Abstract

We describe the polarization topology of the vector beams emerging from a patterned birefringent liquid crystal plate with a topological charge q at its center (q-plate). The polarization topological structures for different q-plates and different input polarization states have been studied experimentally by measuring the Stokes parameters point-by-point in the beam transverse plane. Furthermore, we used a tuned q=1/2-plate to generate cylindrical vector beams with radial or azimuthal polarizations, with the possibility of switching dynamically between these two cases by simply changing the linear polarization of the input beam.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  30. B. Piccirillo, V. D’Ambrosio, S. Slussarenko, L. Marrucci, and E. Santamato, “Photon spin-to-orbital angular momentum conversion via an electrically tunable q-plate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 241104 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  32. G. Milione, H. I. Sztul, D. A. Nolan, and R. R. Alfano, “Higher-order Poincaré sphere, Stokes parameters, and the angular momentum of light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 053601 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  33. A. Holleczek, A. Sztul, C. Gabriel, C. Marquardt, and G. Leuchs, “Classical and quantum properties of cylindrically polarized states of light,” Opt. Express 19, 9714–9736 (2011).
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    [CrossRef]
  35. E. Karimi, J. Leach, S. Slussarenko, B. Piccirillo, L. Marrucci, L. Chen, W. She, S. Franke-Arnold, M. J. Padgett, and E. Santamato, “Spin-orbit hybrid entanglement of photons and quantum contextuality,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 022115(2010).
    [CrossRef]

2011 (4)

L. Marrucci, E. Karimi, S. Slussarenko, B. Piccirillo, E. Santamato, E. Nagali, and F. Sciarrino, “Spin-to-orbital conversion of the angular momentum of light and its classical and quantum applications,” J. Opt. 13, 064001 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Milione, H. I. Sztul, D. A. Nolan, and R. R. Alfano, “Higher-order Poincaré sphere, Stokes parameters, and the angular momentum of light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 053601 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Slussarenko, A. Murauski, T. Du, V. Chigrinov, L. Marrucci, and E. Santamato, “Tunable liquid crystal q-plates with arbitrary topological charge,” Opt. Express 19, 4085–4090 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Holleczek, A. Sztul, C. Gabriel, C. Marquardt, and G. Leuchs, “Classical and quantum properties of cylindrically polarized states of light,” Opt. Express 19, 9714–9736 (2011).

2010 (4)

T. Fadeyeva, V. Shvedov, N. Shostka, C. Alexeyev, and A. Volyar, “Natural shaping of the cylindrically polarized beams,” Opt. Lett. 35, 3787–3789 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Karimi, J. Leach, S. Slussarenko, B. Piccirillo, L. Marrucci, L. Chen, W. She, S. Franke-Arnold, M. J. Padgett, and E. Santamato, “Spin-orbit hybrid entanglement of photons and quantum contextuality,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 022115(2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Piccirillo, V. D’Ambrosio, S. Slussarenko, L. Marrucci, and E. Santamato, “Photon spin-to-orbital angular momentum conversion via an electrically tunable q-plate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 241104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Karimi, S. Slussarenko, B. Piccirillo, L. Marrucci, and E. Santamato, “Polarization-controlled evolution of light transverse modes and associated Pancharatnam geometric phase in orbital angular momentum,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 053813 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (6)

2008 (4)

H. Kawauchi, Y. Kozawa, and S. Sato, “Generation of radially polarized Ti:sapphire laser beam using a c-cut crystal,” Opt. Lett. 33, 1984–1986 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Franke-Arnold, L. Allen, and M. J. Padgett, “Advances in optical angular momentum,” Laser Photonics Rev. 2, 299–313 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Wang, L. Shi, B. Lukyanchuk, C. Sheppard, and C. T. Chong, “Creation of a needle of longitudinally polarized light in vacuum using binary optics,” Nat. Photon. 2, 501–505 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Machavariani, Y. Lumer, I. Moshe, A. Meir, and S. Jackel, “Spatially-variable retardation plate for efficient generation of radially and azimuthally-polarized beams,” Opt. Commun. 281, 732–738 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

2006 (2)

L. Marrucci, C. Manzo, and D. Paparo, “Optical spin-to-orbital angular momentum conversion in inhomogeneous anisotropic media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 163905 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Marrucci, C. Manzo, and D. Paparo, “Pancharatnam-Berry phase optical elements for wave front shaping in the visible domain: switchable helical mode generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 221102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

2004 (1)

2003 (2)

A. Bouhelier, M. Beversluis, A. Hartschuh, and L. Novotny, “Far-field second-harmonic generation induced by local field enhancement,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 013903 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Dorn, S. Quabis, and G. Leuchs, “Sharper focus for a radially polarized light beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 233901 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (3)

2001 (2)

L. Novotny, M. R. Beversluis, K. S. Youngworth, and T. G. Brown, “Longitudinal field modes probed by single molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 5251–5254 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Soskin and M. V. Vasnetsov, “Singular optics,” Prog. Opt. 42, 219–276 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

R. Oron, S. Blit, N. Davidson, A. A. Friesen, Z. Bomzon, and E. Hasman, “The formation of laser beams with pure azimuthal or radial polarization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3322–3324 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

R. Bhandari, “Polarization of light and topological phases,” Phys. Rep. 281, 1–64 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1993 (1)

E. G. Churin, J. Hoßfeld, and T. Tschudi, “Polarization configurations with singular point formed by computer generated holograms,” Opt. Commun. 99, 13–17 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Alexeyev, C.

Alfano, R. R.

G. Milione, H. I. Sztul, D. A. Nolan, and R. R. Alfano, “Higher-order Poincaré sphere, Stokes parameters, and the angular momentum of light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 053601 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Allen, L.

S. Franke-Arnold, L. Allen, and M. J. Padgett, “Advances in optical angular momentum,” Laser Photonics Rev. 2, 299–313 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Beversluis, M.

A. Bouhelier, M. Beversluis, A. Hartschuh, and L. Novotny, “Far-field second-harmonic generation induced by local field enhancement,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 013903 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Beversluis, M. R.

L. Novotny, M. R. Beversluis, K. S. Youngworth, and T. G. Brown, “Longitudinal field modes probed by single molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 5251–5254 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bhandari, R.

R. Bhandari, “Polarization of light and topological phases,” Phys. Rep. 281, 1–64 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Biener, G.

Blit, S.

R. Oron, S. Blit, N. Davidson, A. A. Friesen, Z. Bomzon, and E. Hasman, “The formation of laser beams with pure azimuthal or radial polarization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3322–3324 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bomzon, Z.

Z. Bomzon, G. Biener, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, “Radially and azimuthally polarized beams generated by space-variant dielectric subwavelength gratings,” Opt. Lett. 27, 285–287 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Oron, S. Blit, N. Davidson, A. A. Friesen, Z. Bomzon, and E. Hasman, “The formation of laser beams with pure azimuthal or radial polarization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3322–3324 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bouhelier, A.

A. Bouhelier, M. Beversluis, A. Hartschuh, and L. Novotny, “Far-field second-harmonic generation induced by local field enhancement,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 013903 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Brasselet, E.

Brown, T. G.

L. Novotny, M. R. Beversluis, K. S. Youngworth, and T. G. Brown, “Longitudinal field modes probed by single molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 5251–5254 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L.

E. Karimi, J. Leach, S. Slussarenko, B. Piccirillo, L. Marrucci, L. Chen, W. She, S. Franke-Arnold, M. J. Padgett, and E. Santamato, “Spin-orbit hybrid entanglement of photons and quantum contextuality,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 022115(2010).
[CrossRef]

Chigrinov, V.

Chong, C. T.

H. Wang, L. Shi, B. Lukyanchuk, C. Sheppard, and C. T. Chong, “Creation of a needle of longitudinally polarized light in vacuum using binary optics,” Nat. Photon. 2, 501–505 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Churin, E. G.

E. G. Churin, J. Hoßfeld, and T. Tschudi, “Polarization configurations with singular point formed by computer generated holograms,” Opt. Commun. 99, 13–17 (1993).
[CrossRef]

D’Ambrosio, V.

B. Piccirillo, V. D’Ambrosio, S. Slussarenko, L. Marrucci, and E. Santamato, “Photon spin-to-orbital angular momentum conversion via an electrically tunable q-plate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 241104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Davidson, N.

R. Oron, S. Blit, N. Davidson, A. A. Friesen, Z. Bomzon, and E. Hasman, “The formation of laser beams with pure azimuthal or radial polarization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3322–3324 (2000).
[CrossRef]

De Martini, F.

Dennis, M. R.

M. R. Dennis, K. O’Holleran, and M. J. Padgett, “Optical vortices and polarization singularities,” Prog. Opt. 53, 293–363 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Desyatnikov, A. S.

Ding, J.

Dorn, R.

R. Dorn, S. Quabis, and G. Leuchs, “Sharper focus for a radially polarized light beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 233901 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Du, T.

Fadeyeva, T.

Franke-Arnold, S.

E. Karimi, J. Leach, S. Slussarenko, B. Piccirillo, L. Marrucci, L. Chen, W. She, S. Franke-Arnold, M. J. Padgett, and E. Santamato, “Spin-orbit hybrid entanglement of photons and quantum contextuality,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 022115(2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Franke-Arnold, L. Allen, and M. J. Padgett, “Advances in optical angular momentum,” Laser Photonics Rev. 2, 299–313 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Friesen, A. A.

R. Oron, S. Blit, N. Davidson, A. A. Friesen, Z. Bomzon, and E. Hasman, “The formation of laser beams with pure azimuthal or radial polarization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3322–3324 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gabriel, C.

Guo, C. S.

Hartschuh, A.

A. Bouhelier, M. Beversluis, A. Hartschuh, and L. Novotny, “Far-field second-harmonic generation induced by local field enhancement,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 013903 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hasman, E.

Z. Bomzon, G. Biener, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, “Radially and azimuthally polarized beams generated by space-variant dielectric subwavelength gratings,” Opt. Lett. 27, 285–287 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Oron, S. Blit, N. Davidson, A. A. Friesen, Z. Bomzon, and E. Hasman, “The formation of laser beams with pure azimuthal or radial polarization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3322–3324 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Holleczek, A.

Hoßfeld, J.

E. G. Churin, J. Hoßfeld, and T. Tschudi, “Polarization configurations with singular point formed by computer generated holograms,” Opt. Commun. 99, 13–17 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Z.

Izdebskaya, Y.

Jackel, S.

G. Machavariani, Y. Lumer, I. Moshe, A. Meir, and S. Jackel, “Spatially-variable retardation plate for efficient generation of radially and azimuthally-polarized beams,” Opt. Commun. 281, 732–738 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Karimi, E.

L. Marrucci, E. Karimi, S. Slussarenko, B. Piccirillo, E. Santamato, E. Nagali, and F. Sciarrino, “Spin-to-orbital conversion of the angular momentum of light and its classical and quantum applications,” J. Opt. 13, 064001 (2011).
[CrossRef]

E. Karimi, S. Slussarenko, B. Piccirillo, L. Marrucci, and E. Santamato, “Polarization-controlled evolution of light transverse modes and associated Pancharatnam geometric phase in orbital angular momentum,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 053813 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Karimi, J. Leach, S. Slussarenko, B. Piccirillo, L. Marrucci, L. Chen, W. She, S. Franke-Arnold, M. J. Padgett, and E. Santamato, “Spin-orbit hybrid entanglement of photons and quantum contextuality,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 022115(2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Nagali, F. Sciarrino, F. De Martini, B. Piccirillo, E. Karimi, L. Marrucci, and E. Santamato, “Polarization control of single photon quantum orbital angular momentum states,” Opt. Express 17, 18745–18759 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Karimi, B. Piccirillo, E. Nagali, L. Marrucci, and E. Santamato, “Efficient generation and sorting of orbital angular momentum eigenmodes of light by thermally tuned q-plates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 231124 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kawauchi, H.

Kivshar, Y. S.

Kleiner, V.

Kozawa, Y.

Krolikowski, W.

Leach, J.

E. Karimi, J. Leach, S. Slussarenko, B. Piccirillo, L. Marrucci, L. Chen, W. She, S. Franke-Arnold, M. J. Padgett, and E. Santamato, “Spin-orbit hybrid entanglement of photons and quantum contextuality,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 022115(2010).
[CrossRef]

Leger, J.

Leuchs, G.

A. Holleczek, A. Sztul, C. Gabriel, C. Marquardt, and G. Leuchs, “Classical and quantum properties of cylindrically polarized states of light,” Opt. Express 19, 9714–9736 (2011).

R. Dorn, S. Quabis, and G. Leuchs, “Sharper focus for a radially polarized light beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 233901 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lu, F.

Lukyanchuk, B.

H. Wang, L. Shi, B. Lukyanchuk, C. Sheppard, and C. T. Chong, “Creation of a needle of longitudinally polarized light in vacuum using binary optics,” Nat. Photon. 2, 501–505 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lumer, Y.

G. Machavariani, Y. Lumer, I. Moshe, A. Meir, and S. Jackel, “Spatially-variable retardation plate for efficient generation of radially and azimuthally-polarized beams,” Opt. Commun. 281, 732–738 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Machavariani, G.

G. Machavariani, Y. Lumer, I. Moshe, A. Meir, and S. Jackel, “Spatially-variable retardation plate for efficient generation of radially and azimuthally-polarized beams,” Opt. Commun. 281, 732–738 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Manzo, C.

L. Marrucci, C. Manzo, and D. Paparo, “Optical spin-to-orbital angular momentum conversion in inhomogeneous anisotropic media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 163905 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Marrucci, C. Manzo, and D. Paparo, “Pancharatnam-Berry phase optical elements for wave front shaping in the visible domain: switchable helical mode generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 221102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Marquardt, C.

Marrucci, L.

S. Slussarenko, A. Murauski, T. Du, V. Chigrinov, L. Marrucci, and E. Santamato, “Tunable liquid crystal q-plates with arbitrary topological charge,” Opt. Express 19, 4085–4090 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Marrucci, E. Karimi, S. Slussarenko, B. Piccirillo, E. Santamato, E. Nagali, and F. Sciarrino, “Spin-to-orbital conversion of the angular momentum of light and its classical and quantum applications,” J. Opt. 13, 064001 (2011).
[CrossRef]

E. Karimi, S. Slussarenko, B. Piccirillo, L. Marrucci, and E. Santamato, “Polarization-controlled evolution of light transverse modes and associated Pancharatnam geometric phase in orbital angular momentum,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 053813 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Karimi, J. Leach, S. Slussarenko, B. Piccirillo, L. Marrucci, L. Chen, W. She, S. Franke-Arnold, M. J. Padgett, and E. Santamato, “Spin-orbit hybrid entanglement of photons and quantum contextuality,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 022115(2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Piccirillo, V. D’Ambrosio, S. Slussarenko, L. Marrucci, and E. Santamato, “Photon spin-to-orbital angular momentum conversion via an electrically tunable q-plate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 241104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Nagali, F. Sciarrino, F. De Martini, B. Piccirillo, E. Karimi, L. Marrucci, and E. Santamato, “Polarization control of single photon quantum orbital angular momentum states,” Opt. Express 17, 18745–18759 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Karimi, B. Piccirillo, E. Nagali, L. Marrucci, and E. Santamato, “Efficient generation and sorting of orbital angular momentum eigenmodes of light by thermally tuned q-plates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 231124 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Marrucci, C. Manzo, and D. Paparo, “Pancharatnam-Berry phase optical elements for wave front shaping in the visible domain: switchable helical mode generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 221102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Marrucci, C. Manzo, and D. Paparo, “Optical spin-to-orbital angular momentum conversion in inhomogeneous anisotropic media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 163905 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Meir, A.

G. Machavariani, Y. Lumer, I. Moshe, A. Meir, and S. Jackel, “Spatially-variable retardation plate for efficient generation of radially and azimuthally-polarized beams,” Opt. Commun. 281, 732–738 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Milione, G.

G. Milione, H. I. Sztul, D. A. Nolan, and R. R. Alfano, “Higher-order Poincaré sphere, Stokes parameters, and the angular momentum of light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 053601 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Moshe, I.

G. Machavariani, Y. Lumer, I. Moshe, A. Meir, and S. Jackel, “Spatially-variable retardation plate for efficient generation of radially and azimuthally-polarized beams,” Opt. Commun. 281, 732–738 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Murauski, A.

Nagali, E.

L. Marrucci, E. Karimi, S. Slussarenko, B. Piccirillo, E. Santamato, E. Nagali, and F. Sciarrino, “Spin-to-orbital conversion of the angular momentum of light and its classical and quantum applications,” J. Opt. 13, 064001 (2011).
[CrossRef]

E. Karimi, B. Piccirillo, E. Nagali, L. Marrucci, and E. Santamato, “Efficient generation and sorting of orbital angular momentum eigenmodes of light by thermally tuned q-plates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 231124 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Nagali, F. Sciarrino, F. De Martini, B. Piccirillo, E. Karimi, L. Marrucci, and E. Santamato, “Polarization control of single photon quantum orbital angular momentum states,” Opt. Express 17, 18745–18759 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ni, W. J.

Nolan, D. A.

G. Milione, H. I. Sztul, D. A. Nolan, and R. R. Alfano, “Higher-order Poincaré sphere, Stokes parameters, and the angular momentum of light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 053601 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Novotny, L.

A. Bouhelier, M. Beversluis, A. Hartschuh, and L. Novotny, “Far-field second-harmonic generation induced by local field enhancement,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 013903 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. Novotny, M. R. Beversluis, K. S. Youngworth, and T. G. Brown, “Longitudinal field modes probed by single molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 5251–5254 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nye, J. F.

J. F. Nye, Natural Focusing and the Fine Structure of Light (IOP Publishing, 1999).

O’Holleran, K.

M. R. Dennis, K. O’Holleran, and M. J. Padgett, “Optical vortices and polarization singularities,” Prog. Opt. 53, 293–363 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Oron, R.

R. Oron, S. Blit, N. Davidson, A. A. Friesen, Z. Bomzon, and E. Hasman, “The formation of laser beams with pure azimuthal or radial polarization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3322–3324 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Padgett, M. J.

E. Karimi, J. Leach, S. Slussarenko, B. Piccirillo, L. Marrucci, L. Chen, W. She, S. Franke-Arnold, M. J. Padgett, and E. Santamato, “Spin-orbit hybrid entanglement of photons and quantum contextuality,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 022115(2010).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Dennis, K. O’Holleran, and M. J. Padgett, “Optical vortices and polarization singularities,” Prog. Opt. 53, 293–363 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Franke-Arnold, L. Allen, and M. J. Padgett, “Advances in optical angular momentum,” Laser Photonics Rev. 2, 299–313 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Paparo, D.

L. Marrucci, C. Manzo, and D. Paparo, “Pancharatnam-Berry phase optical elements for wave front shaping in the visible domain: switchable helical mode generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 221102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Marrucci, C. Manzo, and D. Paparo, “Optical spin-to-orbital angular momentum conversion in inhomogeneous anisotropic media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 163905 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Piccirillo, B.

L. Marrucci, E. Karimi, S. Slussarenko, B. Piccirillo, E. Santamato, E. Nagali, and F. Sciarrino, “Spin-to-orbital conversion of the angular momentum of light and its classical and quantum applications,” J. Opt. 13, 064001 (2011).
[CrossRef]

E. Karimi, S. Slussarenko, B. Piccirillo, L. Marrucci, and E. Santamato, “Polarization-controlled evolution of light transverse modes and associated Pancharatnam geometric phase in orbital angular momentum,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 053813 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Piccirillo, V. D’Ambrosio, S. Slussarenko, L. Marrucci, and E. Santamato, “Photon spin-to-orbital angular momentum conversion via an electrically tunable q-plate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 241104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Karimi, J. Leach, S. Slussarenko, B. Piccirillo, L. Marrucci, L. Chen, W. She, S. Franke-Arnold, M. J. Padgett, and E. Santamato, “Spin-orbit hybrid entanglement of photons and quantum contextuality,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 022115(2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Nagali, F. Sciarrino, F. De Martini, B. Piccirillo, E. Karimi, L. Marrucci, and E. Santamato, “Polarization control of single photon quantum orbital angular momentum states,” Opt. Express 17, 18745–18759 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Karimi, B. Piccirillo, E. Nagali, L. Marrucci, and E. Santamato, “Efficient generation and sorting of orbital angular momentum eigenmodes of light by thermally tuned q-plates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 231124 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Piché, M.

C. Varin and M. Piché, “Acceleration of ultra-relativistic electrons using high-intensity laser beams,” Appl. Phys. B 74, S83–S88 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Quabis, S.

R. Dorn, S. Quabis, and G. Leuchs, “Sharper focus for a radially polarized light beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 233901 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Santamato, E.

L. Marrucci, E. Karimi, S. Slussarenko, B. Piccirillo, E. Santamato, E. Nagali, and F. Sciarrino, “Spin-to-orbital conversion of the angular momentum of light and its classical and quantum applications,” J. Opt. 13, 064001 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Slussarenko, A. Murauski, T. Du, V. Chigrinov, L. Marrucci, and E. Santamato, “Tunable liquid crystal q-plates with arbitrary topological charge,” Opt. Express 19, 4085–4090 (2011).
[CrossRef]

E. Karimi, J. Leach, S. Slussarenko, B. Piccirillo, L. Marrucci, L. Chen, W. She, S. Franke-Arnold, M. J. Padgett, and E. Santamato, “Spin-orbit hybrid entanglement of photons and quantum contextuality,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 022115(2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Piccirillo, V. D’Ambrosio, S. Slussarenko, L. Marrucci, and E. Santamato, “Photon spin-to-orbital angular momentum conversion via an electrically tunable q-plate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 241104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Karimi, S. Slussarenko, B. Piccirillo, L. Marrucci, and E. Santamato, “Polarization-controlled evolution of light transverse modes and associated Pancharatnam geometric phase in orbital angular momentum,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 053813 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Karimi, B. Piccirillo, E. Nagali, L. Marrucci, and E. Santamato, “Efficient generation and sorting of orbital angular momentum eigenmodes of light by thermally tuned q-plates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 231124 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Nagali, F. Sciarrino, F. De Martini, B. Piccirillo, E. Karimi, L. Marrucci, and E. Santamato, “Polarization control of single photon quantum orbital angular momentum states,” Opt. Express 17, 18745–18759 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sato, S.

Schadt, N.

Sciarrino, F.

L. Marrucci, E. Karimi, S. Slussarenko, B. Piccirillo, E. Santamato, E. Nagali, and F. Sciarrino, “Spin-to-orbital conversion of the angular momentum of light and its classical and quantum applications,” J. Opt. 13, 064001 (2011).
[CrossRef]

E. Nagali, F. Sciarrino, F. De Martini, B. Piccirillo, E. Karimi, L. Marrucci, and E. Santamato, “Polarization control of single photon quantum orbital angular momentum states,” Opt. Express 17, 18745–18759 (2009).
[CrossRef]

She, W.

E. Karimi, J. Leach, S. Slussarenko, B. Piccirillo, L. Marrucci, L. Chen, W. She, S. Franke-Arnold, M. J. Padgett, and E. Santamato, “Spin-orbit hybrid entanglement of photons and quantum contextuality,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 022115(2010).
[CrossRef]

Sheppard, C.

H. Wang, L. Shi, B. Lukyanchuk, C. Sheppard, and C. T. Chong, “Creation of a needle of longitudinally polarized light in vacuum using binary optics,” Nat. Photon. 2, 501–505 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shi, L.

H. Wang, L. Shi, B. Lukyanchuk, C. Sheppard, and C. T. Chong, “Creation of a needle of longitudinally polarized light in vacuum using binary optics,” Nat. Photon. 2, 501–505 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shostka, N.

Shvedov, V.

Slussarenko, S.

S. Slussarenko, A. Murauski, T. Du, V. Chigrinov, L. Marrucci, and E. Santamato, “Tunable liquid crystal q-plates with arbitrary topological charge,” Opt. Express 19, 4085–4090 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Marrucci, E. Karimi, S. Slussarenko, B. Piccirillo, E. Santamato, E. Nagali, and F. Sciarrino, “Spin-to-orbital conversion of the angular momentum of light and its classical and quantum applications,” J. Opt. 13, 064001 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. Piccirillo, V. D’Ambrosio, S. Slussarenko, L. Marrucci, and E. Santamato, “Photon spin-to-orbital angular momentum conversion via an electrically tunable q-plate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 241104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Karimi, S. Slussarenko, B. Piccirillo, L. Marrucci, and E. Santamato, “Polarization-controlled evolution of light transverse modes and associated Pancharatnam geometric phase in orbital angular momentum,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 053813 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Karimi, J. Leach, S. Slussarenko, B. Piccirillo, L. Marrucci, L. Chen, W. She, S. Franke-Arnold, M. J. Padgett, and E. Santamato, “Spin-orbit hybrid entanglement of photons and quantum contextuality,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 022115(2010).
[CrossRef]

Soskin, M. S.

M. S. Soskin and M. V. Vasnetsov, “Singular optics,” Prog. Opt. 42, 219–276 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Stàlder, M.

Sztul, A.

Sztul, H. I.

G. Milione, H. I. Sztul, D. A. Nolan, and R. R. Alfano, “Higher-order Poincaré sphere, Stokes parameters, and the angular momentum of light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 053601 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tschudi, T.

E. G. Churin, J. Hoßfeld, and T. Tschudi, “Polarization configurations with singular point formed by computer generated holograms,” Opt. Commun. 99, 13–17 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Varin, C.

C. Varin and M. Piché, “Acceleration of ultra-relativistic electrons using high-intensity laser beams,” Appl. Phys. B 74, S83–S88 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Vasnetsov, M. V.

M. S. Soskin and M. V. Vasnetsov, “Singular optics,” Prog. Opt. 42, 219–276 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Volyar, A.

Wang, H.

H. Wang, L. Shi, B. Lukyanchuk, C. Sheppard, and C. T. Chong, “Creation of a needle of longitudinally polarized light in vacuum using binary optics,” Nat. Photon. 2, 501–505 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, H. T.

Wang, X. L.

Youngworth, K. S.

L. Novotny, M. R. Beversluis, K. S. Youngworth, and T. G. Brown, “Longitudinal field modes probed by single molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 5251–5254 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zhan, Q.

Zheng, W.

Adv. Opt. Photon. (1)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

C. Varin and M. Piché, “Acceleration of ultra-relativistic electrons using high-intensity laser beams,” Appl. Phys. B 74, S83–S88 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

R. Oron, S. Blit, N. Davidson, A. A. Friesen, Z. Bomzon, and E. Hasman, “The formation of laser beams with pure azimuthal or radial polarization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3322–3324 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. Marrucci, C. Manzo, and D. Paparo, “Pancharatnam-Berry phase optical elements for wave front shaping in the visible domain: switchable helical mode generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 221102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. Karimi, B. Piccirillo, E. Nagali, L. Marrucci, and E. Santamato, “Efficient generation and sorting of orbital angular momentum eigenmodes of light by thermally tuned q-plates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 231124 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. Piccirillo, V. D’Ambrosio, S. Slussarenko, L. Marrucci, and E. Santamato, “Photon spin-to-orbital angular momentum conversion via an electrically tunable q-plate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 241104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. (1)

L. Marrucci, E. Karimi, S. Slussarenko, B. Piccirillo, E. Santamato, E. Nagali, and F. Sciarrino, “Spin-to-orbital conversion of the angular momentum of light and its classical and quantum applications,” J. Opt. 13, 064001 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Laser Photonics Rev. (1)

S. Franke-Arnold, L. Allen, and M. J. Padgett, “Advances in optical angular momentum,” Laser Photonics Rev. 2, 299–313 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photon. (1)

H. Wang, L. Shi, B. Lukyanchuk, C. Sheppard, and C. T. Chong, “Creation of a needle of longitudinally polarized light in vacuum using binary optics,” Nat. Photon. 2, 501–505 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (2)

E. G. Churin, J. Hoßfeld, and T. Tschudi, “Polarization configurations with singular point formed by computer generated holograms,” Opt. Commun. 99, 13–17 (1993).
[CrossRef]

G. Machavariani, Y. Lumer, I. Moshe, A. Meir, and S. Jackel, “Spatially-variable retardation plate for efficient generation of radially and azimuthally-polarized beams,” Opt. Commun. 281, 732–738 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (8)

Phys. Rep. (1)

R. Bhandari, “Polarization of light and topological phases,” Phys. Rep. 281, 1–64 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (2)

E. Karimi, J. Leach, S. Slussarenko, B. Piccirillo, L. Marrucci, L. Chen, W. She, S. Franke-Arnold, M. J. Padgett, and E. Santamato, “Spin-orbit hybrid entanglement of photons and quantum contextuality,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 022115(2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Karimi, S. Slussarenko, B. Piccirillo, L. Marrucci, and E. Santamato, “Polarization-controlled evolution of light transverse modes and associated Pancharatnam geometric phase in orbital angular momentum,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 053813 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (5)

G. Milione, H. I. Sztul, D. A. Nolan, and R. R. Alfano, “Higher-order Poincaré sphere, Stokes parameters, and the angular momentum of light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 053601 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Marrucci, C. Manzo, and D. Paparo, “Optical spin-to-orbital angular momentum conversion in inhomogeneous anisotropic media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 163905 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Novotny, M. R. Beversluis, K. S. Youngworth, and T. G. Brown, “Longitudinal field modes probed by single molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 5251–5254 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Bouhelier, M. Beversluis, A. Hartschuh, and L. Novotny, “Far-field second-harmonic generation induced by local field enhancement,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 013903 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Dorn, S. Quabis, and G. Leuchs, “Sharper focus for a radially polarized light beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 233901 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Prog. Opt. (2)

M. R. Dennis, K. O’Holleran, and M. J. Padgett, “Optical vortices and polarization singularities,” Prog. Opt. 53, 293–363 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Soskin and M. V. Vasnetsov, “Singular optics,” Prog. Opt. 42, 219–276 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

J. F. Nye, Natural Focusing and the Fine Structure of Light (IOP Publishing, 1999).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Poincaré sphere representation for the polarization of a light beam with uniform transverse phase distribution. North (south) pole and equator correspond to left (right)-circular and linear polarizations, respectively. The other points have elliptical polarization, and antipodal points are orthogonal to each other. (b) and (c) show the polarization distribution in the transverse plane for m=1 and m=2, respectively, on the higher-order Poincaré sphere introduced in [32,33].

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Setup to generate and analyze different polarization topologies generated by a q-plate. The polarization state of the input laser beam was prepared by rotating the two HW plates in the QHQH set at angles ϑ/4 and φ/4 to produce a corresponding rotation of (ϑ, φ) on the Poincaré sphere, as indicated in the inset. The waveplates and polarizer beyond the q-plate were used to project the beam polarization on the base states (R, L, H, V, A, D) shown in Fig. 1(a). For each state projection, the intensity pattern was recorded by CCD camera, and the signals were analyzed pixel-by-pixel to reconstruct the polarization pattern in the beam transverse plane. Legend: 4×, microscope objective of 4× used to clean the laser mode; f, lens; Q, quarter-wave plate; H, half-wave plate; PBS, polarizing beam-splitter.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Recorded intensity profiles of the beam emerging from the q-plate projected over horizontal (H), vertical (V), antidiagonal (A), diagonal (D), left-circular (L), and right-circular (R) polarization base states for different q-plates and input polarizations. (a) and (b) are for the q=1/2-plate, and horizontal-linear (a) and left-circular (b) polarization of the input beam. (c) and (d) are the same for the q=1-plate. The color scale bar shows the intensity scale (arbitrary units) in false colors.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Highest-row panels: the transverse polarization and intensity distribution in the near field at the exit face of the q-plate. Lower panels: the polarization and intensity distributions in the far field beyond the q-plate. (a), (b), and (c) Polarization topological structure generated by the q=1/2-plate for left-circular, V-linear, and H-linear input polarizations, respectively. (d) and (e) Polarization topological structure generated by the q=1-plate for left-circular and H-linear input polarizations, respectively. (a) and (d) have uniform circular polarization distributions.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

|ϑ,φ=cos(ϑ2)|L+eiφsin(ϑ2)|R,
S0=IL+IR,S1=IHIV,S2=IAID,S3=ILIR.
α(ρ,ϕ)=α(ϕ)=qϕ+α0,
U^(|L|R)=cosδ2(|L|R)+isinδ2(|Re+2i(qϕ+α0)|Le2i(qϕ+α0)).

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