Abstract

Using a femtosecond laser incident to an oxide-metal-oxide film engraved with a subwavelength annular aperture (SAA) structure, we generated a Bessel-like beam to ablate silicon. Experimental results show that the silicon can be ablated with a 0.05J/cm2 input ablation threshold at 120 fs pulse duration. We obtained a surface hole possessing a diameter less than 1μm. Optical performance, including depth-of-focus and focal spot of the SAA structure, were simulated using finite-different time-domain calculations. We found that a far-field laser beam propagating through a SAA structure possesses a submicrometer focal spot and high focus intensity. Our method can be easily adopted for surface machining in microfabrication applications.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. D. Bäuerle, Laser Processing and Chemistry (Springer, 2000).
  2. M. Ali, T. Wagner, M. Shakoor, and P. A. Molian, “Review of laser nanomachining,” J. Laser Appl. 20, 169–184 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. M. D. Shirk and P. A. Molian, “A review of ultrashort pulsed laser ablation of materials,” J. Laser Appl. 10, 18–28 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  5. C. P. Shillaber, Photomicrography in Theory and Practice(Wiley, 1944).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. J. Durnin, “Exact-solutions for nondiffracting beams. I. The scalar theory,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 4, 651–654 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  8. Z. W. Liu, J. M. Steele, W. Srituravanich, Y. Pikus, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Focusing surface plasmons with a plasmonic lens,” Nano Lett. 5, 1726–1729 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. D. Z. Lin, C. H. Chen, C. K. Chang, T. D. Cheng, C. S. Yeh, and C. K. Lee, “Subwavelength nondiffraction beam generated by a plasmonic lens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 3 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  10. Y. Y. Yu, D. Z. Lin, L. S. Huang, and C. K. Lee, “Effect of subwavelength annular aperture diameter on the nondiffracting region of generated Bessel beams,” Opt. Express 17, 2707–2713 (2009).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. M. Elbandrawy and M. C. Gupta, “Optical characteristics of femtosecond laser micromachined periodic structures in Si 〈100〉,” Appl. Opt. 45, 7137–7143 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. M. K. Bhuyan, F. Courvoisier, P. A. Lacourt, M. Jacquot, R. Salut, L. Furfaro, and J. M. Dudley, “High aspect ratio nanochannel machining using single shot femtosecond Bessel beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 081102 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  16. M. Kohno and Y. Matsuoka, “Microfabrication and drilling using diffraction-free pulsed laser beam generated with axicon lens,” JSME Int. J. Ser. B 47, 497–500 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  17. M. K. Bhuyan, F. Courvoisier, P. A. Lacourt, M. Jacquot, L. Furfaro, M. J. Withford, and J. M. Dudley, “High aspect ratio taper-free microchannel fabrication using femtosecond Bessel beams,” Opt. Express 18, 566–574 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  19. D. Kawamura, A. Takita, Y. Hayasaki, and N. Nishida, “Method for reducing debris and thermal destruction in femtosecond laser processing by applying transparent coating,” Appl. Phys. 82, 523–527 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
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  21. C. K. Chang, D. Z. Lin, Y. C. Chang, M. W. Lin, J. T. Yeh, J. M. Liu, C. S. Yeh, and C. K. Lee, “Enhancing intensity of emitted light from a ring by incorporating a circular groove,” Opt. Express 15, 15029–15034 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

M. K. Bhuyan, F. Courvoisier, P. A. Lacourt, M. Jacquot, R. Salut, L. Furfaro, and J. M. Dudley, “High aspect ratio nanochannel machining using single shot femtosecond Bessel beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 081102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. K. Bhuyan, F. Courvoisier, P. A. Lacourt, M. Jacquot, L. Furfaro, M. J. Withford, and J. M. Dudley, “High aspect ratio taper-free microchannel fabrication using femtosecond Bessel beams,” Opt. Express 18, 566–574 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

2008 (2)

M. Ali, T. Wagner, M. Shakoor, and P. A. Molian, “Review of laser nanomachining,” J. Laser Appl. 20, 169–184 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Z. Lin, C. H. Chen, C. K. Chang, T. D. Cheng, C. S. Yeh, and C. K. Lee, “Subwavelength nondiffraction beam generated by a plasmonic lens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 3 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

2006 (2)

M. Elbandrawy and M. C. Gupta, “Optical characteristics of femtosecond laser micromachined periodic structures in Si 〈100〉,” Appl. Opt. 45, 7137–7143 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Kawamura, A. Takita, Y. Hayasaki, and N. Nishida, “Method for reducing debris and thermal destruction in femtosecond laser processing by applying transparent coating,” Appl. Phys. 82, 523–527 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

Z. W. Liu, J. M. Steele, W. Srituravanich, Y. Pikus, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Focusing surface plasmons with a plasmonic lens,” Nano Lett. 5, 1726–1729 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

M. S. Giridhar, K. Seong, A. Schulzgen, P. Khulbe, N. Peyghambarian, and M. Mansuripur, “Femtosecond pulsed laser micromachining of glass substrates with application to microfluidic devices,” Appl. Opt. 43, 4584–4589 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Kohno and Y. Matsuoka, “Microfabrication and drilling using diffraction-free pulsed laser beam generated with axicon lens,” JSME Int. J. Ser. B 47, 497–500 (2004).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

M. D. Shirk and P. A. Molian, “A review of ultrashort pulsed laser ablation of materials,” J. Laser Appl. 10, 18–28 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

1992 (1)

G. Scott and N. McArdle, “Efficient generation of nearly diffraction-free beams using an axicon,” Opt. Eng. 31, 2640–2643 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

1987 (2)

J. Durnin, J. J. Miceli, and J. H. Eberly, “Diffraction-free beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 1499–1501 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Durnin, “Exact-solutions for nondiffracting beams. I. The scalar theory,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 4, 651–654 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Ali, M.

M. Ali, T. Wagner, M. Shakoor, and P. A. Molian, “Review of laser nanomachining,” J. Laser Appl. 20, 169–184 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bäuerle, D.

D. Bäuerle, Laser Processing and Chemistry (Springer, 2000).

Bhuyan, M. K.

M. K. Bhuyan, F. Courvoisier, P. A. Lacourt, M. Jacquot, R. Salut, L. Furfaro, and J. M. Dudley, “High aspect ratio nanochannel machining using single shot femtosecond Bessel beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 081102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. K. Bhuyan, F. Courvoisier, P. A. Lacourt, M. Jacquot, L. Furfaro, M. J. Withford, and J. M. Dudley, “High aspect ratio taper-free microchannel fabrication using femtosecond Bessel beams,” Opt. Express 18, 566–574 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, C. K.

D. Z. Lin, C. H. Chen, C. K. Chang, T. D. Cheng, C. S. Yeh, and C. K. Lee, “Subwavelength nondiffraction beam generated by a plasmonic lens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 3 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. K. Chang, D. Z. Lin, Y. C. Chang, M. W. Lin, J. T. Yeh, J. M. Liu, C. S. Yeh, and C. K. Lee, “Enhancing intensity of emitted light from a ring by incorporating a circular groove,” Opt. Express 15, 15029–15034 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, Y. C.

Chen, C. H.

D. Z. Lin, C. H. Chen, C. K. Chang, T. D. Cheng, C. S. Yeh, and C. K. Lee, “Subwavelength nondiffraction beam generated by a plasmonic lens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 3 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, T. D.

D. Z. Lin, C. H. Chen, C. K. Chang, T. D. Cheng, C. S. Yeh, and C. K. Lee, “Subwavelength nondiffraction beam generated by a plasmonic lens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 3 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cottrell, D. M.

Courvoisier, F.

M. K. Bhuyan, F. Courvoisier, P. A. Lacourt, M. Jacquot, L. Furfaro, M. J. Withford, and J. M. Dudley, “High aspect ratio taper-free microchannel fabrication using femtosecond Bessel beams,” Opt. Express 18, 566–574 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. K. Bhuyan, F. Courvoisier, P. A. Lacourt, M. Jacquot, R. Salut, L. Furfaro, and J. M. Dudley, “High aspect ratio nanochannel machining using single shot femtosecond Bessel beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 081102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cox, A. J.

Davis, J. A.

Dibble, D. C.

Dudley, J. M.

M. K. Bhuyan, F. Courvoisier, P. A. Lacourt, M. Jacquot, R. Salut, L. Furfaro, and J. M. Dudley, “High aspect ratio nanochannel machining using single shot femtosecond Bessel beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 081102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. K. Bhuyan, F. Courvoisier, P. A. Lacourt, M. Jacquot, L. Furfaro, M. J. Withford, and J. M. Dudley, “High aspect ratio taper-free microchannel fabrication using femtosecond Bessel beams,” Opt. Express 18, 566–574 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Durnin, J.

J. Durnin, J. J. Miceli, and J. H. Eberly, “Diffraction-free beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 1499–1501 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Durnin, “Exact-solutions for nondiffracting beams. I. The scalar theory,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 4, 651–654 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Eberly, J. H.

J. Durnin, J. J. Miceli, and J. H. Eberly, “Diffraction-free beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 1499–1501 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Elbandrawy, M.

Furfaro, L.

M. K. Bhuyan, F. Courvoisier, P. A. Lacourt, M. Jacquot, R. Salut, L. Furfaro, and J. M. Dudley, “High aspect ratio nanochannel machining using single shot femtosecond Bessel beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 081102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. K. Bhuyan, F. Courvoisier, P. A. Lacourt, M. Jacquot, L. Furfaro, M. J. Withford, and J. M. Dudley, “High aspect ratio taper-free microchannel fabrication using femtosecond Bessel beams,” Opt. Express 18, 566–574 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Giridhar, M. S.

Guertin, J.

Gupta, M. C.

Hayasaki, Y.

D. Kawamura, A. Takita, Y. Hayasaki, and N. Nishida, “Method for reducing debris and thermal destruction in femtosecond laser processing by applying transparent coating,” Appl. Phys. 82, 523–527 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Huang, L. S.

Jacquot, M.

M. K. Bhuyan, F. Courvoisier, P. A. Lacourt, M. Jacquot, L. Furfaro, M. J. Withford, and J. M. Dudley, “High aspect ratio taper-free microchannel fabrication using femtosecond Bessel beams,” Opt. Express 18, 566–574 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. K. Bhuyan, F. Courvoisier, P. A. Lacourt, M. Jacquot, R. Salut, L. Furfaro, and J. M. Dudley, “High aspect ratio nanochannel machining using single shot femtosecond Bessel beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 081102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kawamura, D.

D. Kawamura, A. Takita, Y. Hayasaki, and N. Nishida, “Method for reducing debris and thermal destruction in femtosecond laser processing by applying transparent coating,” Appl. Phys. 82, 523–527 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Khulbe, P.

Kohno, M.

M. Kohno and Y. Matsuoka, “Microfabrication and drilling using diffraction-free pulsed laser beam generated with axicon lens,” JSME Int. J. Ser. B 47, 497–500 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Korfiatis, D. P.

D. P. Korfiatis, K. A. T. Thoma, and J. C. Vardaxoglou, “Conditions for femtosecond laser melting of silicon,” J. Phys. D 40, 6803–6808 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lacourt, P. A.

M. K. Bhuyan, F. Courvoisier, P. A. Lacourt, M. Jacquot, R. Salut, L. Furfaro, and J. M. Dudley, “High aspect ratio nanochannel machining using single shot femtosecond Bessel beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 081102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. K. Bhuyan, F. Courvoisier, P. A. Lacourt, M. Jacquot, L. Furfaro, M. J. Withford, and J. M. Dudley, “High aspect ratio taper-free microchannel fabrication using femtosecond Bessel beams,” Opt. Express 18, 566–574 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, C. K.

Lin, D. Z.

Lin, M. W.

Liu, J. M.

Liu, Z. W.

Z. W. Liu, J. M. Steele, W. Srituravanich, Y. Pikus, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Focusing surface plasmons with a plasmonic lens,” Nano Lett. 5, 1726–1729 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mansuripur, M.

Matsuoka, Y.

M. Kohno and Y. Matsuoka, “Microfabrication and drilling using diffraction-free pulsed laser beam generated with axicon lens,” JSME Int. J. Ser. B 47, 497–500 (2004).
[CrossRef]

McArdle, N.

G. Scott and N. McArdle, “Efficient generation of nearly diffraction-free beams using an axicon,” Opt. Eng. 31, 2640–2643 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Miceli, J. J.

J. Durnin, J. J. Miceli, and J. H. Eberly, “Diffraction-free beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 1499–1501 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Molian, P. A.

M. Ali, T. Wagner, M. Shakoor, and P. A. Molian, “Review of laser nanomachining,” J. Laser Appl. 20, 169–184 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Shirk and P. A. Molian, “A review of ultrashort pulsed laser ablation of materials,” J. Laser Appl. 10, 18–28 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nishida, N.

D. Kawamura, A. Takita, Y. Hayasaki, and N. Nishida, “Method for reducing debris and thermal destruction in femtosecond laser processing by applying transparent coating,” Appl. Phys. 82, 523–527 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Palik, E. D.

E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids(Academic, 1985).

Peyghambarian, N.

Pikus, Y.

Z. W. Liu, J. M. Steele, W. Srituravanich, Y. Pikus, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Focusing surface plasmons with a plasmonic lens,” Nano Lett. 5, 1726–1729 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Salut, R.

M. K. Bhuyan, F. Courvoisier, P. A. Lacourt, M. Jacquot, R. Salut, L. Furfaro, and J. M. Dudley, “High aspect ratio nanochannel machining using single shot femtosecond Bessel beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 081102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Schulzgen, A.

Scott, G.

G. Scott and N. McArdle, “Efficient generation of nearly diffraction-free beams using an axicon,” Opt. Eng. 31, 2640–2643 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Seong, K.

Shakoor, M.

M. Ali, T. Wagner, M. Shakoor, and P. A. Molian, “Review of laser nanomachining,” J. Laser Appl. 20, 169–184 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shillaber, C. P.

C. P. Shillaber, Photomicrography in Theory and Practice(Wiley, 1944).

Shirk, M. D.

M. D. Shirk and P. A. Molian, “A review of ultrashort pulsed laser ablation of materials,” J. Laser Appl. 10, 18–28 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Srituravanich, W.

Z. W. Liu, J. M. Steele, W. Srituravanich, Y. Pikus, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Focusing surface plasmons with a plasmonic lens,” Nano Lett. 5, 1726–1729 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Steele, J. M.

Z. W. Liu, J. M. Steele, W. Srituravanich, Y. Pikus, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Focusing surface plasmons with a plasmonic lens,” Nano Lett. 5, 1726–1729 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, C.

Z. W. Liu, J. M. Steele, W. Srituravanich, Y. Pikus, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Focusing surface plasmons with a plasmonic lens,” Nano Lett. 5, 1726–1729 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takita, A.

D. Kawamura, A. Takita, Y. Hayasaki, and N. Nishida, “Method for reducing debris and thermal destruction in femtosecond laser processing by applying transparent coating,” Appl. Phys. 82, 523–527 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Thoma, K. A. T.

D. P. Korfiatis, K. A. T. Thoma, and J. C. Vardaxoglou, “Conditions for femtosecond laser melting of silicon,” J. Phys. D 40, 6803–6808 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Vardaxoglou, J. C.

D. P. Korfiatis, K. A. T. Thoma, and J. C. Vardaxoglou, “Conditions for femtosecond laser melting of silicon,” J. Phys. D 40, 6803–6808 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wagner, T.

M. Ali, T. Wagner, M. Shakoor, and P. A. Molian, “Review of laser nanomachining,” J. Laser Appl. 20, 169–184 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Withford, M. J.

Yeh, C. S.

D. Z. Lin, C. H. Chen, C. K. Chang, T. D. Cheng, C. S. Yeh, and C. K. Lee, “Subwavelength nondiffraction beam generated by a plasmonic lens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 3 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. K. Chang, D. Z. Lin, Y. C. Chang, M. W. Lin, J. T. Yeh, J. M. Liu, C. S. Yeh, and C. K. Lee, “Enhancing intensity of emitted light from a ring by incorporating a circular groove,” Opt. Express 15, 15029–15034 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yeh, J. T.

Yu, Y. Y.

Zhang, X.

Z. W. Liu, J. M. Steele, W. Srituravanich, Y. Pikus, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Focusing surface plasmons with a plasmonic lens,” Nano Lett. 5, 1726–1729 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (4)

Appl. Phys. (1)

D. Kawamura, A. Takita, Y. Hayasaki, and N. Nishida, “Method for reducing debris and thermal destruction in femtosecond laser processing by applying transparent coating,” Appl. Phys. 82, 523–527 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

M. K. Bhuyan, F. Courvoisier, P. A. Lacourt, M. Jacquot, R. Salut, L. Furfaro, and J. M. Dudley, “High aspect ratio nanochannel machining using single shot femtosecond Bessel beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 081102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Z. Lin, C. H. Chen, C. K. Chang, T. D. Cheng, C. S. Yeh, and C. K. Lee, “Subwavelength nondiffraction beam generated by a plasmonic lens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 3 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Laser Appl. (2)

M. Ali, T. Wagner, M. Shakoor, and P. A. Molian, “Review of laser nanomachining,” J. Laser Appl. 20, 169–184 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Shirk and P. A. Molian, “A review of ultrashort pulsed laser ablation of materials,” J. Laser Appl. 10, 18–28 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Phys. D (1)

D. P. Korfiatis, K. A. T. Thoma, and J. C. Vardaxoglou, “Conditions for femtosecond laser melting of silicon,” J. Phys. D 40, 6803–6808 (2007).
[CrossRef]

JSME Int. J. Ser. B (1)

M. Kohno and Y. Matsuoka, “Microfabrication and drilling using diffraction-free pulsed laser beam generated with axicon lens,” JSME Int. J. Ser. B 47, 497–500 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (1)

Z. W. Liu, J. M. Steele, W. Srituravanich, Y. Pikus, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Focusing surface plasmons with a plasmonic lens,” Nano Lett. 5, 1726–1729 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Eng. (1)

G. Scott and N. McArdle, “Efficient generation of nearly diffraction-free beams using an axicon,” Opt. Eng. 31, 2640–2643 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

J. Durnin, J. J. Miceli, and J. H. Eberly, “Diffraction-free beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 1499–1501 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (3)

D. Bäuerle, Laser Processing and Chemistry (Springer, 2000).

C. P. Shillaber, Photomicrography in Theory and Practice(Wiley, 1944).

E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids(Academic, 1985).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Experimental setup of the femtosecond laser micromachining system, (b) Bessel beam generation with SAA structure and SEM image.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

SEM images and cross-section profile of the silicon surface obtained using a single shot at different laser intensities: (a)  0.05 J / μm 2 , (b)  0.08 J / μm 2 , (c)  0.1 J / μm 2 , (d)  0.13 J / μm 2 , (e)  0.15 J / μm 2 and (f) lateral feature size depending on laser intensity.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

FDTD simulation results of the oxide-metal-oxide SAA structure: (a) intensity distribution of the x - z plane, (b) focal length and DOF with intensity distribution versus the z-axis of the SAA structure, (c) intensity distribution of the x - y plane at z = 10 μm (inset shows the experimental results at the x - y cross-section of z = 10 μm above the SAA structure), and (d) full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) of the oxide-metal SAA structure at z = 10 μm .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Transmission spectrum through the SAA structure as a function of wavelength.

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