Abstract

This study constructed a measurement system that can quickly and accurately analyze the residual stress of flexible electronics. A double beam shadow moiré interferometer was set up to measure and evaluate the residual stress of tin-doped indium oxide films on a polyethylene terephthalate substrate. However, this system required only two symmetrical fringes to evaluate the residual stress of transparent conductive oxide films on flexible substrate. Applying the grating translation techniques to the double beam shadow moiré interferometer greatly improved the measurement resolution and accuracy, and the relative error was reduced to 1.2%.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. D. S. Ginley and C. Bright, “Transparent conducting oxides,” Mater. Res. Soc. Bull. 25, 15–18 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  2. B. G. Lewis and D. C. Paine, “Applications and processing of transparent conducting oxides,” Mater. Res. Soc. Bull. 25, 22–27 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  3. G. Gore, “On the properties of electro-deposited antimony,” Phil. Trans. R. Soc. London 148, 185–197 (1858).
    [CrossRef]
  4. E. J. Mills, “On electrostriction,” Proc. R. Soc. London 26, 504–512 (1877).
    [CrossRef]
  5. G. G. Stoney, “The tension of metallic films deposited by electrolysis,” Proc. R. Soc. London Series A82, 172–175 (1909).
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    [CrossRef]
  8. R. Weller and B. M. Shepard, “Displacement measurement by mechanical interferometry,” Proc. Soc. Exp. Stress Anal. 6, 35–38 (1948).
  9. S. Morse, A. J. Durelli, and C. A. Sciammarella, “Geometry of moiré fringes in strain analysis,” J. Eng. Mech. Div. ASCE 86, 105–126 (1960).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  16. P. S. Huang and H. Guo, “Phase shifting shadow moiré using the Carré algorithm,” Proc. SPIE 7066, 70660b(2008).
    [CrossRef]
  17. T. Wittkowski, J. Jorzick, H. Seitz, B. Schröder, K. Jung, and B. Hillebrands, “Elastic properties of indium tin oxide films,” Thin Solid Films 398–399, 465–470 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  18. C. J. Chiang, C. Winscom, S. Bull, and A. Monkman, “Mechanical modeling of flexible OLED devices,” Org. Electr. 10, 1268–1274 (2009).
    [CrossRef]

2009

C. J. Chiang, C. Winscom, S. Bull, and A. Monkman, “Mechanical modeling of flexible OLED devices,” Org. Electr. 10, 1268–1274 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

Jan A. N. Buytaert and Joris J. J. Dirckx, “Moiré profilometry using liquid crystals for projection and demodulation,” Opt. Express 16, 179–193 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. S. Huang and H. Guo, “Phase shifting shadow moiré using the Carré algorithm,” Proc. SPIE 7066, 70660b(2008).
[CrossRef]

2001

T. Wittkowski, J. Jorzick, H. Seitz, B. Schröder, K. Jung, and B. Hillebrands, “Elastic properties of indium tin oxide films,” Thin Solid Films 398–399, 465–470 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

D. S. Ginley and C. Bright, “Transparent conducting oxides,” Mater. Res. Soc. Bull. 25, 15–18 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. G. Lewis and D. C. Paine, “Applications and processing of transparent conducting oxides,” Mater. Res. Soc. Bull. 25, 22–27 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1979

H. K. Pulker and J. M. Maser, “The origin of mechanical stress in vacuum deposited MgF2 and ZnS films,” Thin Solid Films 59, 65 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1971

1970

1964

P. S. Theocaris, “Isopachic patterns by the moiré method,” Exp. Mech. 4, 153–159 (1964).
[CrossRef]

1960

S. Morse, A. J. Durelli, and C. A. Sciammarella, “Geometry of moiré fringes in strain analysis,” J. Eng. Mech. Div. ASCE 86, 105–126 (1960).

1948

R. Weller and B. M. Shepard, “Displacement measurement by mechanical interferometry,” Proc. Soc. Exp. Stress Anal. 6, 35–38 (1948).

1909

G. G. Stoney, “The tension of metallic films deposited by electrolysis,” Proc. R. Soc. London Series A82, 172–175 (1909).

1877

E. J. Mills, “On electrostriction,” Proc. R. Soc. London 26, 504–512 (1877).
[CrossRef]

1858

G. Gore, “On the properties of electro-deposited antimony,” Phil. Trans. R. Soc. London 148, 185–197 (1858).
[CrossRef]

Allen, J. B.

Bright, C.

D. S. Ginley and C. Bright, “Transparent conducting oxides,” Mater. Res. Soc. Bull. 25, 15–18 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bull, S.

C. J. Chiang, C. Winscom, S. Bull, and A. Monkman, “Mechanical modeling of flexible OLED devices,” Org. Electr. 10, 1268–1274 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bunshah, R. F.

R. F. Bunshah and C. Deshpandey, “The activated reactive evaporation process,” in Physics of Thin Films, ed. M. H. Francombe (Academic, 1971).

Buytaert, Jan A. N.

Chiang, C. J.

C. J. Chiang, C. Winscom, S. Bull, and A. Monkman, “Mechanical modeling of flexible OLED devices,” Org. Electr. 10, 1268–1274 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dally, J. W.

J. W. Dally and W. F. Riley, “Out-of-plane displacement measurements,” in Experimental Stress Analysis (McGraw-Hill, 1991).

Deshpandey, C.

R. F. Bunshah and C. Deshpandey, “The activated reactive evaporation process,” in Physics of Thin Films, ed. M. H. Francombe (Academic, 1971).

Dirckx, Joris J. J.

Durelli, A. J.

S. Morse, A. J. Durelli, and C. A. Sciammarella, “Geometry of moiré fringes in strain analysis,” J. Eng. Mech. Div. ASCE 86, 105–126 (1960).

Freund, L. B.

L. B. Freund and S. Suresh, “The Stoney formula,” in Thin Film Materials (Cambridge University, 2003).

Ginley, D. S.

D. S. Ginley and C. Bright, “Transparent conducting oxides,” Mater. Res. Soc. Bull. 25, 15–18 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gore, G.

G. Gore, “On the properties of electro-deposited antimony,” Phil. Trans. R. Soc. London 148, 185–197 (1858).
[CrossRef]

Guo, H.

P. S. Huang and H. Guo, “Phase shifting shadow moiré using the Carré algorithm,” Proc. SPIE 7066, 70660b(2008).
[CrossRef]

Hillebrands, B.

T. Wittkowski, J. Jorzick, H. Seitz, B. Schröder, K. Jung, and B. Hillebrands, “Elastic properties of indium tin oxide films,” Thin Solid Films 398–399, 465–470 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Huang, P. S.

P. S. Huang and H. Guo, “Phase shifting shadow moiré using the Carré algorithm,” Proc. SPIE 7066, 70660b(2008).
[CrossRef]

Jorzick, J.

T. Wittkowski, J. Jorzick, H. Seitz, B. Schröder, K. Jung, and B. Hillebrands, “Elastic properties of indium tin oxide films,” Thin Solid Films 398–399, 465–470 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jung, K.

T. Wittkowski, J. Jorzick, H. Seitz, B. Schröder, K. Jung, and B. Hillebrands, “Elastic properties of indium tin oxide films,” Thin Solid Films 398–399, 465–470 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lewis, B. G.

B. G. Lewis and D. C. Paine, “Applications and processing of transparent conducting oxides,” Mater. Res. Soc. Bull. 25, 22–27 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Maser, J. M.

H. K. Pulker and J. M. Maser, “The origin of mechanical stress in vacuum deposited MgF2 and ZnS films,” Thin Solid Films 59, 65 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Meadows, D. M.

Mills, E. J.

E. J. Mills, “On electrostriction,” Proc. R. Soc. London 26, 504–512 (1877).
[CrossRef]

Monkman, A.

C. J. Chiang, C. Winscom, S. Bull, and A. Monkman, “Mechanical modeling of flexible OLED devices,” Org. Electr. 10, 1268–1274 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Morse, S.

S. Morse, A. J. Durelli, and C. A. Sciammarella, “Geometry of moiré fringes in strain analysis,” J. Eng. Mech. Div. ASCE 86, 105–126 (1960).

Paine, D. C.

B. G. Lewis and D. C. Paine, “Applications and processing of transparent conducting oxides,” Mater. Res. Soc. Bull. 25, 22–27 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Pulker, H. K.

H. K. Pulker and J. M. Maser, “The origin of mechanical stress in vacuum deposited MgF2 and ZnS films,” Thin Solid Films 59, 65 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Riley, W. F.

J. W. Dally and W. F. Riley, “Out-of-plane displacement measurements,” in Experimental Stress Analysis (McGraw-Hill, 1991).

Schröder, B.

T. Wittkowski, J. Jorzick, H. Seitz, B. Schröder, K. Jung, and B. Hillebrands, “Elastic properties of indium tin oxide films,” Thin Solid Films 398–399, 465–470 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sciammarella, C. A.

S. Morse, A. J. Durelli, and C. A. Sciammarella, “Geometry of moiré fringes in strain analysis,” J. Eng. Mech. Div. ASCE 86, 105–126 (1960).

Seitz, H.

T. Wittkowski, J. Jorzick, H. Seitz, B. Schröder, K. Jung, and B. Hillebrands, “Elastic properties of indium tin oxide films,” Thin Solid Films 398–399, 465–470 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Shepard, B. M.

R. Weller and B. M. Shepard, “Displacement measurement by mechanical interferometry,” Proc. Soc. Exp. Stress Anal. 6, 35–38 (1948).

Stoney, G. G.

G. G. Stoney, “The tension of metallic films deposited by electrolysis,” Proc. R. Soc. London Series A82, 172–175 (1909).

Suresh, S.

L. B. Freund and S. Suresh, “The Stoney formula,” in Thin Film Materials (Cambridge University, 2003).

Takasaki, H.

Theocaris, P. S.

P. S. Theocaris, “Isopachic patterns by the moiré method,” Exp. Mech. 4, 153–159 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Weller, R.

R. Weller and B. M. Shepard, “Displacement measurement by mechanical interferometry,” Proc. Soc. Exp. Stress Anal. 6, 35–38 (1948).

Winscom, C.

C. J. Chiang, C. Winscom, S. Bull, and A. Monkman, “Mechanical modeling of flexible OLED devices,” Org. Electr. 10, 1268–1274 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wittkowski, T.

T. Wittkowski, J. Jorzick, H. Seitz, B. Schröder, K. Jung, and B. Hillebrands, “Elastic properties of indium tin oxide films,” Thin Solid Films 398–399, 465–470 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Exp. Mech.

P. S. Theocaris, “Isopachic patterns by the moiré method,” Exp. Mech. 4, 153–159 (1964).
[CrossRef]

J. Eng. Mech. Div. ASCE

S. Morse, A. J. Durelli, and C. A. Sciammarella, “Geometry of moiré fringes in strain analysis,” J. Eng. Mech. Div. ASCE 86, 105–126 (1960).

Mater. Res. Soc. Bull.

D. S. Ginley and C. Bright, “Transparent conducting oxides,” Mater. Res. Soc. Bull. 25, 15–18 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. G. Lewis and D. C. Paine, “Applications and processing of transparent conducting oxides,” Mater. Res. Soc. Bull. 25, 22–27 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Org. Electr.

C. J. Chiang, C. Winscom, S. Bull, and A. Monkman, “Mechanical modeling of flexible OLED devices,” Org. Electr. 10, 1268–1274 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Phil. Trans. R. Soc. London

G. Gore, “On the properties of electro-deposited antimony,” Phil. Trans. R. Soc. London 148, 185–197 (1858).
[CrossRef]

Proc. R. Soc. London

E. J. Mills, “On electrostriction,” Proc. R. Soc. London 26, 504–512 (1877).
[CrossRef]

Proc. R. Soc. London Series

G. G. Stoney, “The tension of metallic films deposited by electrolysis,” Proc. R. Soc. London Series A82, 172–175 (1909).

Proc. Soc. Exp. Stress Anal.

R. Weller and B. M. Shepard, “Displacement measurement by mechanical interferometry,” Proc. Soc. Exp. Stress Anal. 6, 35–38 (1948).

Proc. SPIE

P. S. Huang and H. Guo, “Phase shifting shadow moiré using the Carré algorithm,” Proc. SPIE 7066, 70660b(2008).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films

T. Wittkowski, J. Jorzick, H. Seitz, B. Schröder, K. Jung, and B. Hillebrands, “Elastic properties of indium tin oxide films,” Thin Solid Films 398–399, 465–470 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. K. Pulker and J. M. Maser, “The origin of mechanical stress in vacuum deposited MgF2 and ZnS films,” Thin Solid Films 59, 65 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Other

R. F. Bunshah and C. Deshpandey, “The activated reactive evaporation process,” in Physics of Thin Films, ed. M. H. Francombe (Academic, 1971).

J. W. Dally and W. F. Riley, “Out-of-plane displacement measurements,” in Experimental Stress Analysis (McGraw-Hill, 1991).

L. B. Freund and S. Suresh, “The Stoney formula,” in Thin Film Materials (Cambridge University, 2003).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic diagram of the out-of-plane displacement.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Schematic setup of the double beam shadow moiré interferometer.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

ITO deposited on PET substrate by RF magnetron sputtering.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Moiré pattern and (b) intensity map of the standard cylinder.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) Moiré pattern and (b) intensity map of the standard cylinder after PSM.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(a) Moiré pattern and (b) intensity map for ITO/PET substrate.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Curvature measurement of (a) standard cylinder, (b) ITO/PET flexible substrate.

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

w=d2d1=ptanα,
R=w2+δ22w.
σf=(Ysts2Yftf2)2+4YsYftstf(ts+tf)26(1+ν)YsYftstf(ts+tf)Yf*(1+Yf*tfYs*ts)(1R1R0),
I1=I04[1+sinθ0]×[1+sin(φ+θ0)],
I2=I04[1+sin(θ0+2π3)]×[1+sin(φ+θ0+2π3)]
I3=I04[1+sin(θ0+4π3)]×[1+sin(φ+θ0+4π3)].
I=I04(1+12cosφ),

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