Abstract

A simple fiber-optic sensor capable of discrimination between temperature and strain is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The sensor head is formed by cascading two sections of single-mode thin-core diameter fibers (TCFs) that act as two different inter-modal interferometers (IMIs). Due to the different sensitivity responses of the two IMIs to strain and temperature, it is possible to discriminate temperature and strain by monitoring the resonant wavelength shifts. The experimental results indicate that the measured strain and temperature resolutions are 37.41 με and 0.732 °C within a strain range of 0–1333.3 με and a temperature range from 26.9 °C to 61.7 °C. The sensing sensitivities of strain and temperature are 1.03pm/με and 30.74pm/°C, respectively. The proposed sensor features the advantages of easy fabrication, low cost and high sensitivity, and it exhibits great potential in dual-parameter measurement.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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  1. E. Chehura, S. W. James, and R. P. Tatam, “Temperature and strain discrimination using a single tilted fibre Bragg grating,” Opt. Commun. 275, 344–347 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  2. Y. Miao, B. Liu, and Q. Zhao, “Simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature using single tilted fibre Bragg grating,” Electron. Lett. 44, 1242–1243 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  3. B. O. Guan, H. Y. Tam, H. L. W. Chan, C. L. Choy, and M. S. Demokan, “Discrimination between strain and temperature with a single fiber Bragg grating,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 33, 200–202 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  4. O. Frazao and J. L. Santos, “Simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature using a Bragg grating structure written in germanosilicate fibres,” J. Opt. Pure Appl. Opt. 6, 553–556 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  5. B. O. Guan, H. Y. Tam, X. M. Tao, and X. Y. Dong, “Simultaneous strain and temperature measurement using a superstructure fiber Bragg grating,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 675–677 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  6. H. J. Patrick, G. M. Williams, A. D. Kersey, J. R. Pedrazzani, and A. M. Vengsarkar, “Hybrid fiber Bragg grating/long period fiber grating sensor for strain/temperature discrimination,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1223–1225 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. G. Xu, J. L. Archambault, L. Reekie, and J. P. Dakin, “Discrimination between strain and temperature effects using dual-wavelength fiber grating sensors,” Electron. Lett. 30, 1085–1087 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  8. G. P. Brady, K. Kalli, D. J. Webb, D. A. Jackson, L. Reekie, and J. L. Archambault, “Simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature using the first and second-order diffraction wavelengths of Bragg gratings,” IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 144, 156–161 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  10. G. Y. Sun, D. S. Moon, and Y. Chung, “Simultaneous temperature and strain measurement using two types of high-birefringence fibers in Sagnac loop mirror,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 2027–2029 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  11. O. Frazao, J. L. Santos, and J. M. Baptista, “Strain and temperature discrimination using concatenated high-birefringence fiber loop mirrors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1260–1262 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  12. D. P. Zhou, L. Wei, W. K. Liu, and J. W. Y. Lit, “Simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature based on a fiber Bragg grating combined with a high-birefringence fiber loop mirror,” Opt. Commun. 281, 4640–4643 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  13. O. Frazão, L. M. Marques, S. Santos, J. M. Baptista, and J. L. Santos, “Simultaneous measurement for strain and temperature based on a long-period grating combined with a high-birefringence fiber loop mirror,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2407–2409 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  14. Z. B. Tian, S. S. H. Yam, and H. P. Loock, “Single-mode fiber refractive index sensor based on core-offset attenuators, ” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1387–1389 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  15. L. V. Nguyen, D. Hwang, S. Moon, D. S. Moon, and Y. J. Chung, “High temperature fiber sensor with high sensitivity based on core diameter mismatch,” Opt. Express 16, 11369–11375 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  16. Z. B. Tian, S. S. H. Yam, J. Barnes, W. Bock, P. Greig, J. M. Fraser, H. P. Loock, and R. D. Oleschuk, “Refractive index sensing with Mach-Zehnder interferometer based on concatenating two single-mode fiber tapers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 626–628 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  17. R. Jha, J. Villatoro, G. Badenes, and V. Pruneri, “Refractometry based on a photonic crystal fiber interferometer,” Opt. Lett. 34, 617–619 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  18. D. P. Zhou, L. Wei, W. K. Liu, Y. Liu, and J. W. Y. Lit, “Simultaneous measurement for strain and temperature using fiber Bragg gratings and multimode fibers,” Appl. Opt. 47, 1668–1672 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  19. B. Dong, J. Z. Hao, C. Y. Liaw, B. Lin, and S. C. Tjin, “Simultaneous strain and temperature measurement using a compact photonic crystal fiber inter-modal interferometer and a fiber Bragg grating,” Appl. Opt. 49, 6232–6235 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  20. D. Bo, D. P. Zhou, and L. Wei, “Temperature insensitive all-fiber compact polarization-maintaining photonic crystal fiber based interferometer and its applications in fiber sensors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 1011–1015 (2010).
  21. W. Jin, W. C. Michie, G. Thursby, M. Konstantaki, and B. Culshaw, “Simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature: Error analysis,” Opt. Eng. 36, 598–609 (1997).
    [CrossRef]

2010 (2)

B. Dong, J. Z. Hao, C. Y. Liaw, B. Lin, and S. C. Tjin, “Simultaneous strain and temperature measurement using a compact photonic crystal fiber inter-modal interferometer and a fiber Bragg grating,” Appl. Opt. 49, 6232–6235 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Bo, D. P. Zhou, and L. Wei, “Temperature insensitive all-fiber compact polarization-maintaining photonic crystal fiber based interferometer and its applications in fiber sensors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 1011–1015 (2010).

2009 (1)

2008 (6)

D. P. Zhou, L. Wei, W. K. Liu, Y. Liu, and J. W. Y. Lit, “Simultaneous measurement for strain and temperature using fiber Bragg gratings and multimode fibers,” Appl. Opt. 47, 1668–1672 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z. B. Tian, S. S. H. Yam, and H. P. Loock, “Single-mode fiber refractive index sensor based on core-offset attenuators, ” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1387–1389 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. V. Nguyen, D. Hwang, S. Moon, D. S. Moon, and Y. J. Chung, “High temperature fiber sensor with high sensitivity based on core diameter mismatch,” Opt. Express 16, 11369–11375 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z. B. Tian, S. S. H. Yam, J. Barnes, W. Bock, P. Greig, J. M. Fraser, H. P. Loock, and R. D. Oleschuk, “Refractive index sensing with Mach-Zehnder interferometer based on concatenating two single-mode fiber tapers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 626–628 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. P. Zhou, L. Wei, W. K. Liu, and J. W. Y. Lit, “Simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature based on a fiber Bragg grating combined with a high-birefringence fiber loop mirror,” Opt. Commun. 281, 4640–4643 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Miao, B. Liu, and Q. Zhao, “Simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature using single tilted fibre Bragg grating,” Electron. Lett. 44, 1242–1243 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

G. Y. Sun, D. S. Moon, and Y. Chung, “Simultaneous temperature and strain measurement using two types of high-birefringence fibers in Sagnac loop mirror,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 2027–2029 (2007).
[CrossRef]

O. Frazao, J. L. Santos, and J. M. Baptista, “Strain and temperature discrimination using concatenated high-birefringence fiber loop mirrors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1260–1262 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. Chehura, S. W. James, and R. P. Tatam, “Temperature and strain discrimination using a single tilted fibre Bragg grating,” Opt. Commun. 275, 344–347 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

O. Frazão, L. M. Marques, S. Santos, J. M. Baptista, and J. L. Santos, “Simultaneous measurement for strain and temperature based on a long-period grating combined with a high-birefringence fiber loop mirror,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2407–2409 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

O. Frazao and J. L. Santos, “Simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature using a Bragg grating structure written in germanosilicate fibres,” J. Opt. Pure Appl. Opt. 6, 553–556 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

B. O. Guan, H. Y. Tam, H. L. W. Chan, C. L. Choy, and M. S. Demokan, “Discrimination between strain and temperature with a single fiber Bragg grating,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 33, 200–202 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

B. O. Guan, H. Y. Tam, X. M. Tao, and X. Y. Dong, “Simultaneous strain and temperature measurement using a superstructure fiber Bragg grating,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 675–677 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1997 (3)

G. P. Brady, K. Kalli, D. J. Webb, D. A. Jackson, L. Reekie, and J. L. Archambault, “Simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature using the first and second-order diffraction wavelengths of Bragg gratings,” IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 144, 156–161 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Magne, S. Rougeault, M. Vilela, and P. Ferdinand, “State-of-strain evaluation with fiber Bragg grating rosettes: application to discrimination between strain and temperature effects in fiber sensors,” Appl. Opt. 36, 9437–9447 (1997).
[CrossRef]

W. Jin, W. C. Michie, G. Thursby, M. Konstantaki, and B. Culshaw, “Simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature: Error analysis,” Opt. Eng. 36, 598–609 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

H. J. Patrick, G. M. Williams, A. D. Kersey, J. R. Pedrazzani, and A. M. Vengsarkar, “Hybrid fiber Bragg grating/long period fiber grating sensor for strain/temperature discrimination,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1223–1225 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

M. G. Xu, J. L. Archambault, L. Reekie, and J. P. Dakin, “Discrimination between strain and temperature effects using dual-wavelength fiber grating sensors,” Electron. Lett. 30, 1085–1087 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Archambault, J. L.

G. P. Brady, K. Kalli, D. J. Webb, D. A. Jackson, L. Reekie, and J. L. Archambault, “Simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature using the first and second-order diffraction wavelengths of Bragg gratings,” IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 144, 156–161 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Xu, J. L. Archambault, L. Reekie, and J. P. Dakin, “Discrimination between strain and temperature effects using dual-wavelength fiber grating sensors,” Electron. Lett. 30, 1085–1087 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Badenes, G.

Baptista, J. M.

O. Frazao, J. L. Santos, and J. M. Baptista, “Strain and temperature discrimination using concatenated high-birefringence fiber loop mirrors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1260–1262 (2007).
[CrossRef]

O. Frazão, L. M. Marques, S. Santos, J. M. Baptista, and J. L. Santos, “Simultaneous measurement for strain and temperature based on a long-period grating combined with a high-birefringence fiber loop mirror,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2407–2409 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, J.

Z. B. Tian, S. S. H. Yam, J. Barnes, W. Bock, P. Greig, J. M. Fraser, H. P. Loock, and R. D. Oleschuk, “Refractive index sensing with Mach-Zehnder interferometer based on concatenating two single-mode fiber tapers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 626–628 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bo, D.

D. Bo, D. P. Zhou, and L. Wei, “Temperature insensitive all-fiber compact polarization-maintaining photonic crystal fiber based interferometer and its applications in fiber sensors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 1011–1015 (2010).

Bock, W.

Z. B. Tian, S. S. H. Yam, J. Barnes, W. Bock, P. Greig, J. M. Fraser, H. P. Loock, and R. D. Oleschuk, “Refractive index sensing with Mach-Zehnder interferometer based on concatenating two single-mode fiber tapers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 626–628 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Brady, G. P.

G. P. Brady, K. Kalli, D. J. Webb, D. A. Jackson, L. Reekie, and J. L. Archambault, “Simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature using the first and second-order diffraction wavelengths of Bragg gratings,” IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 144, 156–161 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chan, H. L. W.

B. O. Guan, H. Y. Tam, H. L. W. Chan, C. L. Choy, and M. S. Demokan, “Discrimination between strain and temperature with a single fiber Bragg grating,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 33, 200–202 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chehura, E.

E. Chehura, S. W. James, and R. P. Tatam, “Temperature and strain discrimination using a single tilted fibre Bragg grating,” Opt. Commun. 275, 344–347 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Choy, C. L.

B. O. Guan, H. Y. Tam, H. L. W. Chan, C. L. Choy, and M. S. Demokan, “Discrimination between strain and temperature with a single fiber Bragg grating,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 33, 200–202 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chung, Y.

G. Y. Sun, D. S. Moon, and Y. Chung, “Simultaneous temperature and strain measurement using two types of high-birefringence fibers in Sagnac loop mirror,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 2027–2029 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chung, Y. J.

Culshaw, B.

W. Jin, W. C. Michie, G. Thursby, M. Konstantaki, and B. Culshaw, “Simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature: Error analysis,” Opt. Eng. 36, 598–609 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Dakin, J. P.

M. G. Xu, J. L. Archambault, L. Reekie, and J. P. Dakin, “Discrimination between strain and temperature effects using dual-wavelength fiber grating sensors,” Electron. Lett. 30, 1085–1087 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Demokan, M. S.

B. O. Guan, H. Y. Tam, H. L. W. Chan, C. L. Choy, and M. S. Demokan, “Discrimination between strain and temperature with a single fiber Bragg grating,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 33, 200–202 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dong, B.

Dong, X. Y.

B. O. Guan, H. Y. Tam, X. M. Tao, and X. Y. Dong, “Simultaneous strain and temperature measurement using a superstructure fiber Bragg grating,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 675–677 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ferdinand, P.

Fraser, J. M.

Z. B. Tian, S. S. H. Yam, J. Barnes, W. Bock, P. Greig, J. M. Fraser, H. P. Loock, and R. D. Oleschuk, “Refractive index sensing with Mach-Zehnder interferometer based on concatenating two single-mode fiber tapers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 626–628 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Frazao, O.

O. Frazao, J. L. Santos, and J. M. Baptista, “Strain and temperature discrimination using concatenated high-birefringence fiber loop mirrors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1260–1262 (2007).
[CrossRef]

O. Frazao and J. L. Santos, “Simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature using a Bragg grating structure written in germanosilicate fibres,” J. Opt. Pure Appl. Opt. 6, 553–556 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Frazão, O.

O. Frazão, L. M. Marques, S. Santos, J. M. Baptista, and J. L. Santos, “Simultaneous measurement for strain and temperature based on a long-period grating combined with a high-birefringence fiber loop mirror,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2407–2409 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Greig, P.

Z. B. Tian, S. S. H. Yam, J. Barnes, W. Bock, P. Greig, J. M. Fraser, H. P. Loock, and R. D. Oleschuk, “Refractive index sensing with Mach-Zehnder interferometer based on concatenating two single-mode fiber tapers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 626–628 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Guan, B. O.

B. O. Guan, H. Y. Tam, H. L. W. Chan, C. L. Choy, and M. S. Demokan, “Discrimination between strain and temperature with a single fiber Bragg grating,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 33, 200–202 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. O. Guan, H. Y. Tam, X. M. Tao, and X. Y. Dong, “Simultaneous strain and temperature measurement using a superstructure fiber Bragg grating,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 675–677 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hao, J. Z.

Hwang, D.

Jackson, D. A.

G. P. Brady, K. Kalli, D. J. Webb, D. A. Jackson, L. Reekie, and J. L. Archambault, “Simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature using the first and second-order diffraction wavelengths of Bragg gratings,” IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 144, 156–161 (1997).
[CrossRef]

James, S. W.

E. Chehura, S. W. James, and R. P. Tatam, “Temperature and strain discrimination using a single tilted fibre Bragg grating,” Opt. Commun. 275, 344–347 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jha, R.

Jin, W.

W. Jin, W. C. Michie, G. Thursby, M. Konstantaki, and B. Culshaw, “Simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature: Error analysis,” Opt. Eng. 36, 598–609 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kalli, K.

G. P. Brady, K. Kalli, D. J. Webb, D. A. Jackson, L. Reekie, and J. L. Archambault, “Simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature using the first and second-order diffraction wavelengths of Bragg gratings,” IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 144, 156–161 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kersey, A. D.

H. J. Patrick, G. M. Williams, A. D. Kersey, J. R. Pedrazzani, and A. M. Vengsarkar, “Hybrid fiber Bragg grating/long period fiber grating sensor for strain/temperature discrimination,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1223–1225 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Konstantaki, M.

W. Jin, W. C. Michie, G. Thursby, M. Konstantaki, and B. Culshaw, “Simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature: Error analysis,” Opt. Eng. 36, 598–609 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Liaw, C. Y.

Lin, B.

Lit, J. W. Y.

D. P. Zhou, L. Wei, W. K. Liu, Y. Liu, and J. W. Y. Lit, “Simultaneous measurement for strain and temperature using fiber Bragg gratings and multimode fibers,” Appl. Opt. 47, 1668–1672 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. P. Zhou, L. Wei, W. K. Liu, and J. W. Y. Lit, “Simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature based on a fiber Bragg grating combined with a high-birefringence fiber loop mirror,” Opt. Commun. 281, 4640–4643 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liu, B.

Y. Miao, B. Liu, and Q. Zhao, “Simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature using single tilted fibre Bragg grating,” Electron. Lett. 44, 1242–1243 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liu, W. K.

D. P. Zhou, L. Wei, W. K. Liu, and J. W. Y. Lit, “Simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature based on a fiber Bragg grating combined with a high-birefringence fiber loop mirror,” Opt. Commun. 281, 4640–4643 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. P. Zhou, L. Wei, W. K. Liu, Y. Liu, and J. W. Y. Lit, “Simultaneous measurement for strain and temperature using fiber Bragg gratings and multimode fibers,” Appl. Opt. 47, 1668–1672 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

Loock, H. P.

Z. B. Tian, S. S. H. Yam, J. Barnes, W. Bock, P. Greig, J. M. Fraser, H. P. Loock, and R. D. Oleschuk, “Refractive index sensing with Mach-Zehnder interferometer based on concatenating two single-mode fiber tapers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 626–628 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z. B. Tian, S. S. H. Yam, and H. P. Loock, “Single-mode fiber refractive index sensor based on core-offset attenuators, ” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1387–1389 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Magne, S.

Marques, L. M.

O. Frazão, L. M. Marques, S. Santos, J. M. Baptista, and J. L. Santos, “Simultaneous measurement for strain and temperature based on a long-period grating combined with a high-birefringence fiber loop mirror,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2407–2409 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Miao, Y.

Y. Miao, B. Liu, and Q. Zhao, “Simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature using single tilted fibre Bragg grating,” Electron. Lett. 44, 1242–1243 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Michie, W. C.

W. Jin, W. C. Michie, G. Thursby, M. Konstantaki, and B. Culshaw, “Simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature: Error analysis,” Opt. Eng. 36, 598–609 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Moon, D. S.

L. V. Nguyen, D. Hwang, S. Moon, D. S. Moon, and Y. J. Chung, “High temperature fiber sensor with high sensitivity based on core diameter mismatch,” Opt. Express 16, 11369–11375 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Y. Sun, D. S. Moon, and Y. Chung, “Simultaneous temperature and strain measurement using two types of high-birefringence fibers in Sagnac loop mirror,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 2027–2029 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Moon, S.

Nguyen, L. V.

Oleschuk, R. D.

Z. B. Tian, S. S. H. Yam, J. Barnes, W. Bock, P. Greig, J. M. Fraser, H. P. Loock, and R. D. Oleschuk, “Refractive index sensing with Mach-Zehnder interferometer based on concatenating two single-mode fiber tapers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 626–628 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Patrick, H. J.

H. J. Patrick, G. M. Williams, A. D. Kersey, J. R. Pedrazzani, and A. M. Vengsarkar, “Hybrid fiber Bragg grating/long period fiber grating sensor for strain/temperature discrimination,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1223–1225 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Pedrazzani, J. R.

H. J. Patrick, G. M. Williams, A. D. Kersey, J. R. Pedrazzani, and A. M. Vengsarkar, “Hybrid fiber Bragg grating/long period fiber grating sensor for strain/temperature discrimination,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1223–1225 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Pruneri, V.

Reekie, L.

G. P. Brady, K. Kalli, D. J. Webb, D. A. Jackson, L. Reekie, and J. L. Archambault, “Simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature using the first and second-order diffraction wavelengths of Bragg gratings,” IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 144, 156–161 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Xu, J. L. Archambault, L. Reekie, and J. P. Dakin, “Discrimination between strain and temperature effects using dual-wavelength fiber grating sensors,” Electron. Lett. 30, 1085–1087 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Rougeault, S.

Santos, J. L.

O. Frazao, J. L. Santos, and J. M. Baptista, “Strain and temperature discrimination using concatenated high-birefringence fiber loop mirrors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1260–1262 (2007).
[CrossRef]

O. Frazão, L. M. Marques, S. Santos, J. M. Baptista, and J. L. Santos, “Simultaneous measurement for strain and temperature based on a long-period grating combined with a high-birefringence fiber loop mirror,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2407–2409 (2006).
[CrossRef]

O. Frazao and J. L. Santos, “Simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature using a Bragg grating structure written in germanosilicate fibres,” J. Opt. Pure Appl. Opt. 6, 553–556 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Santos, S.

O. Frazão, L. M. Marques, S. Santos, J. M. Baptista, and J. L. Santos, “Simultaneous measurement for strain and temperature based on a long-period grating combined with a high-birefringence fiber loop mirror,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2407–2409 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sun, G. Y.

G. Y. Sun, D. S. Moon, and Y. Chung, “Simultaneous temperature and strain measurement using two types of high-birefringence fibers in Sagnac loop mirror,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 2027–2029 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tam, H. Y.

B. O. Guan, H. Y. Tam, H. L. W. Chan, C. L. Choy, and M. S. Demokan, “Discrimination between strain and temperature with a single fiber Bragg grating,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 33, 200–202 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. O. Guan, H. Y. Tam, X. M. Tao, and X. Y. Dong, “Simultaneous strain and temperature measurement using a superstructure fiber Bragg grating,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 675–677 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tao, X. M.

B. O. Guan, H. Y. Tam, X. M. Tao, and X. Y. Dong, “Simultaneous strain and temperature measurement using a superstructure fiber Bragg grating,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 675–677 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tatam, R. P.

E. Chehura, S. W. James, and R. P. Tatam, “Temperature and strain discrimination using a single tilted fibre Bragg grating,” Opt. Commun. 275, 344–347 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Thursby, G.

W. Jin, W. C. Michie, G. Thursby, M. Konstantaki, and B. Culshaw, “Simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature: Error analysis,” Opt. Eng. 36, 598–609 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tian, Z. B.

Z. B. Tian, S. S. H. Yam, and H. P. Loock, “Single-mode fiber refractive index sensor based on core-offset attenuators, ” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1387–1389 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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Tjin, S. C.

Vengsarkar, A. M.

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[CrossRef]

Wei, L.

D. Bo, D. P. Zhou, and L. Wei, “Temperature insensitive all-fiber compact polarization-maintaining photonic crystal fiber based interferometer and its applications in fiber sensors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 1011–1015 (2010).

D. P. Zhou, L. Wei, W. K. Liu, Y. Liu, and J. W. Y. Lit, “Simultaneous measurement for strain and temperature using fiber Bragg gratings and multimode fibers,” Appl. Opt. 47, 1668–1672 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. P. Zhou, L. Wei, W. K. Liu, and J. W. Y. Lit, “Simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature based on a fiber Bragg grating combined with a high-birefringence fiber loop mirror,” Opt. Commun. 281, 4640–4643 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Williams, G. M.

H. J. Patrick, G. M. Williams, A. D. Kersey, J. R. Pedrazzani, and A. M. Vengsarkar, “Hybrid fiber Bragg grating/long period fiber grating sensor for strain/temperature discrimination,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1223–1225 (1996).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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Z. B. Tian, S. S. H. Yam, and H. P. Loock, “Single-mode fiber refractive index sensor based on core-offset attenuators, ” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1387–1389 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z. B. Tian, S. S. H. Yam, J. Barnes, W. Bock, P. Greig, J. M. Fraser, H. P. Loock, and R. D. Oleschuk, “Refractive index sensing with Mach-Zehnder interferometer based on concatenating two single-mode fiber tapers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 626–628 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, Q.

Y. Miao, B. Liu, and Q. Zhao, “Simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature using single tilted fibre Bragg grating,” Electron. Lett. 44, 1242–1243 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, D. P.

D. Bo, D. P. Zhou, and L. Wei, “Temperature insensitive all-fiber compact polarization-maintaining photonic crystal fiber based interferometer and its applications in fiber sensors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 1011–1015 (2010).

D. P. Zhou, L. Wei, W. K. Liu, Y. Liu, and J. W. Y. Lit, “Simultaneous measurement for strain and temperature using fiber Bragg gratings and multimode fibers,” Appl. Opt. 47, 1668–1672 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. P. Zhou, L. Wei, W. K. Liu, and J. W. Y. Lit, “Simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature based on a fiber Bragg grating combined with a high-birefringence fiber loop mirror,” Opt. Commun. 281, 4640–4643 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Electron. Lett. (2)

Y. Miao, B. Liu, and Q. Zhao, “Simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature using single tilted fibre Bragg grating,” Electron. Lett. 44, 1242–1243 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Xu, J. L. Archambault, L. Reekie, and J. P. Dakin, “Discrimination between strain and temperature effects using dual-wavelength fiber grating sensors,” Electron. Lett. 30, 1085–1087 (1994).
[CrossRef]

IEE Proc. Optoelectron. (1)

G. P. Brady, K. Kalli, D. J. Webb, D. A. Jackson, L. Reekie, and J. L. Archambault, “Simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature using the first and second-order diffraction wavelengths of Bragg gratings,” IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 144, 156–161 (1997).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (7)

B. O. Guan, H. Y. Tam, X. M. Tao, and X. Y. Dong, “Simultaneous strain and temperature measurement using a superstructure fiber Bragg grating,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 675–677 (2000).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

Z. B. Tian, S. S. H. Yam, J. Barnes, W. Bock, P. Greig, J. M. Fraser, H. P. Loock, and R. D. Oleschuk, “Refractive index sensing with Mach-Zehnder interferometer based on concatenating two single-mode fiber tapers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 626–628 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

D. Bo, D. P. Zhou, and L. Wei, “Temperature insensitive all-fiber compact polarization-maintaining photonic crystal fiber based interferometer and its applications in fiber sensors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 1011–1015 (2010).

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[CrossRef]

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E. Chehura, S. W. James, and R. P. Tatam, “Temperature and strain discrimination using a single tilted fibre Bragg grating,” Opt. Commun. 275, 344–347 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic diagram of the in-series TCF-based sensor.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Measured transmission spectra of the IMIs fabricated by TCF-A and TCF-B.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Spatial frequency spectra of the IMIs formed by TCF-A and TCF-B.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Measured FSR of the IMI with respect to the length of TCF: (a) IMIs fabricated by TCF-A; (b) IMIs fabricated by TCF-B.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Schematic configuration of the experimental setup; the inset shows the transmission spectra of the IMI-A (black), IMI-B (red), and IMI-A concatenating IMI-B (blue).

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(a) Measured spectral response to strain; (b) The resonant wavelength shift of the IMI-A as a function of strain.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

(a) Measured spectral response to temperature; (b) The wavelength shifts of the IMI-A and IMI-B as a function of temperature.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Sensor output obtained by Eq. (6) for the applied strain and temperature.

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Φj=2π(ncoreeffncl,jeff)Lλ=2πΔnjeffLλ,
FSRλΔnjeffL.
[ΔλAΔλB]=[KAεKATKBεKBT],
[ΔεΔT]=1M[KBTKATKBεKAε][ΔλAΔλB],
[δ(Δε)δ(ΔT)]=1|M|[|KBT||KAT||KBε||KAε|][δ(ΔλA)δ(ΔλB)].
[ΔεΔT]=121.09[20.4830.7401.03][ΔλAΔλB].

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