Abstract

Temperature measurement is required for many applications but can be difficult in some cases. Laser heating or cooling studies demand accurate measurements of temperature changes. A Michelson interferometer configuration has been used to investigate laser heating in solids. An analytical formula was derived to estimate the temperature change from the fringe count by taking into account the temperature dependence of the sample length and refractive index. When 115 mW of a focused Ar+ laser beam (488 nm) passes through a Pr3+-doped YAG sample, its temperature increased by 11.7±1.0 K along the beam path due to nonradiative relaxation. The power dependence of the fringe count/movement was recorded. The temperature change was estimated by the interferometric method and is in agreement with that measured by a thermocouple.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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2009 (1)

I. Kamma, P. Kommidi, and B. R. Reddy, “High temperature measurement using luminescence of Pr3+ doped YAG and Ho3+ doped CaF2,” Phys. Status Solidi C 6, S187–S190 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

1999 (1)

1998 (3)

1996 (2)

T. Sato and J. Suda, “Temperature dependence of the linewidth of the first order Raman spectra for aragonite crystal,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 65, 482–488 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. I. Kang, T. G. Chang, I. Glesk, and P. R. Prucnal, “Nonlinear-index-of-refraction measurement in a resonant region by the use of fiber Mach–Zehnder interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 35, 1485–1488 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

R. I. Epstein, M. I. Buchwald, B. C. Edwards, T. R. Gosnell, and C. E. Mungan, “Observation of laser induced fluorescent cooling of a solid,” Nature 377, 500–503 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

X. Wu, W. M. Dennis, and W. M. Yen, “Temperature dependence of cross relaxation processes in Pr3+-doped yttrium aluminum garnet,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 6589–6595(1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Malinowski, M. F. Joubert, and B. Jacquier, “Dynamics of the IR-to-blue wavelength upconversion in Pr3+-doped yttrium aluminum garnet and LiYF4 crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 12367–12374 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

G. C. Alessandretti and P. Violono, “Thermometry by CARS in an automobile engine,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 16, 1583–1594(1983).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

1976 (1)

1972 (1)

S. S. Sandhu and F. J. Weinberg, “A laser interferometer for combustion, aerodynamics and heat transfer studies,” J. Phys. E Sci. Instrum. 5, 1018–1020 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1968 (1)

Alessandretti, G. C.

G. C. Alessandretti and P. Violono, “Thermometry by CARS in an automobile engine,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 16, 1583–1594(1983).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, G.

Brewer, C.

Buchwald, M. I.

R. I. Epstein, M. I. Buchwald, B. C. Edwards, T. R. Gosnell, and C. E. Mungan, “Observation of laser induced fluorescent cooling of a solid,” Nature 377, 500–503 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Burky, M.

Chakravarty, A.

N. Cherroret, A. Chakravarty, and A. Kar, “Temperature dependent refractive index of semiconductors,” J. Mater. Sci. 43, 1795–1801 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chang, T. G.

Cherroret, N.

N. Cherroret, A. Chakravarty, and A. Kar, “Temperature dependent refractive index of semiconductors,” J. Mater. Sci. 43, 1795–1801 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cusso, F.

Daneu, J. L.

Dennis, W. M.

X. Wu, W. M. Dennis, and W. M. Yen, “Temperature dependence of cross relaxation processes in Pr3+-doped yttrium aluminum garnet,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 6589–6595(1994).
[CrossRef]

DesAutels, G. L.

Edwards, B. C.

R. I. Epstein, M. I. Buchwald, B. C. Edwards, T. R. Gosnell, and C. E. Mungan, “Observation of laser induced fluorescent cooling of a solid,” Nature 377, 500–503 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Epstein, R. I.

R. I. Epstein, M. I. Buchwald, B. C. Edwards, T. R. Gosnell, and C. E. Mungan, “Observation of laser induced fluorescent cooling of a solid,” Nature 377, 500–503 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Fan, T. Y.

Foster, J. D.

George, T. G.

Y. K. Kim, B. R. Reddy, T. G. George, and R. B. Lal, “Optical heterodyne interferometry technique for solution crystal growth rate measurement,” Opt. Eng. 37, 616–621 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Glesk, I.

Gosnell, T. R.

R. I. Epstein, M. I. Buchwald, B. C. Edwards, T. R. Gosnell, and C. E. Mungan, “Observation of laser induced fluorescent cooling of a solid,” Nature 377, 500–503 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hariharan, P.

P. Hariharan, Optical Interferometry (Elsevier/Academic, 2003).

Hawkins, R. T.

Ishii, Y.

Jacquier, B.

M. Malinowski, M. F. Joubert, and B. Jacquier, “Dynamics of the IR-to-blue wavelength upconversion in Pr3+-doped yttrium aluminum garnet and LiYF4 crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 12367–12374 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Joubert, M. F.

M. Malinowski, M. F. Joubert, and B. Jacquier, “Dynamics of the IR-to-blue wavelength upconversion in Pr3+-doped yttrium aluminum garnet and LiYF4 crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 12367–12374 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kamma, I.

I. Kamma, P. Kommidi, and B. R. Reddy, “High temperature measurement using luminescence of Pr3+ doped YAG and Ho3+ doped CaF2,” Phys. Status Solidi C 6, S187–S190 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kang, K. I.

Kar, A.

N. Cherroret, A. Chakravarty, and A. Kar, “Temperature dependent refractive index of semiconductors,” J. Mater. Sci. 43, 1795–1801 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kato, M.

Kim, Y. K.

Y. K. Kim, B. R. Reddy, T. G. George, and R. B. Lal, “Optical heterodyne interferometry technique for solution crystal growth rate measurement,” Opt. Eng. 37, 616–621 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kommidi, P.

I. Kamma, P. Kommidi, and B. R. Reddy, “High temperature measurement using luminescence of Pr3+ doped YAG and Ho3+ doped CaF2,” Phys. Status Solidi C 6, S187–S190 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kowalski, F. V.

Lal, R. B.

Y. K. Kim, B. R. Reddy, T. G. George, and R. B. Lal, “Optical heterodyne interferometry technique for solution crystal growth rate measurement,” Opt. Eng. 37, 616–621 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Malinowski, M.

M. Malinowski, M. F. Joubert, and B. Jacquier, “Dynamics of the IR-to-blue wavelength upconversion in Pr3+-doped yttrium aluminum garnet and LiYF4 crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 12367–12374 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Mungan, C. E.

R. I. Epstein, M. I. Buchwald, B. C. Edwards, T. R. Gosnell, and C. E. Mungan, “Observation of laser induced fluorescent cooling of a solid,” Nature 377, 500–503 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Munoz, J. A.

Osterink, L. M.

Peters, P.

Prucnal, P. R.

Reddy, B. R.

I. Kamma, P. Kommidi, and B. R. Reddy, “High temperature measurement using luminescence of Pr3+ doped YAG and Ho3+ doped CaF2,” Phys. Status Solidi C 6, S187–S190 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. K. Kim, B. R. Reddy, T. G. George, and R. B. Lal, “Optical heterodyne interferometry technique for solution crystal growth rate measurement,” Opt. Eng. 37, 616–621 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sandhu, S. S.

S. S. Sandhu and F. J. Weinberg, “A laser interferometer for combustion, aerodynamics and heat transfer studies,” J. Phys. E Sci. Instrum. 5, 1018–1020 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Sato, T.

T. Sato and J. Suda, “Temperature dependence of the linewidth of the first order Raman spectra for aragonite crystal,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 65, 482–488 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Schawlow, A. L.

Sommergen, G. E.

Suda, J.

T. Sato and J. Suda, “Temperature dependence of the linewidth of the first order Raman spectra for aragonite crystal,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 65, 482–488 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tocho, J. O.

Violono, P.

G. C. Alessandretti and P. Violono, “Thermometry by CARS in an automobile engine,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 16, 1583–1594(1983).
[CrossRef]

Wada, A.

Walker, M.

Weinberg, F. J.

S. S. Sandhu and F. J. Weinberg, “A laser interferometer for combustion, aerodynamics and heat transfer studies,” J. Phys. E Sci. Instrum. 5, 1018–1020 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Wu, X.

X. Wu, W. M. Dennis, and W. M. Yen, “Temperature dependence of cross relaxation processes in Pr3+-doped yttrium aluminum garnet,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 6589–6595(1994).
[CrossRef]

Wynne, R.

Yen, W. M.

X. Wu, W. M. Dennis, and W. M. Yen, “Temperature dependence of cross relaxation processes in Pr3+-doped yttrium aluminum garnet,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 6589–6595(1994).
[CrossRef]

Yoshizawa, T.

T. Yoshizawa, Handbook of Optical Metrology: Principles and Applications (CRC, 2009).

Appl. Opt. (8)

J. Mater. Sci. (1)

N. Cherroret, A. Chakravarty, and A. Kar, “Temperature dependent refractive index of semiconductors,” J. Mater. Sci. 43, 1795–1801 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. (1)

G. C. Alessandretti and P. Violono, “Thermometry by CARS in an automobile engine,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 16, 1583–1594(1983).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. E Sci. Instrum. (1)

S. S. Sandhu and F. J. Weinberg, “A laser interferometer for combustion, aerodynamics and heat transfer studies,” J. Phys. E Sci. Instrum. 5, 1018–1020 (1972).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. (1)

T. Sato and J. Suda, “Temperature dependence of the linewidth of the first order Raman spectra for aragonite crystal,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 65, 482–488 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

R. I. Epstein, M. I. Buchwald, B. C. Edwards, T. R. Gosnell, and C. E. Mungan, “Observation of laser induced fluorescent cooling of a solid,” Nature 377, 500–503 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

Y. K. Kim, B. R. Reddy, T. G. George, and R. B. Lal, “Optical heterodyne interferometry technique for solution crystal growth rate measurement,” Opt. Eng. 37, 616–621 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (2)

X. Wu, W. M. Dennis, and W. M. Yen, “Temperature dependence of cross relaxation processes in Pr3+-doped yttrium aluminum garnet,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 6589–6595(1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Malinowski, M. F. Joubert, and B. Jacquier, “Dynamics of the IR-to-blue wavelength upconversion in Pr3+-doped yttrium aluminum garnet and LiYF4 crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 12367–12374 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Status Solidi C (1)

I. Kamma, P. Kommidi, and B. R. Reddy, “High temperature measurement using luminescence of Pr3+ doped YAG and Ho3+ doped CaF2,” Phys. Status Solidi C 6, S187–S190 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

YAG data sheet, VLOC, Fla. (www.vloc.com).

T. Yoshizawa, Handbook of Optical Metrology: Principles and Applications (CRC, 2009).

P. Hariharan, Optical Interferometry (Elsevier/Academic, 2003).

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