Interference lithography using a deep-ultraviolet (DUV) laser is instrumental in the manufacture of subwavelength patterns used at visible wavelengths. We investigated a grating mask strategy for exposure in terms of how to set and illuminate masks. To obtain high aspect ratio patterns, high fringe visibility, and high exposure uniformity are essential, and for that purpose the use of only two beams with liquid immersion is necessary but not sufficient. It needs to be addressed whether the grating should face air or liquid to achieve index matching without affecting its beam-splitting properties. Currently, the most feasible solution to produce sub-200 nm periods requires the use of a fused-silica grating under Bragg geometry (not normal incidence geometry) and filling the gap between the grating and resist with a high-index liquid.
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