Abstract

Laminar and blazed type holographic varied-line-spacing spherical gratings for use in a versatile soft x-ray flat-field spectrograph attached to an electron microscope are designed, fabricated, and evaluated. The absolute diffraction efficiencies of laminar (or blazed) master and replica gratings at 86.00° incidence evaluated by synchrotron radiation show over 5% (or 8%) in the 50–200 eV range with the maxima of 22% (or 26%–27%). Also the resolving power evaluated by a laser produced plasma source is in excess of 700 at the energy near the K emission spectrum of lithium (55eV) for all gratings. Moreover, the K emission spectrum of metallic Li with high spectral resolution is successfully observed with the spectrograph attached to a transmission electron microscope.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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  1. T. Imazono, Y. Hirayama, S. Ichikura, O. Kitakami, M. Yanagihara, and M. Watanabe, “Interdiffused layers in antiferromagnetically coupled Fe/Si multilayers studied by soft x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 4327–4333 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. Terauchi, H. Yamamoto, and M. Tanaka, “Development of a sub-eV resolution soft-X-ray spectrometer for a transmission electron microscope,” J. Electron Microsc. 50, 101–104 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
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  4. M. Terauchi, M. Koike, K. Fukushima, and A. Kimura, “Development of wavelength-dispersive soft x-ray emission spectrometers for transmission electron microscopes—an introduction of valence electron spectroscopy for transmission electron microscopy,” J. Electron Microsc. 59, 251–261 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  5. L. Poletto, G. Naletto, and G. Tondello, “Grazing-incidence flat-field spectrometer for high-order harmonic diagnostics,” Opt. Eng. 40, 178–185 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  6. T. Imazono, M. Ishino, M. Koike, H. Sasai, and K. Sano, “Fabrication and evaluation of a wide-band multilayer laminar-type holographic grating for use with a soft x-ray flat field spectrograph in the region of 1.7 keV,” Appl. Opt. 46, 7054–7060 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. Koike, M. Ishino, T. Imazono, K. Sano, H. Sasai, M. Hatayama, H. Takenaka, P. A. Heimann, and E. M. Gullikson, “Development of soft x-ray multilayer laminar-type plane gratings and varied-line-spacing spherical grating for flat-field spectrograph in the 1–8 keV region,” Spectrochimica Acta B 64, 756–760 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  8. T. Namioka, and M. Koike, “Aspheric wavefront recording optics for holographic gratings,” Appl. Opt. 34, 2180–2186 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. Koike, T. Namioka, E. Gullikson, Y. Harada, S. Ishikawa, T. Imazono, S. Mrowka, N. Miyata, M. Yanagihara, J. H. Underwood, K. Sano, T. Ogiwara, O. Yoda, and S. Nagai, “Varied-line-spacing laminar-type holographic grating for the standard soft x-ray flat-field spectrograph,” Proc. SPIE 4146, 163–170 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  10. T. Imazono, M. Koike, M. Koeda, T. Nagano, H. Sasai, Y. Oue, Z. Yonezawa, S. Kuramoto, M. Terauchi, H. Takahashi, N. Handa, and T. Murano, “A multilayer grating with a novel layer structure for a flat-field spectrograph attached to transmission electron microscopes in energy region of 2–4 keV,” presented at Twenty-first International Congress on X-ray Optics and Microanalysis (ICXOM21), Campinas, Sao Paulo, Brazil, 5–8 September 2011 .
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  14. H. Iwasaki, Y. Nakayama, K. Ozutsumi, Y. Yamamoto, Y. Tokunaga, H. Saisho, T. Matsubara, and S. Ikeda, “Compact superconducting ring at Ritsumeikan University,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 5, 1162–1165 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  15. M. Koike and T. Namioka, “Plane gratings for high-resolution grazing-incidence monochromators: holographic grating versus mechanically ruled varied-line-spacing grating,” Appl. Opt. 36, 6308–6318 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  16. M. Koike and T. Namioka, “Grazing-incidence Monk-Gillieson monochromator based on surface normal rotation of a varied-line-spacing grating,” Appl. Opt. 41, 245–257 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  17. S. Bashkin and J. O. Stoner, Atomic Energy Levels and Grotrian Diagrams (North-Holland, 1975) Vol. 1, p. 12.
  18. B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, and J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E=50–30000  eV, Z=1–92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tab. 54, 181–342 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  19. O. Aita and T. Sagawa, “Soft x-ray emission spectra of light elements. I. Li, Be, B, Al and Si,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 27, 164–175 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  20. E. T. Arakawa and M. W. Williams, “Satellites in the x-ray emission spectra of Li, Be, and Na,” Phys. Rev. B 8, 4075–4078 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  21. S. Fukushima, T. Kimura, T. Ogiwara, and K. Tsukamoto, “New model ultra-soft X-ray spectrometer for microanalysis,” Microchim. Acta 161, 399–404 (2008).
    [CrossRef]

2010

M. Terauchi, M. Koike, K. Fukushima, and A. Kimura, “Development of wavelength-dispersive soft x-ray emission spectrometers for transmission electron microscopes—an introduction of valence electron spectroscopy for transmission electron microscopy,” J. Electron Microsc. 59, 251–261 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

M. Koike, M. Ishino, T. Imazono, K. Sano, H. Sasai, M. Hatayama, H. Takenaka, P. A. Heimann, and E. M. Gullikson, “Development of soft x-ray multilayer laminar-type plane gratings and varied-line-spacing spherical grating for flat-field spectrograph in the 1–8 keV region,” Spectrochimica Acta B 64, 756–760 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

S. Fukushima, T. Kimura, T. Ogiwara, and K. Tsukamoto, “New model ultra-soft X-ray spectrometer for microanalysis,” Microchim. Acta 161, 399–404 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

2004

T. Imazono, Y. Hirayama, S. Ichikura, O. Kitakami, M. Yanagihara, and M. Watanabe, “Interdiffused layers in antiferromagnetically coupled Fe/Si multilayers studied by soft x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 4327–4333 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002

M. Koike, K. Sano, O. Yoda, Y. Harada, M. Ishino, N. Moriya, H. Sasai, H. Takenaka, E. Gullikson, S. Mrowka, M. Jinno, Y. Ueno, J. H. Underwood, and T. Namioka, “New evaluation beamline for soft x-ray optical elements,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1541–1544 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Koike and T. Namioka, “Grazing-incidence Monk-Gillieson monochromator based on surface normal rotation of a varied-line-spacing grating,” Appl. Opt. 41, 245–257 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

M. Terauchi, H. Yamamoto, and M. Tanaka, “Development of a sub-eV resolution soft-X-ray spectrometer for a transmission electron microscope,” J. Electron Microsc. 50, 101–104 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L. Poletto, G. Naletto, and G. Tondello, “Grazing-incidence flat-field spectrometer for high-order harmonic diagnostics,” Opt. Eng. 40, 178–185 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

M. Koike, T. Namioka, E. Gullikson, Y. Harada, S. Ishikawa, T. Imazono, S. Mrowka, N. Miyata, M. Yanagihara, J. H. Underwood, K. Sano, T. Ogiwara, O. Yoda, and S. Nagai, “Varied-line-spacing laminar-type holographic grating for the standard soft x-ray flat-field spectrograph,” Proc. SPIE 4146, 163–170 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998

H. Iwasaki, Y. Nakayama, K. Ozutsumi, Y. Yamamoto, Y. Tokunaga, H. Saisho, T. Matsubara, and S. Ikeda, “Compact superconducting ring at Ritsumeikan University,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 5, 1162–1165 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

1995

1994

1993

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, and J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E=50–30000  eV, Z=1–92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tab. 54, 181–342 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1984

1972

E. T. Arakawa and M. W. Williams, “Satellites in the x-ray emission spectra of Li, Be, and Na,” Phys. Rev. B 8, 4075–4078 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1969

O. Aita and T. Sagawa, “Soft x-ray emission spectra of light elements. I. Li, Be, B, Al and Si,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 27, 164–175 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Aita, O.

O. Aita and T. Sagawa, “Soft x-ray emission spectra of light elements. I. Li, Be, B, Al and Si,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 27, 164–175 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Arakawa, E. T.

E. T. Arakawa and M. W. Williams, “Satellites in the x-ray emission spectra of Li, Be, and Na,” Phys. Rev. B 8, 4075–4078 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Bashkin, S.

S. Bashkin and J. O. Stoner, Atomic Energy Levels and Grotrian Diagrams (North-Holland, 1975) Vol. 1, p. 12.

Davis, J. C.

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, and J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E=50–30000  eV, Z=1–92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tab. 54, 181–342 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Fukushima, K.

M. Terauchi, M. Koike, K. Fukushima, and A. Kimura, “Development of wavelength-dispersive soft x-ray emission spectrometers for transmission electron microscopes—an introduction of valence electron spectroscopy for transmission electron microscopy,” J. Electron Microsc. 59, 251–261 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fukushima, S.

S. Fukushima, T. Kimura, T. Ogiwara, and K. Tsukamoto, “New model ultra-soft X-ray spectrometer for microanalysis,” Microchim. Acta 161, 399–404 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gullikson, E.

M. Koike, K. Sano, O. Yoda, Y. Harada, M. Ishino, N. Moriya, H. Sasai, H. Takenaka, E. Gullikson, S. Mrowka, M. Jinno, Y. Ueno, J. H. Underwood, and T. Namioka, “New evaluation beamline for soft x-ray optical elements,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1541–1544 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Koike, T. Namioka, E. Gullikson, Y. Harada, S. Ishikawa, T. Imazono, S. Mrowka, N. Miyata, M. Yanagihara, J. H. Underwood, K. Sano, T. Ogiwara, O. Yoda, and S. Nagai, “Varied-line-spacing laminar-type holographic grating for the standard soft x-ray flat-field spectrograph,” Proc. SPIE 4146, 163–170 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gullikson, E. M.

M. Koike, M. Ishino, T. Imazono, K. Sano, H. Sasai, M. Hatayama, H. Takenaka, P. A. Heimann, and E. M. Gullikson, “Development of soft x-ray multilayer laminar-type plane gratings and varied-line-spacing spherical grating for flat-field spectrograph in the 1–8 keV region,” Spectrochimica Acta B 64, 756–760 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, and J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E=50–30000  eV, Z=1–92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tab. 54, 181–342 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Handa, N.

T. Imazono, M. Koike, M. Koeda, T. Nagano, H. Sasai, Y. Oue, Z. Yonezawa, S. Kuramoto, M. Terauchi, H. Takahashi, N. Handa, and T. Murano, “A multilayer grating with a novel layer structure for a flat-field spectrograph attached to transmission electron microscopes in energy region of 2–4 keV,” presented at Twenty-first International Congress on X-ray Optics and Microanalysis (ICXOM21), Campinas, Sao Paulo, Brazil, 5–8 September 2011 .

Harada, T.

Harada, Y.

M. Koike, K. Sano, O. Yoda, Y. Harada, M. Ishino, N. Moriya, H. Sasai, H. Takenaka, E. Gullikson, S. Mrowka, M. Jinno, Y. Ueno, J. H. Underwood, and T. Namioka, “New evaluation beamline for soft x-ray optical elements,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1541–1544 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Koike, T. Namioka, E. Gullikson, Y. Harada, S. Ishikawa, T. Imazono, S. Mrowka, N. Miyata, M. Yanagihara, J. H. Underwood, K. Sano, T. Ogiwara, O. Yoda, and S. Nagai, “Varied-line-spacing laminar-type holographic grating for the standard soft x-ray flat-field spectrograph,” Proc. SPIE 4146, 163–170 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hatayama, M.

M. Koike, M. Ishino, T. Imazono, K. Sano, H. Sasai, M. Hatayama, H. Takenaka, P. A. Heimann, and E. M. Gullikson, “Development of soft x-ray multilayer laminar-type plane gratings and varied-line-spacing spherical grating for flat-field spectrograph in the 1–8 keV region,” Spectrochimica Acta B 64, 756–760 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Heimann, P. A.

M. Koike, M. Ishino, T. Imazono, K. Sano, H. Sasai, M. Hatayama, H. Takenaka, P. A. Heimann, and E. M. Gullikson, “Development of soft x-ray multilayer laminar-type plane gratings and varied-line-spacing spherical grating for flat-field spectrograph in the 1–8 keV region,” Spectrochimica Acta B 64, 756–760 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Henke, B. L.

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, and J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E=50–30000  eV, Z=1–92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tab. 54, 181–342 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hirayama, Y.

T. Imazono, Y. Hirayama, S. Ichikura, O. Kitakami, M. Yanagihara, and M. Watanabe, “Interdiffused layers in antiferromagnetically coupled Fe/Si multilayers studied by soft x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 4327–4333 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ichikura, S.

T. Imazono, Y. Hirayama, S. Ichikura, O. Kitakami, M. Yanagihara, and M. Watanabe, “Interdiffused layers in antiferromagnetically coupled Fe/Si multilayers studied by soft x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 4327–4333 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ikeda, S.

H. Iwasaki, Y. Nakayama, K. Ozutsumi, Y. Yamamoto, Y. Tokunaga, H. Saisho, T. Matsubara, and S. Ikeda, “Compact superconducting ring at Ritsumeikan University,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 5, 1162–1165 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Imazono, T.

M. Koike, M. Ishino, T. Imazono, K. Sano, H. Sasai, M. Hatayama, H. Takenaka, P. A. Heimann, and E. M. Gullikson, “Development of soft x-ray multilayer laminar-type plane gratings and varied-line-spacing spherical grating for flat-field spectrograph in the 1–8 keV region,” Spectrochimica Acta B 64, 756–760 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Imazono, M. Ishino, M. Koike, H. Sasai, and K. Sano, “Fabrication and evaluation of a wide-band multilayer laminar-type holographic grating for use with a soft x-ray flat field spectrograph in the region of 1.7 keV,” Appl. Opt. 46, 7054–7060 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Imazono, Y. Hirayama, S. Ichikura, O. Kitakami, M. Yanagihara, and M. Watanabe, “Interdiffused layers in antiferromagnetically coupled Fe/Si multilayers studied by soft x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 4327–4333 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Koike, T. Namioka, E. Gullikson, Y. Harada, S. Ishikawa, T. Imazono, S. Mrowka, N. Miyata, M. Yanagihara, J. H. Underwood, K. Sano, T. Ogiwara, O. Yoda, and S. Nagai, “Varied-line-spacing laminar-type holographic grating for the standard soft x-ray flat-field spectrograph,” Proc. SPIE 4146, 163–170 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. Imazono, M. Koike, M. Koeda, T. Nagano, H. Sasai, Y. Oue, Z. Yonezawa, S. Kuramoto, M. Terauchi, H. Takahashi, N. Handa, and T. Murano, “A multilayer grating with a novel layer structure for a flat-field spectrograph attached to transmission electron microscopes in energy region of 2–4 keV,” presented at Twenty-first International Congress on X-ray Optics and Microanalysis (ICXOM21), Campinas, Sao Paulo, Brazil, 5–8 September 2011 .

Ishikawa, S.

M. Koike, T. Namioka, E. Gullikson, Y. Harada, S. Ishikawa, T. Imazono, S. Mrowka, N. Miyata, M. Yanagihara, J. H. Underwood, K. Sano, T. Ogiwara, O. Yoda, and S. Nagai, “Varied-line-spacing laminar-type holographic grating for the standard soft x-ray flat-field spectrograph,” Proc. SPIE 4146, 163–170 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ishino, M.

M. Koike, M. Ishino, T. Imazono, K. Sano, H. Sasai, M. Hatayama, H. Takenaka, P. A. Heimann, and E. M. Gullikson, “Development of soft x-ray multilayer laminar-type plane gratings and varied-line-spacing spherical grating for flat-field spectrograph in the 1–8 keV region,” Spectrochimica Acta B 64, 756–760 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Imazono, M. Ishino, M. Koike, H. Sasai, and K. Sano, “Fabrication and evaluation of a wide-band multilayer laminar-type holographic grating for use with a soft x-ray flat field spectrograph in the region of 1.7 keV,” Appl. Opt. 46, 7054–7060 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Koike, K. Sano, O. Yoda, Y. Harada, M. Ishino, N. Moriya, H. Sasai, H. Takenaka, E. Gullikson, S. Mrowka, M. Jinno, Y. Ueno, J. H. Underwood, and T. Namioka, “New evaluation beamline for soft x-ray optical elements,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1541–1544 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Iwasaki, H.

H. Iwasaki, Y. Nakayama, K. Ozutsumi, Y. Yamamoto, Y. Tokunaga, H. Saisho, T. Matsubara, and S. Ikeda, “Compact superconducting ring at Ritsumeikan University,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 5, 1162–1165 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Jinno, M.

M. Koike, K. Sano, O. Yoda, Y. Harada, M. Ishino, N. Moriya, H. Sasai, H. Takenaka, E. Gullikson, S. Mrowka, M. Jinno, Y. Ueno, J. H. Underwood, and T. Namioka, “New evaluation beamline for soft x-ray optical elements,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1541–1544 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kimura, A.

M. Terauchi, M. Koike, K. Fukushima, and A. Kimura, “Development of wavelength-dispersive soft x-ray emission spectrometers for transmission electron microscopes—an introduction of valence electron spectroscopy for transmission electron microscopy,” J. Electron Microsc. 59, 251–261 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kimura, T.

S. Fukushima, T. Kimura, T. Ogiwara, and K. Tsukamoto, “New model ultra-soft X-ray spectrometer for microanalysis,” Microchim. Acta 161, 399–404 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kita, T.

Kitakami, O.

T. Imazono, Y. Hirayama, S. Ichikura, O. Kitakami, M. Yanagihara, and M. Watanabe, “Interdiffused layers in antiferromagnetically coupled Fe/Si multilayers studied by soft x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 4327–4333 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Koeda, M.

T. Imazono, M. Koike, M. Koeda, T. Nagano, H. Sasai, Y. Oue, Z. Yonezawa, S. Kuramoto, M. Terauchi, H. Takahashi, N. Handa, and T. Murano, “A multilayer grating with a novel layer structure for a flat-field spectrograph attached to transmission electron microscopes in energy region of 2–4 keV,” presented at Twenty-first International Congress on X-ray Optics and Microanalysis (ICXOM21), Campinas, Sao Paulo, Brazil, 5–8 September 2011 .

Koike, M.

M. Terauchi, M. Koike, K. Fukushima, and A. Kimura, “Development of wavelength-dispersive soft x-ray emission spectrometers for transmission electron microscopes—an introduction of valence electron spectroscopy for transmission electron microscopy,” J. Electron Microsc. 59, 251–261 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Koike, M. Ishino, T. Imazono, K. Sano, H. Sasai, M. Hatayama, H. Takenaka, P. A. Heimann, and E. M. Gullikson, “Development of soft x-ray multilayer laminar-type plane gratings and varied-line-spacing spherical grating for flat-field spectrograph in the 1–8 keV region,” Spectrochimica Acta B 64, 756–760 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Imazono, M. Ishino, M. Koike, H. Sasai, and K. Sano, “Fabrication and evaluation of a wide-band multilayer laminar-type holographic grating for use with a soft x-ray flat field spectrograph in the region of 1.7 keV,” Appl. Opt. 46, 7054–7060 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Koike and T. Namioka, “Grazing-incidence Monk-Gillieson monochromator based on surface normal rotation of a varied-line-spacing grating,” Appl. Opt. 41, 245–257 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Koike, K. Sano, O. Yoda, Y. Harada, M. Ishino, N. Moriya, H. Sasai, H. Takenaka, E. Gullikson, S. Mrowka, M. Jinno, Y. Ueno, J. H. Underwood, and T. Namioka, “New evaluation beamline for soft x-ray optical elements,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1541–1544 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Koike, T. Namioka, E. Gullikson, Y. Harada, S. Ishikawa, T. Imazono, S. Mrowka, N. Miyata, M. Yanagihara, J. H. Underwood, K. Sano, T. Ogiwara, O. Yoda, and S. Nagai, “Varied-line-spacing laminar-type holographic grating for the standard soft x-ray flat-field spectrograph,” Proc. SPIE 4146, 163–170 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Koike and T. Namioka, “Plane gratings for high-resolution grazing-incidence monochromators: holographic grating versus mechanically ruled varied-line-spacing grating,” Appl. Opt. 36, 6308–6318 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. Namioka, and M. Koike, “Aspheric wavefront recording optics for holographic gratings,” Appl. Opt. 34, 2180–2186 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Koike and T. Namioka, “A merit function for the design of grating instruments,” Appl. Opt. 33, 2048–2056 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. Imazono, M. Koike, M. Koeda, T. Nagano, H. Sasai, Y. Oue, Z. Yonezawa, S. Kuramoto, M. Terauchi, H. Takahashi, N. Handa, and T. Murano, “A multilayer grating with a novel layer structure for a flat-field spectrograph attached to transmission electron microscopes in energy region of 2–4 keV,” presented at Twenty-first International Congress on X-ray Optics and Microanalysis (ICXOM21), Campinas, Sao Paulo, Brazil, 5–8 September 2011 .

Kuramoto, S.

T. Imazono, M. Koike, M. Koeda, T. Nagano, H. Sasai, Y. Oue, Z. Yonezawa, S. Kuramoto, M. Terauchi, H. Takahashi, N. Handa, and T. Murano, “A multilayer grating with a novel layer structure for a flat-field spectrograph attached to transmission electron microscopes in energy region of 2–4 keV,” presented at Twenty-first International Congress on X-ray Optics and Microanalysis (ICXOM21), Campinas, Sao Paulo, Brazil, 5–8 September 2011 .

Kuroda, H.

Matsubara, T.

H. Iwasaki, Y. Nakayama, K. Ozutsumi, Y. Yamamoto, Y. Tokunaga, H. Saisho, T. Matsubara, and S. Ikeda, “Compact superconducting ring at Ritsumeikan University,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 5, 1162–1165 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Miyata, N.

M. Koike, T. Namioka, E. Gullikson, Y. Harada, S. Ishikawa, T. Imazono, S. Mrowka, N. Miyata, M. Yanagihara, J. H. Underwood, K. Sano, T. Ogiwara, O. Yoda, and S. Nagai, “Varied-line-spacing laminar-type holographic grating for the standard soft x-ray flat-field spectrograph,” Proc. SPIE 4146, 163–170 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Moriya, N.

M. Koike, K. Sano, O. Yoda, Y. Harada, M. Ishino, N. Moriya, H. Sasai, H. Takenaka, E. Gullikson, S. Mrowka, M. Jinno, Y. Ueno, J. H. Underwood, and T. Namioka, “New evaluation beamline for soft x-ray optical elements,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1541–1544 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mrowka, S.

M. Koike, K. Sano, O. Yoda, Y. Harada, M. Ishino, N. Moriya, H. Sasai, H. Takenaka, E. Gullikson, S. Mrowka, M. Jinno, Y. Ueno, J. H. Underwood, and T. Namioka, “New evaluation beamline for soft x-ray optical elements,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1541–1544 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Koike, T. Namioka, E. Gullikson, Y. Harada, S. Ishikawa, T. Imazono, S. Mrowka, N. Miyata, M. Yanagihara, J. H. Underwood, K. Sano, T. Ogiwara, O. Yoda, and S. Nagai, “Varied-line-spacing laminar-type holographic grating for the standard soft x-ray flat-field spectrograph,” Proc. SPIE 4146, 163–170 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Murano, T.

T. Imazono, M. Koike, M. Koeda, T. Nagano, H. Sasai, Y. Oue, Z. Yonezawa, S. Kuramoto, M. Terauchi, H. Takahashi, N. Handa, and T. Murano, “A multilayer grating with a novel layer structure for a flat-field spectrograph attached to transmission electron microscopes in energy region of 2–4 keV,” presented at Twenty-first International Congress on X-ray Optics and Microanalysis (ICXOM21), Campinas, Sao Paulo, Brazil, 5–8 September 2011 .

Nagai, S.

M. Koike, T. Namioka, E. Gullikson, Y. Harada, S. Ishikawa, T. Imazono, S. Mrowka, N. Miyata, M. Yanagihara, J. H. Underwood, K. Sano, T. Ogiwara, O. Yoda, and S. Nagai, “Varied-line-spacing laminar-type holographic grating for the standard soft x-ray flat-field spectrograph,” Proc. SPIE 4146, 163–170 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nagano, T.

T. Imazono, M. Koike, M. Koeda, T. Nagano, H. Sasai, Y. Oue, Z. Yonezawa, S. Kuramoto, M. Terauchi, H. Takahashi, N. Handa, and T. Murano, “A multilayer grating with a novel layer structure for a flat-field spectrograph attached to transmission electron microscopes in energy region of 2–4 keV,” presented at Twenty-first International Congress on X-ray Optics and Microanalysis (ICXOM21), Campinas, Sao Paulo, Brazil, 5–8 September 2011 .

Nakano, N.

Nakayama, Y.

H. Iwasaki, Y. Nakayama, K. Ozutsumi, Y. Yamamoto, Y. Tokunaga, H. Saisho, T. Matsubara, and S. Ikeda, “Compact superconducting ring at Ritsumeikan University,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 5, 1162–1165 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Naletto, G.

L. Poletto, G. Naletto, and G. Tondello, “Grazing-incidence flat-field spectrometer for high-order harmonic diagnostics,” Opt. Eng. 40, 178–185 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Namioka, T.

M. Koike, K. Sano, O. Yoda, Y. Harada, M. Ishino, N. Moriya, H. Sasai, H. Takenaka, E. Gullikson, S. Mrowka, M. Jinno, Y. Ueno, J. H. Underwood, and T. Namioka, “New evaluation beamline for soft x-ray optical elements,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1541–1544 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Koike and T. Namioka, “Grazing-incidence Monk-Gillieson monochromator based on surface normal rotation of a varied-line-spacing grating,” Appl. Opt. 41, 245–257 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Koike, T. Namioka, E. Gullikson, Y. Harada, S. Ishikawa, T. Imazono, S. Mrowka, N. Miyata, M. Yanagihara, J. H. Underwood, K. Sano, T. Ogiwara, O. Yoda, and S. Nagai, “Varied-line-spacing laminar-type holographic grating for the standard soft x-ray flat-field spectrograph,” Proc. SPIE 4146, 163–170 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Koike and T. Namioka, “Plane gratings for high-resolution grazing-incidence monochromators: holographic grating versus mechanically ruled varied-line-spacing grating,” Appl. Opt. 36, 6308–6318 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. Namioka, and M. Koike, “Aspheric wavefront recording optics for holographic gratings,” Appl. Opt. 34, 2180–2186 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Koike and T. Namioka, “A merit function for the design of grating instruments,” Appl. Opt. 33, 2048–2056 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ogiwara, T.

S. Fukushima, T. Kimura, T. Ogiwara, and K. Tsukamoto, “New model ultra-soft X-ray spectrometer for microanalysis,” Microchim. Acta 161, 399–404 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Koike, T. Namioka, E. Gullikson, Y. Harada, S. Ishikawa, T. Imazono, S. Mrowka, N. Miyata, M. Yanagihara, J. H. Underwood, K. Sano, T. Ogiwara, O. Yoda, and S. Nagai, “Varied-line-spacing laminar-type holographic grating for the standard soft x-ray flat-field spectrograph,” Proc. SPIE 4146, 163–170 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Oue, Y.

T. Imazono, M. Koike, M. Koeda, T. Nagano, H. Sasai, Y. Oue, Z. Yonezawa, S. Kuramoto, M. Terauchi, H. Takahashi, N. Handa, and T. Murano, “A multilayer grating with a novel layer structure for a flat-field spectrograph attached to transmission electron microscopes in energy region of 2–4 keV,” presented at Twenty-first International Congress on X-ray Optics and Microanalysis (ICXOM21), Campinas, Sao Paulo, Brazil, 5–8 September 2011 .

Ozutsumi, K.

H. Iwasaki, Y. Nakayama, K. Ozutsumi, Y. Yamamoto, Y. Tokunaga, H. Saisho, T. Matsubara, and S. Ikeda, “Compact superconducting ring at Ritsumeikan University,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 5, 1162–1165 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Poletto, L.

L. Poletto, G. Naletto, and G. Tondello, “Grazing-incidence flat-field spectrometer for high-order harmonic diagnostics,” Opt. Eng. 40, 178–185 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sagawa, T.

O. Aita and T. Sagawa, “Soft x-ray emission spectra of light elements. I. Li, Be, B, Al and Si,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 27, 164–175 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Saisho, H.

H. Iwasaki, Y. Nakayama, K. Ozutsumi, Y. Yamamoto, Y. Tokunaga, H. Saisho, T. Matsubara, and S. Ikeda, “Compact superconducting ring at Ritsumeikan University,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 5, 1162–1165 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sano, K.

M. Koike, M. Ishino, T. Imazono, K. Sano, H. Sasai, M. Hatayama, H. Takenaka, P. A. Heimann, and E. M. Gullikson, “Development of soft x-ray multilayer laminar-type plane gratings and varied-line-spacing spherical grating for flat-field spectrograph in the 1–8 keV region,” Spectrochimica Acta B 64, 756–760 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Imazono, M. Ishino, M. Koike, H. Sasai, and K. Sano, “Fabrication and evaluation of a wide-band multilayer laminar-type holographic grating for use with a soft x-ray flat field spectrograph in the region of 1.7 keV,” Appl. Opt. 46, 7054–7060 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Koike, K. Sano, O. Yoda, Y. Harada, M. Ishino, N. Moriya, H. Sasai, H. Takenaka, E. Gullikson, S. Mrowka, M. Jinno, Y. Ueno, J. H. Underwood, and T. Namioka, “New evaluation beamline for soft x-ray optical elements,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1541–1544 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Koike, T. Namioka, E. Gullikson, Y. Harada, S. Ishikawa, T. Imazono, S. Mrowka, N. Miyata, M. Yanagihara, J. H. Underwood, K. Sano, T. Ogiwara, O. Yoda, and S. Nagai, “Varied-line-spacing laminar-type holographic grating for the standard soft x-ray flat-field spectrograph,” Proc. SPIE 4146, 163–170 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sasai, H.

M. Koike, M. Ishino, T. Imazono, K. Sano, H. Sasai, M. Hatayama, H. Takenaka, P. A. Heimann, and E. M. Gullikson, “Development of soft x-ray multilayer laminar-type plane gratings and varied-line-spacing spherical grating for flat-field spectrograph in the 1–8 keV region,” Spectrochimica Acta B 64, 756–760 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Imazono, M. Ishino, M. Koike, H. Sasai, and K. Sano, “Fabrication and evaluation of a wide-band multilayer laminar-type holographic grating for use with a soft x-ray flat field spectrograph in the region of 1.7 keV,” Appl. Opt. 46, 7054–7060 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Koike, K. Sano, O. Yoda, Y. Harada, M. Ishino, N. Moriya, H. Sasai, H. Takenaka, E. Gullikson, S. Mrowka, M. Jinno, Y. Ueno, J. H. Underwood, and T. Namioka, “New evaluation beamline for soft x-ray optical elements,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1541–1544 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Imazono, M. Koike, M. Koeda, T. Nagano, H. Sasai, Y. Oue, Z. Yonezawa, S. Kuramoto, M. Terauchi, H. Takahashi, N. Handa, and T. Murano, “A multilayer grating with a novel layer structure for a flat-field spectrograph attached to transmission electron microscopes in energy region of 2–4 keV,” presented at Twenty-first International Congress on X-ray Optics and Microanalysis (ICXOM21), Campinas, Sao Paulo, Brazil, 5–8 September 2011 .

Stoner, J. O.

S. Bashkin and J. O. Stoner, Atomic Energy Levels and Grotrian Diagrams (North-Holland, 1975) Vol. 1, p. 12.

Takahashi, H.

T. Imazono, M. Koike, M. Koeda, T. Nagano, H. Sasai, Y. Oue, Z. Yonezawa, S. Kuramoto, M. Terauchi, H. Takahashi, N. Handa, and T. Murano, “A multilayer grating with a novel layer structure for a flat-field spectrograph attached to transmission electron microscopes in energy region of 2–4 keV,” presented at Twenty-first International Congress on X-ray Optics and Microanalysis (ICXOM21), Campinas, Sao Paulo, Brazil, 5–8 September 2011 .

Takenaka, H.

M. Koike, M. Ishino, T. Imazono, K. Sano, H. Sasai, M. Hatayama, H. Takenaka, P. A. Heimann, and E. M. Gullikson, “Development of soft x-ray multilayer laminar-type plane gratings and varied-line-spacing spherical grating for flat-field spectrograph in the 1–8 keV region,” Spectrochimica Acta B 64, 756–760 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Koike, K. Sano, O. Yoda, Y. Harada, M. Ishino, N. Moriya, H. Sasai, H. Takenaka, E. Gullikson, S. Mrowka, M. Jinno, Y. Ueno, J. H. Underwood, and T. Namioka, “New evaluation beamline for soft x-ray optical elements,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1541–1544 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, M.

M. Terauchi, H. Yamamoto, and M. Tanaka, “Development of a sub-eV resolution soft-X-ray spectrometer for a transmission electron microscope,” J. Electron Microsc. 50, 101–104 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Terauchi, M.

M. Terauchi, M. Koike, K. Fukushima, and A. Kimura, “Development of wavelength-dispersive soft x-ray emission spectrometers for transmission electron microscopes—an introduction of valence electron spectroscopy for transmission electron microscopy,” J. Electron Microsc. 59, 251–261 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Terauchi, H. Yamamoto, and M. Tanaka, “Development of a sub-eV resolution soft-X-ray spectrometer for a transmission electron microscope,” J. Electron Microsc. 50, 101–104 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. Imazono, M. Koike, M. Koeda, T. Nagano, H. Sasai, Y. Oue, Z. Yonezawa, S. Kuramoto, M. Terauchi, H. Takahashi, N. Handa, and T. Murano, “A multilayer grating with a novel layer structure for a flat-field spectrograph attached to transmission electron microscopes in energy region of 2–4 keV,” presented at Twenty-first International Congress on X-ray Optics and Microanalysis (ICXOM21), Campinas, Sao Paulo, Brazil, 5–8 September 2011 .

Tokunaga, Y.

H. Iwasaki, Y. Nakayama, K. Ozutsumi, Y. Yamamoto, Y. Tokunaga, H. Saisho, T. Matsubara, and S. Ikeda, “Compact superconducting ring at Ritsumeikan University,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 5, 1162–1165 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tondello, G.

L. Poletto, G. Naletto, and G. Tondello, “Grazing-incidence flat-field spectrometer for high-order harmonic diagnostics,” Opt. Eng. 40, 178–185 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tsukamoto, K.

S. Fukushima, T. Kimura, T. Ogiwara, and K. Tsukamoto, “New model ultra-soft X-ray spectrometer for microanalysis,” Microchim. Acta 161, 399–404 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ueno, Y.

M. Koike, K. Sano, O. Yoda, Y. Harada, M. Ishino, N. Moriya, H. Sasai, H. Takenaka, E. Gullikson, S. Mrowka, M. Jinno, Y. Ueno, J. H. Underwood, and T. Namioka, “New evaluation beamline for soft x-ray optical elements,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1541–1544 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Underwood, J. H.

M. Koike, K. Sano, O. Yoda, Y. Harada, M. Ishino, N. Moriya, H. Sasai, H. Takenaka, E. Gullikson, S. Mrowka, M. Jinno, Y. Ueno, J. H. Underwood, and T. Namioka, “New evaluation beamline for soft x-ray optical elements,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1541–1544 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Koike, T. Namioka, E. Gullikson, Y. Harada, S. Ishikawa, T. Imazono, S. Mrowka, N. Miyata, M. Yanagihara, J. H. Underwood, K. Sano, T. Ogiwara, O. Yoda, and S. Nagai, “Varied-line-spacing laminar-type holographic grating for the standard soft x-ray flat-field spectrograph,” Proc. SPIE 4146, 163–170 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, M.

T. Imazono, Y. Hirayama, S. Ichikura, O. Kitakami, M. Yanagihara, and M. Watanabe, “Interdiffused layers in antiferromagnetically coupled Fe/Si multilayers studied by soft x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 4327–4333 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Williams, M. W.

E. T. Arakawa and M. W. Williams, “Satellites in the x-ray emission spectra of Li, Be, and Na,” Phys. Rev. B 8, 4075–4078 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, H.

M. Terauchi, H. Yamamoto, and M. Tanaka, “Development of a sub-eV resolution soft-X-ray spectrometer for a transmission electron microscope,” J. Electron Microsc. 50, 101–104 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, Y.

H. Iwasaki, Y. Nakayama, K. Ozutsumi, Y. Yamamoto, Y. Tokunaga, H. Saisho, T. Matsubara, and S. Ikeda, “Compact superconducting ring at Ritsumeikan University,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 5, 1162–1165 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yanagihara, M.

T. Imazono, Y. Hirayama, S. Ichikura, O. Kitakami, M. Yanagihara, and M. Watanabe, “Interdiffused layers in antiferromagnetically coupled Fe/Si multilayers studied by soft x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 4327–4333 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Koike, T. Namioka, E. Gullikson, Y. Harada, S. Ishikawa, T. Imazono, S. Mrowka, N. Miyata, M. Yanagihara, J. H. Underwood, K. Sano, T. Ogiwara, O. Yoda, and S. Nagai, “Varied-line-spacing laminar-type holographic grating for the standard soft x-ray flat-field spectrograph,” Proc. SPIE 4146, 163–170 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yoda, O.

M. Koike, K. Sano, O. Yoda, Y. Harada, M. Ishino, N. Moriya, H. Sasai, H. Takenaka, E. Gullikson, S. Mrowka, M. Jinno, Y. Ueno, J. H. Underwood, and T. Namioka, “New evaluation beamline for soft x-ray optical elements,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1541–1544 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Koike, T. Namioka, E. Gullikson, Y. Harada, S. Ishikawa, T. Imazono, S. Mrowka, N. Miyata, M. Yanagihara, J. H. Underwood, K. Sano, T. Ogiwara, O. Yoda, and S. Nagai, “Varied-line-spacing laminar-type holographic grating for the standard soft x-ray flat-field spectrograph,” Proc. SPIE 4146, 163–170 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yonezawa, Z.

T. Imazono, M. Koike, M. Koeda, T. Nagano, H. Sasai, Y. Oue, Z. Yonezawa, S. Kuramoto, M. Terauchi, H. Takahashi, N. Handa, and T. Murano, “A multilayer grating with a novel layer structure for a flat-field spectrograph attached to transmission electron microscopes in energy region of 2–4 keV,” presented at Twenty-first International Congress on X-ray Optics and Microanalysis (ICXOM21), Campinas, Sao Paulo, Brazil, 5–8 September 2011 .

Appl. Opt.

At. Data Nucl. Data Tab.

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, and J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E=50–30000  eV, Z=1–92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tab. 54, 181–342 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Electron Microsc.

M. Terauchi, M. Koike, K. Fukushima, and A. Kimura, “Development of wavelength-dispersive soft x-ray emission spectrometers for transmission electron microscopes—an introduction of valence electron spectroscopy for transmission electron microscopy,” J. Electron Microsc. 59, 251–261 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Terauchi, H. Yamamoto, and M. Tanaka, “Development of a sub-eV resolution soft-X-ray spectrometer for a transmission electron microscope,” J. Electron Microsc. 50, 101–104 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Soc. Jpn.

O. Aita and T. Sagawa, “Soft x-ray emission spectra of light elements. I. Li, Be, B, Al and Si,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 27, 164–175 (1969).
[CrossRef]

J. Synchrotron Radiat.

H. Iwasaki, Y. Nakayama, K. Ozutsumi, Y. Yamamoto, Y. Tokunaga, H. Saisho, T. Matsubara, and S. Ikeda, “Compact superconducting ring at Ritsumeikan University,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 5, 1162–1165 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

T. Imazono, Y. Hirayama, S. Ichikura, O. Kitakami, M. Yanagihara, and M. Watanabe, “Interdiffused layers in antiferromagnetically coupled Fe/Si multilayers studied by soft x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 4327–4333 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Microchim. Acta

S. Fukushima, T. Kimura, T. Ogiwara, and K. Tsukamoto, “New model ultra-soft X-ray spectrometer for microanalysis,” Microchim. Acta 161, 399–404 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng.

L. Poletto, G. Naletto, and G. Tondello, “Grazing-incidence flat-field spectrometer for high-order harmonic diagnostics,” Opt. Eng. 40, 178–185 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B

E. T. Arakawa and M. W. Williams, “Satellites in the x-ray emission spectra of Li, Be, and Na,” Phys. Rev. B 8, 4075–4078 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

M. Koike, T. Namioka, E. Gullikson, Y. Harada, S. Ishikawa, T. Imazono, S. Mrowka, N. Miyata, M. Yanagihara, J. H. Underwood, K. Sano, T. Ogiwara, O. Yoda, and S. Nagai, “Varied-line-spacing laminar-type holographic grating for the standard soft x-ray flat-field spectrograph,” Proc. SPIE 4146, 163–170 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

M. Koike, K. Sano, O. Yoda, Y. Harada, M. Ishino, N. Moriya, H. Sasai, H. Takenaka, E. Gullikson, S. Mrowka, M. Jinno, Y. Ueno, J. H. Underwood, and T. Namioka, “New evaluation beamline for soft x-ray optical elements,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1541–1544 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Spectrochimica Acta B

M. Koike, M. Ishino, T. Imazono, K. Sano, H. Sasai, M. Hatayama, H. Takenaka, P. A. Heimann, and E. M. Gullikson, “Development of soft x-ray multilayer laminar-type plane gratings and varied-line-spacing spherical grating for flat-field spectrograph in the 1–8 keV region,” Spectrochimica Acta B 64, 756–760 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Other

T. Imazono, M. Koike, M. Koeda, T. Nagano, H. Sasai, Y. Oue, Z. Yonezawa, S. Kuramoto, M. Terauchi, H. Takahashi, N. Handa, and T. Murano, “A multilayer grating with a novel layer structure for a flat-field spectrograph attached to transmission electron microscopes in energy region of 2–4 keV,” presented at Twenty-first International Congress on X-ray Optics and Microanalysis (ICXOM21), Campinas, Sao Paulo, Brazil, 5–8 September 2011 .

GSOLVER V4.2c, Grating Solver Development Co., Allen, Texas.

S. Bashkin and J. O. Stoner, Atomic Energy Levels and Grotrian Diagrams (North-Holland, 1975) Vol. 1, p. 12.

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematics of the designed flat-field spectrographs equipped with JS50XL, JS300, JS2000, and JS4000. (a) Spectrograph shown as being compatible with all gratings by the offset of the grating center by 4.44, 10.97, and 10.97 mm for JS300, JS2000, and JS4000, respectively, parallel to the x direction from the position of JS50XL. (b) Spectrographs show the distances of PO and OQ, and that the direction of grating normal is fixed.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Schematic of the aspheric wavefront recording optics for JS50XL.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Spot diagrams and line profiles constructed by ray tracing.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Calculated first order diffraction efficiencies for laminar gratings of h=15, 20, and 25 nm. (b) Blazed gratings of θB=2, 3, and 4°.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Measured and calculated zeroth, first, and second order diffraction efficiencies of laminar-type (a) master (LM) and (b) replica (LR) gratings at the angle of incidence of 86.00° in the 50–250 eV range. The ordinate axis is in the logarithmic scale. Symbols show the measured values. Solid lines mean the calculated curves based on the groove depth and duty ratio evaluated by a surface profilometer.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Measured and calculated zeroth, first, and second order diffraction efficiencies of blazed-type (a) master (BM) and (b) replica (BR) gratingsat the angle of incidence of 86.00° in the 50–250 eV range. The ordinate axis is in the logarithmic scale. Symbols show the measured values. Solid lines represent the calculated curves based on the blazed angle evaluated by a surface profilometer.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Comparison of measured and calculated first order diffraction efficiencies of the LM, LR, BM, and BR gratings. The ordinate axis is in linear scale.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Schematic layout of the experimental setup for resolving power measurement of a flat-field spectrograph equipped with JS50XL using a LPP source.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Spectral line profiles of He II Lyβ (25.632 nm) obtained by the spectrographs equipped with the LM, LR, BM, and BR gratings. The FWHM evaluated by curve fitting is indicated in CCD pixel number.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Plots of resolving powers of LM, LR, BM, and BR gratings versus energy.

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

K-emission spectrum of metallic lithium obtained with the flat-field spectrograph equipped with a LR grating of JS50XL as the demonstration of TEM-SXES.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Details of the Parameters for the Holographic VLS Gratingsa

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

n σ = w + Γ [ 1 2 ( n 20 w 2 + n 02 l 2 + n 30 w 3 + n 12 w l 2 ) + 1 8 ( n 40 w 4 + 2 n 22 w 2 l 2 + n 04 l 4 ) + ] ,
h=λp/2(cosα+cosβp),
θB=(α+βp)/2.

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