θ)
IF=I0F(sin(2π/λF(x+S))),
IN=I0N(1cos(2π/λN(x+S))).
E=2I0NI0FsinπxλFcosπxλF(2cos2πxλN1).

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