Abstract

We present the concept and experimental results for Spectral LADAR, an augmented LADAR imager combining three-dimensional (3D) time-of-flight ranging with active multispectral sensing in the shortwave infrared (1080–1620 nm). The demonstrated technique is based on a nanosecond regime pulsed supercontinuum transmitter and spectrally multiplexed receiver that computes a high-resolution range value for each of 25 spectral bands. A low frame-rate prototype unit is described. Results demonstrating 3D imaging and material type classification of objects, especially those obscured by camouflage, are shown at effective stand-off ranges exceeding 40 m. These capabilities and the highly eye safe wavelengths at which the system operates make it suitable for applications in military imaging and robotic perception.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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2011

I. Kuzmina, I. Diebele, D. Jakovels, J. Spigulis, L. Valeine, J. Kapostinsh, and A. Berzina, “Towards noncontact skin melanoma selection by multispectral imaging analysis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 060502 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Powers and C. C. Davis, “Spectral LADAR as a UGV navigation sensor,” Proc. SPIE 8037, 80371F (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

2009

2006

J. F. Andersen, J. Busck, and H. Heiselberg, “Pulsed Raman fiber laser and multispectral imaging in three dimensions,” Appl. Opt. 45, 6198–6204 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J.-F. Lalonde, N. Vandapel, D. F. Huber, and M. Hebert, “Natural terrain classification using three-dimensional ladar data for ground robot mobility,” J. Field Robot. 23, 839–861 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, “Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 78, 1135–1184 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

A. M. Wallace, G. S. Buller, R. C. W. Sung, R. D. Harkins, A. McCarthy, S. Hernandez-Marin, G. J. Gibson, and R. Lamb, “Multi-spectral laser detection and ranging for range profiling and surface characterization,” J. Opt. A 7, S438–S444 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Wang, Y. Wang, and H. Q. Le, “Multi-spectral mid-infrared laser stand-off imaging,” Opt. Express 13, 6572–6586(2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

2003

M. L. Nischan, R. M. Joseph, J. C. Libby, and J. P. Kerekes, “Active spectral imaging,” Lincoln Lab. J. 14, 131–144 (2003).

B. A. Kinder, J. P. Garcia, R. D. Habbit, and E. L. Dereniak, “Ranging-imaging spectrometer,” Proc. SPIE 5159, 73–81 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

2001

B. R. Foy, B. D. McVey, R. R. Petrin, J. J. Tiee, and C. W. Wilson, “Remote mapping of vegetation and geological features by LIDAR in the 9–11 µm region,” Appl. Opt. 40, 4344–4352 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. D. Gleckler, A. Gelbart, and J. M. Bowden, “Multispectral and hyperspectral 3D imaging lidar based upon the multiple-slit streak tube imaging lidar,” Proc. SPIE 4377, 328–335 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1998

R. O. Green, M. L. Eastwood, C. M. Sarture, T. G. Chrien, M. Aronsson, B. J. Chippendale, J. A. Faust, B. E. Pavri, C. J. Chovit, M. Solis, M. R. Olah, and O. Williams, “Imaging spectroscopy and the airborne visible/infrared imaging spectrometer (AVIRIS),” Remote Sens. Environ. 65, 227–248 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Hardie, M. Vaidyanathan, and P. F. McManamon, “Spectral band selection and classifier design for a multispectral imaging laser radar,” Opt. Eng. 37, 752–762 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

M. Vaidyanathan, T. P. Grayson, R. C. Hardie, L. E. Myers, and P. F. McManamon, “Multispectral Laser radar development and target characterization,” Proc. SPIE 3065, 255–266(1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

C. Carmer and L. M. Peterson, “Laser radar in robotics,” Proc. IEEE 84, 299–320 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1976

C. Lin and R. Stolen, “New nanosecond continuum for excited-state spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 216–218 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Alouini, M.

Andersen, J. F.

Anderson, R.

R. Anderson, W. Malila, R. Maxwell, and L. Reed, Military Utility of Multispectral and Hyperspectral Sensors (Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, 1997).

Aronsson, M.

R. O. Green, M. L. Eastwood, C. M. Sarture, T. G. Chrien, M. Aronsson, B. J. Chippendale, J. A. Faust, B. E. Pavri, C. J. Chovit, M. Solis, M. R. Olah, and O. Williams, “Imaging spectroscopy and the airborne visible/infrared imaging spectrometer (AVIRIS),” Remote Sens. Environ. 65, 227–248 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Baarstad, I.

Barr, D. N.

Beck, A.

J. C. Campbell, S. Demiguel, F. Ma, A. Beck, X. Guo, S. Wang, X. Zheng, X. Li, J. D. Beck, M. A. Kinch, A. Huntington, L. A. Coldren, J. Decobert, and N. Tscherptner, “Recent advances in avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 10, 777–787 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Beck, J. D.

J. C. Campbell, S. Demiguel, F. Ma, A. Beck, X. Guo, S. Wang, X. Zheng, X. Li, J. D. Beck, M. A. Kinch, A. Huntington, L. A. Coldren, J. Decobert, and N. Tscherptner, “Recent advances in avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 10, 777–787 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bénière, A.

Berginc, G.

Berzina, A.

I. Kuzmina, I. Diebele, D. Jakovels, J. Spigulis, L. Valeine, J. Kapostinsh, and A. Berzina, “Towards noncontact skin melanoma selection by multispectral imaging analysis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 060502 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Biancalana, F.

Birks, T. A.

Bokobza, L.

L. Bokobza, “Origin of near-infrared absorption bands,” in Near Infrared Spectroscopy: Principles, Instruments, Applications, H. W. Seisler, ed. (Wiley-VCH, 2002), pp. 12–16.

Bourderionnet, J.

Burton, K.

K. Burton, J. Jeong, S. Wachsmann-Hogiu, and D. L. Farkas, “Spectral optical imaging in biology and medicine,” in Biomedial Optical Imaging, J. G. Fujimoto and D. L. Farkas, eds. (Oxford, 2009), pp. 29–72.

Busck, J.

Campbell, J. C.

J. C. Campbell, S. Demiguel, F. Ma, A. Beck, X. Guo, S. Wang, X. Zheng, X. Li, J. D. Beck, M. A. Kinch, A. Huntington, L. A. Coldren, J. Decobert, and N. Tscherptner, “Recent advances in avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 10, 777–787 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Carmer, C.

C. Carmer and L. M. Peterson, “Laser radar in robotics,” Proc. IEEE 84, 299–320 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chippendale, B. J.

R. O. Green, M. L. Eastwood, C. M. Sarture, T. G. Chrien, M. Aronsson, B. J. Chippendale, J. A. Faust, B. E. Pavri, C. J. Chovit, M. Solis, M. R. Olah, and O. Williams, “Imaging spectroscopy and the airborne visible/infrared imaging spectrometer (AVIRIS),” Remote Sens. Environ. 65, 227–248 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chovit, C. J.

R. O. Green, M. L. Eastwood, C. M. Sarture, T. G. Chrien, M. Aronsson, B. J. Chippendale, J. A. Faust, B. E. Pavri, C. J. Chovit, M. Solis, M. R. Olah, and O. Williams, “Imaging spectroscopy and the airborne visible/infrared imaging spectrometer (AVIRIS),” Remote Sens. Environ. 65, 227–248 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chrien, T. G.

R. O. Green, M. L. Eastwood, C. M. Sarture, T. G. Chrien, M. Aronsson, B. J. Chippendale, J. A. Faust, B. E. Pavri, C. J. Chovit, M. Solis, M. R. Olah, and O. Williams, “Imaging spectroscopy and the airborne visible/infrared imaging spectrometer (AVIRIS),” Remote Sens. Environ. 65, 227–248 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ciurczak, E. W.

E. W. Ciurczak, “Principles of near-infrared spectroscopy,” in Handbook of Near-Infrared Analysis, 2nd ed., D. A. Burns and E. W. Ciurczak, eds. (Dekker, 2001), pp. 7–19.

Coen, S.

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, “Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 78, 1135–1184 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Coldren, L. A.

J. C. Campbell, S. Demiguel, F. Ma, A. Beck, X. Guo, S. Wang, X. Zheng, X. Li, J. D. Beck, M. A. Kinch, A. Huntington, L. A. Coldren, J. Decobert, and N. Tscherptner, “Recent advances in avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 10, 777–787 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Davis, C. C.

M. A. Powers and C. C. Davis, “Spectral LADAR as a UGV navigation sensor,” Proc. SPIE 8037, 80371F (2011).
[CrossRef]

Decobert, J.

J. C. Campbell, S. Demiguel, F. Ma, A. Beck, X. Guo, S. Wang, X. Zheng, X. Li, J. D. Beck, M. A. Kinch, A. Huntington, L. A. Coldren, J. Decobert, and N. Tscherptner, “Recent advances in avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 10, 777–787 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Demiguel, S.

J. C. Campbell, S. Demiguel, F. Ma, A. Beck, X. Guo, S. Wang, X. Zheng, X. Li, J. D. Beck, M. A. Kinch, A. Huntington, L. A. Coldren, J. Decobert, and N. Tscherptner, “Recent advances in avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 10, 777–787 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dereniak, E. L.

B. A. Kinder, J. P. Garcia, R. D. Habbit, and E. L. Dereniak, “Ranging-imaging spectrometer,” Proc. SPIE 5159, 73–81 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Diebele, I.

I. Kuzmina, I. Diebele, D. Jakovels, J. Spigulis, L. Valeine, J. Kapostinsh, and A. Berzina, “Towards noncontact skin melanoma selection by multispectral imaging analysis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 060502 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Dolfi, D.

Dudley, J. M.

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, “Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 78, 1135–1184 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Eastwood, M. L.

R. O. Green, M. L. Eastwood, C. M. Sarture, T. G. Chrien, M. Aronsson, B. J. Chippendale, J. A. Faust, B. E. Pavri, C. J. Chovit, M. Solis, M. R. Olah, and O. Williams, “Imaging spectroscopy and the airborne visible/infrared imaging spectrometer (AVIRIS),” Remote Sens. Environ. 65, 227–248 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Engelbrecht, R.

Farkas, D. L.

K. Burton, J. Jeong, S. Wachsmann-Hogiu, and D. L. Farkas, “Spectral optical imaging in biology and medicine,” in Biomedial Optical Imaging, J. G. Fujimoto and D. L. Farkas, eds. (Oxford, 2009), pp. 29–72.

Faust, J. A.

R. O. Green, M. L. Eastwood, C. M. Sarture, T. G. Chrien, M. Aronsson, B. J. Chippendale, J. A. Faust, B. E. Pavri, C. J. Chovit, M. Solis, M. R. Olah, and O. Williams, “Imaging spectroscopy and the airborne visible/infrared imaging spectrometer (AVIRIS),” Remote Sens. Environ. 65, 227–248 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Foy, B. R.

Garcia, J. P.

B. A. Kinder, J. P. Garcia, R. D. Habbit, and E. L. Dereniak, “Ranging-imaging spectrometer,” Proc. SPIE 5159, 73–81 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Genty, G.

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, “Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 78, 1135–1184 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Goudail, F.

Grayson, T. P.

M. Vaidyanathan, T. P. Grayson, R. C. Hardie, L. E. Myers, and P. F. McManamon, “Multispectral Laser radar development and target characterization,” Proc. SPIE 3065, 255–266(1997).
[CrossRef]

Green, R. O.

R. O. Green, M. L. Eastwood, C. M. Sarture, T. G. Chrien, M. Aronsson, B. J. Chippendale, J. A. Faust, B. E. Pavri, C. J. Chovit, M. Solis, M. R. Olah, and O. Williams, “Imaging spectroscopy and the airborne visible/infrared imaging spectrometer (AVIRIS),” Remote Sens. Environ. 65, 227–248 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Grisard, A.

Guo, X.

J. C. Campbell, S. Demiguel, F. Ma, A. Beck, X. Guo, S. Wang, X. Zheng, X. Li, J. D. Beck, M. A. Kinch, A. Huntington, L. A. Coldren, J. Decobert, and N. Tscherptner, “Recent advances in avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 10, 777–787 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Habbit, R. D.

B. A. Kinder, J. P. Garcia, R. D. Habbit, and E. L. Dereniak, “Ranging-imaging spectrometer,” Proc. SPIE 5159, 73–81 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hardie, R. C.

R. C. Hardie, M. Vaidyanathan, and P. F. McManamon, “Spectral band selection and classifier design for a multispectral imaging laser radar,” Opt. Eng. 37, 752–762 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Vaidyanathan, T. P. Grayson, R. C. Hardie, L. E. Myers, and P. F. McManamon, “Multispectral Laser radar development and target characterization,” Proc. SPIE 3065, 255–266(1997).
[CrossRef]

Hebert, M.

J.-F. Lalonde, N. Vandapel, D. F. Huber, and M. Hebert, “Natural terrain classification using three-dimensional ladar data for ground robot mobility,” J. Field Robot. 23, 839–861 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Hebert, “Active and passive range sensing for robotics,” in Proceedings of the 2000 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (IEEE, 2000), pp. 102–110.

Heiselberg, H.

Huber, D. F.

J.-F. Lalonde, N. Vandapel, D. F. Huber, and M. Hebert, “Natural terrain classification using three-dimensional ladar data for ground robot mobility,” J. Field Robot. 23, 839–861 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Huertas, A.

A. L. Rankin, A. Huertas, and L. H. Matthies, “Stereo vision based terrain mapping for off-road autonomous navigation,” Proc. SPIE 7332, 733210 (2009).

Huntington, A.

J. C. Campbell, S. Demiguel, F. Ma, A. Beck, X. Guo, S. Wang, X. Zheng, X. Li, J. D. Beck, M. A. Kinch, A. Huntington, L. A. Coldren, J. Decobert, and N. Tscherptner, “Recent advances in avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 10, 777–787 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jakovels, D.

I. Kuzmina, I. Diebele, D. Jakovels, J. Spigulis, L. Valeine, J. Kapostinsh, and A. Berzina, “Towards noncontact skin melanoma selection by multispectral imaging analysis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 060502 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jeong, J.

K. Burton, J. Jeong, S. Wachsmann-Hogiu, and D. L. Farkas, “Spectral optical imaging in biology and medicine,” in Biomedial Optical Imaging, J. G. Fujimoto and D. L. Farkas, eds. (Oxford, 2009), pp. 29–72.

Jia, X.

J. A. Richards and X. Jia, Remote Sensing Digital Image Analysis, 4th ed. (Springer, 2006).

Joly, N.

Joseph, R. M.

M. L. Nischan, R. M. Joseph, J. C. Libby, and J. P. Kerekes, “Active spectral imaging,” Lincoln Lab. J. 14, 131–144 (2003).

Kapostinsh, J.

I. Kuzmina, I. Diebele, D. Jakovels, J. Spigulis, L. Valeine, J. Kapostinsh, and A. Berzina, “Towards noncontact skin melanoma selection by multispectral imaging analysis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 060502 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kaspersen, P.

Kerekes, J. P.

M. L. Nischan, R. M. Joseph, J. C. Libby, and J. P. Kerekes, “Active spectral imaging,” Lincoln Lab. J. 14, 131–144 (2003).

Kinch, M. A.

J. C. Campbell, S. Demiguel, F. Ma, A. Beck, X. Guo, S. Wang, X. Zheng, X. Li, J. D. Beck, M. A. Kinch, A. Huntington, L. A. Coldren, J. Decobert, and N. Tscherptner, “Recent advances in avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 10, 777–787 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kinder, B. A.

B. A. Kinder, J. P. Garcia, R. D. Habbit, and E. L. Dereniak, “Ranging-imaging spectrometer,” Proc. SPIE 5159, 73–81 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Knight, J. C.

Kozlov, D.

Kuzmina, I.

I. Kuzmina, I. Diebele, D. Jakovels, J. Spigulis, L. Valeine, J. Kapostinsh, and A. Berzina, “Towards noncontact skin melanoma selection by multispectral imaging analysis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 060502 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lalonde, J.-F.

J.-F. Lalonde, N. Vandapel, D. F. Huber, and M. Hebert, “Natural terrain classification using three-dimensional ladar data for ground robot mobility,” J. Field Robot. 23, 839–861 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Le, H. Q.

Lee, K.-S.

Leipertz, A.

Li, X.

J. C. Campbell, S. Demiguel, F. Ma, A. Beck, X. Guo, S. Wang, X. Zheng, X. Li, J. D. Beck, M. A. Kinch, A. Huntington, L. A. Coldren, J. Decobert, and N. Tscherptner, “Recent advances in avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 10, 777–787 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Libby, J. C.

M. L. Nischan, R. M. Joseph, J. C. Libby, and J. P. Kerekes, “Active spectral imaging,” Lincoln Lab. J. 14, 131–144 (2003).

Lin, C.

C. Lin and R. Stolen, “New nanosecond continuum for excited-state spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 216–218 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Løke, T.

Ma, F.

J. C. Campbell, S. Demiguel, F. Ma, A. Beck, X. Guo, S. Wang, X. Zheng, X. Li, J. D. Beck, M. A. Kinch, A. Huntington, L. A. Coldren, J. Decobert, and N. Tscherptner, “Recent advances in avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 10, 777–787 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Malila, W.

R. Anderson, W. Malila, R. Maxwell, and L. Reed, Military Utility of Multispectral and Hyperspectral Sensors (Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, 1997).

Matthies, L. H.

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R. Anderson, W. Malila, R. Maxwell, and L. Reed, Military Utility of Multispectral and Hyperspectral Sensors (Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, 1997).

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M. Vaidyanathan, T. P. Grayson, R. C. Hardie, L. E. Myers, and P. F. McManamon, “Multispectral Laser radar development and target characterization,” Proc. SPIE 3065, 255–266(1997).
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R. O. Green, M. L. Eastwood, C. M. Sarture, T. G. Chrien, M. Aronsson, B. J. Chippendale, J. A. Faust, B. E. Pavri, C. J. Chovit, M. Solis, M. R. Olah, and O. Williams, “Imaging spectroscopy and the airborne visible/infrared imaging spectrometer (AVIRIS),” Remote Sens. Environ. 65, 227–248 (1998).
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M. A. Powers and C. C. Davis, “Spectral LADAR as a UGV navigation sensor,” Proc. SPIE 8037, 80371F (2011).
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A. L. Rankin, A. Huertas, and L. H. Matthies, “Stereo vision based terrain mapping for off-road autonomous navigation,” Proc. SPIE 7332, 733210 (2009).

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R. Anderson, W. Malila, R. Maxwell, and L. Reed, Military Utility of Multispectral and Hyperspectral Sensors (Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, 1997).

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J. A. Richards and X. Jia, Remote Sensing Digital Image Analysis, 4th ed. (Springer, 2006).

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R. O. Green, M. L. Eastwood, C. M. Sarture, T. G. Chrien, M. Aronsson, B. J. Chippendale, J. A. Faust, B. E. Pavri, C. J. Chovit, M. Solis, M. R. Olah, and O. Williams, “Imaging spectroscopy and the airborne visible/infrared imaging spectrometer (AVIRIS),” Remote Sens. Environ. 65, 227–248 (1998).
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M. I. Skolnik, Introduction to Radar Systems, 3rd ed. (McGraw-Hill, 2001).

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R. O. Green, M. L. Eastwood, C. M. Sarture, T. G. Chrien, M. Aronsson, B. J. Chippendale, J. A. Faust, B. E. Pavri, C. J. Chovit, M. Solis, M. R. Olah, and O. Williams, “Imaging spectroscopy and the airborne visible/infrared imaging spectrometer (AVIRIS),” Remote Sens. Environ. 65, 227–248 (1998).
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J. C. Campbell, S. Demiguel, F. Ma, A. Beck, X. Guo, S. Wang, X. Zheng, X. Li, J. D. Beck, M. A. Kinch, A. Huntington, L. A. Coldren, J. Decobert, and N. Tscherptner, “Recent advances in avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 10, 777–787 (2004).
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R. C. Hardie, M. Vaidyanathan, and P. F. McManamon, “Spectral band selection and classifier design for a multispectral imaging laser radar,” Opt. Eng. 37, 752–762 (1998).
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M. Vaidyanathan, T. P. Grayson, R. C. Hardie, L. E. Myers, and P. F. McManamon, “Multispectral Laser radar development and target characterization,” Proc. SPIE 3065, 255–266(1997).
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I. Kuzmina, I. Diebele, D. Jakovels, J. Spigulis, L. Valeine, J. Kapostinsh, and A. Berzina, “Towards noncontact skin melanoma selection by multispectral imaging analysis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 060502 (2011).
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J.-F. Lalonde, N. Vandapel, D. F. Huber, and M. Hebert, “Natural terrain classification using three-dimensional ladar data for ground robot mobility,” J. Field Robot. 23, 839–861 (2006).
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K. Burton, J. Jeong, S. Wachsmann-Hogiu, and D. L. Farkas, “Spectral optical imaging in biology and medicine,” in Biomedial Optical Imaging, J. G. Fujimoto and D. L. Farkas, eds. (Oxford, 2009), pp. 29–72.

Wadsworth, W. J.

Wang, S.

J. C. Campbell, S. Demiguel, F. Ma, A. Beck, X. Guo, S. Wang, X. Zheng, X. Li, J. D. Beck, M. A. Kinch, A. Huntington, L. A. Coldren, J. Decobert, and N. Tscherptner, “Recent advances in avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 10, 777–787 (2004).
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R. O. Green, M. L. Eastwood, C. M. Sarture, T. G. Chrien, M. Aronsson, B. J. Chippendale, J. A. Faust, B. E. Pavri, C. J. Chovit, M. Solis, M. R. Olah, and O. Williams, “Imaging spectroscopy and the airborne visible/infrared imaging spectrometer (AVIRIS),” Remote Sens. Environ. 65, 227–248 (1998).
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J. C. Campbell, S. Demiguel, F. Ma, A. Beck, X. Guo, S. Wang, X. Zheng, X. Li, J. D. Beck, M. A. Kinch, A. Huntington, L. A. Coldren, J. Decobert, and N. Tscherptner, “Recent advances in avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 10, 777–787 (2004).
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Appl. Phys. Lett.

C. Lin and R. Stolen, “New nanosecond continuum for excited-state spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 216–218 (1976).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

J. C. Campbell, S. Demiguel, F. Ma, A. Beck, X. Guo, S. Wang, X. Zheng, X. Li, J. D. Beck, M. A. Kinch, A. Huntington, L. A. Coldren, J. Decobert, and N. Tscherptner, “Recent advances in avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 10, 777–787 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt.

I. Kuzmina, I. Diebele, D. Jakovels, J. Spigulis, L. Valeine, J. Kapostinsh, and A. Berzina, “Towards noncontact skin melanoma selection by multispectral imaging analysis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 060502 (2011).
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J.-F. Lalonde, N. Vandapel, D. F. Huber, and M. Hebert, “Natural terrain classification using three-dimensional ladar data for ground robot mobility,” J. Field Robot. 23, 839–861 (2006).
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M. L. Nischan, R. M. Joseph, J. C. Libby, and J. P. Kerekes, “Active spectral imaging,” Lincoln Lab. J. 14, 131–144 (2003).

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R. C. Hardie, M. Vaidyanathan, and P. F. McManamon, “Spectral band selection and classifier design for a multispectral imaging laser radar,” Opt. Eng. 37, 752–762 (1998).
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Proc. IEEE

C. Carmer and L. M. Peterson, “Laser radar in robotics,” Proc. IEEE 84, 299–320 (1996).
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M. Vaidyanathan, T. P. Grayson, R. C. Hardie, L. E. Myers, and P. F. McManamon, “Multispectral Laser radar development and target characterization,” Proc. SPIE 3065, 255–266(1997).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Rankin, A. Huertas, and L. H. Matthies, “Stereo vision based terrain mapping for off-road autonomous navigation,” Proc. SPIE 7332, 733210 (2009).

M. A. Powers and C. C. Davis, “Spectral LADAR as a UGV navigation sensor,” Proc. SPIE 8037, 80371F (2011).
[CrossRef]

Remote Sens. Environ.

R. O. Green, M. L. Eastwood, C. M. Sarture, T. G. Chrien, M. Aronsson, B. J. Chippendale, J. A. Faust, B. E. Pavri, C. J. Chovit, M. Solis, M. R. Olah, and O. Williams, “Imaging spectroscopy and the airborne visible/infrared imaging spectrometer (AVIRIS),” Remote Sens. Environ. 65, 227–248 (1998).
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Other

K. Burton, J. Jeong, S. Wachsmann-Hogiu, and D. L. Farkas, “Spectral optical imaging in biology and medicine,” in Biomedial Optical Imaging, J. G. Fujimoto and D. L. Farkas, eds. (Oxford, 2009), pp. 29–72.

M. Hebert, “Active and passive range sensing for robotics,” in Proceedings of the 2000 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (IEEE, 2000), pp. 102–110.

R. Anderson, W. Malila, R. Maxwell, and L. Reed, Military Utility of Multispectral and Hyperspectral Sensors (Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, 1997).

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R. A. Schowengerdt, Remote Sensing: Models and Methods for Image Processing, 3rd ed. (Academic, 2007).

J. A. Richards and X. Jia, Remote Sensing Digital Image Analysis, 4th ed. (Springer, 2006).

M. I. Skolnik, Introduction to Radar Systems, 3rd ed. (McGraw-Hill, 2001).

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