Abstract

Noctilucent, or “night-shining,” clouds (NLCs) are a spectacular optical nighttime phenomenon that is very often neglected in the context of atmospheric optics. This paper gives a brief overview of current understanding of NLCs by providing a simple physical picture of their formation, relevant observational characteristics, and scientific challenges of NLC research. Modern ground-based photographic NLC observations, carried out in the framework of automated digital camera networks around the globe, are outlined. In particular, the obtained results refer to studies of single quasi-stationary waves in the NLC field. These waves exhibit specific propagation properties—high localization, robustness, and long lifetime—that are the essential requisites of solitary waves.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  40. F. Li, G. R. Swenson, A. Z. Liu, M. Taylor, and Y. C. Zhao, “Investigation of a “wall” wave event,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D04104 (2007).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (3)

A. Dubietis, P. Dalin, R. Balčiūnas, and K. Černis, “Observations of noctilucent clouds from Lithuania,” J. Atmos. Solar Terr. Phys. 72, 1090–1099 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Dalin, N. Pertsev, S. Frandsen, O. Hansen, H. Andersen, A. Dubietis, and R. Balciunas, “A case study of the evolution of a Kelvin-Helmholtz wave and turbulence in noctilucent clouds,” J. Atmos. Solar Terr. Phys. 72, 1129–1138 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Chandran, D. W. Rusch, A. W. Merkel, S. E. Palo, G. E. Thomas, M. J. Taylor, S. M. Bailey, and J. M. Russell III, “Polar mesospheric cloud structures observed from the CIPS experiment on the AIM spacecraft: atmospheric gravity waves as drivers for longitudinal variability in PMC occurrence,” J. Geophys. Res. 115, D13102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (3)

G. Baumgarten, J. Fiedler, K. H. Fricke, M. Gerding, M. Hervig, P. Hoffmann, N. Mu¨ller, P.-D. Pautet, M. Rapp, C. Robert, D. Rusch, C. von Savigny, and W. Singer, “The noctilucent cloud (NLC) display during the ECOMA/MASS sounding rocket flights on 3 August 2007: morphology on local and global scales,” Ann. Geophys. 27, 953–965 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. P. Shettle, M. T. DeLand, G. E. Thomas, and J. J. Olivero, “Long term variations in the frequency of polar mesospheric clouds in the Northern Hemisphere from SBUV,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 36, L02803 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Hartquist, O. Havnes, and M. Kassa, “Exploring polar mesospheric summer echoes,” Astron. Geophys. 50, 1.8–1.14(2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

S. Kirkwood, P. Dalin, and A. Rèchou, “Noctilucent clouds observed from the UK and Denmark—trends and variations over 43 years,” Ann. Geophys. 26, 1243–1254 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Dalin, N. Pertsev, A. Zadorozhny, M. Connors, I. Schofield, I. Shelton, M. Zalcik, T. McEwan, I. McEachran, S. Frandsen, O. Hansen, H. Andersen, V. Sukhodoev, V. Perminov, and V. Romejko, “Ground-based observations of noctilucent clouds with a northern hemisphere network of automated digital cameras,” J. Atmos. Solar Terr. Phys. 70, 1460–1472 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

F. Li, G. R. Swenson, A. Z. Liu, M. Taylor, and Y. C. Zhao, “Investigation of a “wall” wave event,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D04104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

M. T. DeLand, E. P. Shettle, G. E. Thomas, and J. J. Olivero, “A quarter century of satellite polar mesospheric cloud observations,” J. Atmos. Solar Terr. Phys. 68, 9–29 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Dalin, S. Kirkwood, H. Andersen, O. Hansen, N. Pertsev, and V. Romejko, “Comparison of long-term Moscow and Danish NLC observations: statistical results,” Ann. Geophys. 24, 2841–2849 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Rapp and G. E. Thomas, “Modelling the microphysics of mesospheric ice particles: assessment of current capabilities and basic sensitivities,” J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys. 68, 715–744(2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

A. A. Kokhanovsky, “Microphysical and optical properties of noctilucent clouds,” Earth-Sci. Rev. 71, 127–146 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (4)

V. A. Romejko, P. A. Dalin, and N. N. Pertsev, “40 years of noctilucent cloud observations near Moscow: database and simple statistics,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8443 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Fritts and M. J. Alexander, “Gravity wave dynamics and effects in the middle atmosphere,” Rev. Geophys. 41, 1003(2003).
[CrossRef]

G. E. Thomas, “Are noctilucent clouds harbingers of global change in the middle atmosphere?” Adv. Space Res. 32, 1737–1746 (2003).
[CrossRef]

U. von Zahn, “Are noctilucent clouds truly a ‘miner’s canary’ of global change?” EOS Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 84, 261–268(2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (3)

S. Kirkwood, V. Barabash, B. U. E. Brändström, A. Moström, K. Stebel, N. Mitchell, and W. K. Hocking, “Noctilucent clouds, PMSE and 5-day planetary waves: a case study,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 1411–1414 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Rapp, F.-J. Lübken, and A. Müllemann, “Small scale temperature variations in the 12 vicinity of NLC: experimental and model results,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 4392–4412 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Taylor, M. Gadsden, R. P. Lowe, M. S. Zalcik, and J. Brausch, “Mesospheric cloud observations at unusually low latitudes,” J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys. 64, 991–999 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (3)

M. Hervig, R. E. Thompson, L. L. Gordley, J. M. Russell, and M. E. Summers, “First confirmation that water ice is the primary component of polar mesospheric clouds,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 971–974 (2001).
[CrossRef]

W. Schröder, “Otto Jesse and the investigation of noctilucent clouds 115 years ago,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 82, 2457–2468 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Jarvis, “Bridging the atmospheric divide,” Science 293, 2218–2219 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

A. Pogoreltsev, “Simulation of planetary waves and their influence on the zonally averaged circulation in the middle atmosphere,” Earth Planets Space 51, 773–784 (1999).

1998 (2)

G. R. Swenson, J. Qian, J. M. C. Plane, P. J. Espy, M. J. Taylor, D. N. Turnbull, and R. P. Lowe, “Dynamical and chemical aspects of the mesospheric Na “wall” event on October 9, 1993 during the Airborne Lidar and Observations of Hawaiian Airglow (ALOHA) campaign,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 6361–6380 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Gadsden, “The North-West Europe data on noctilucent clouds: a survey,” J. Atmos. Solar Terr. Phys. 60, 1163–1174(1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

P. J. Espy and G. Witt, “Observation of a quasi 16-day oscillation in the polar summer mesospheric temperature,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 1071–1074 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

D. C. Fritts, J. R. Isler, G. E. Thomas, and Ø. Andreassen, “Wave breaking signatures in noctilucent clouds,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 2039–2042 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

G. E. Thomas, “Mesospheric clouds and the physics of the mesopause region,” Rev. Geophys. 29, 553–575 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

G. E. Thomas, J. J. Olivero, E. J. Jensen, W. Schroeder, and O. B. Toon, “Relation between increasing methane and the presence of ice clouds at the mesopause,” Nature 338, 490–492 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

M. Gadsden, “Noctilucent clouds,” Q. J. R. Astron. Soc. 27, 351–366 (1986).

1982 (1)

M. Gadsden, “Noctilucent clouds,” Space Sci. Rev. 33, 279–334 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

T. M. Donahue, B. Guenther, and J. E. Blamont, “Noctilucent clouds in daytime: circumpolar particulate layers near the summer mesopause,” J. Atmos. Sci. 29, 1205–1209 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1968 (1)

C. O. Hines, “A possible source of waves in noctilucent clouds,” J. Atmos. Sci. 25, 937–942 (1968).
[CrossRef]

1967 (1)

J. S. Theon, W. Nordberg, and W. S. Smith, “Temperature measurements in noctilucent clouds,” Science 157, 419–421(1967).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1966 (1)

B. Fogle and B. Haurwitz, “Noctilucent clouds,” Space Sci. Rev. 6, 279–340 (1966).
[CrossRef]

1962 (1)

G. Witt, “Height, structure and displacements of noctilucent clouds,” Tellus 14, 1–18 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Alexander, M. J.

D. C. Fritts and M. J. Alexander, “Gravity wave dynamics and effects in the middle atmosphere,” Rev. Geophys. 41, 1003(2003).
[CrossRef]

Andersen, H.

P. Dalin, N. Pertsev, S. Frandsen, O. Hansen, H. Andersen, A. Dubietis, and R. Balciunas, “A case study of the evolution of a Kelvin-Helmholtz wave and turbulence in noctilucent clouds,” J. Atmos. Solar Terr. Phys. 72, 1129–1138 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Dalin, N. Pertsev, A. Zadorozhny, M. Connors, I. Schofield, I. Shelton, M. Zalcik, T. McEwan, I. McEachran, S. Frandsen, O. Hansen, H. Andersen, V. Sukhodoev, V. Perminov, and V. Romejko, “Ground-based observations of noctilucent clouds with a northern hemisphere network of automated digital cameras,” J. Atmos. Solar Terr. Phys. 70, 1460–1472 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Dalin, S. Kirkwood, H. Andersen, O. Hansen, N. Pertsev, and V. Romejko, “Comparison of long-term Moscow and Danish NLC observations: statistical results,” Ann. Geophys. 24, 2841–2849 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Dalin, N. Pertsev, A. Dubietis, M. Zalcik, A. Zadorozhny, M. Connors, I. Schofield, T. McEwan, I. McEachran, S. Frandsen, O. Hansen, H. Andersen, V. Sukhodoev, V. Perminov, R. Balčiunas, and V. Romejko, “A comparison between gound-based observations of noctilucent clouds and Aura satellite data,” J. Atmos. Solar Terr. Phys., doi:10.1016/j.jastp.2011.01.020 (to be published).
[CrossRef]

Andreassen, Ø.

D. C. Fritts, J. R. Isler, G. E. Thomas, and Ø. Andreassen, “Wave breaking signatures in noctilucent clouds,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 2039–2042 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Bailey, S. M.

A. Chandran, D. W. Rusch, A. W. Merkel, S. E. Palo, G. E. Thomas, M. J. Taylor, S. M. Bailey, and J. M. Russell III, “Polar mesospheric cloud structures observed from the CIPS experiment on the AIM spacecraft: atmospheric gravity waves as drivers for longitudinal variability in PMC occurrence,” J. Geophys. Res. 115, D13102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Balciunas, R.

P. Dalin, N. Pertsev, S. Frandsen, O. Hansen, H. Andersen, A. Dubietis, and R. Balciunas, “A case study of the evolution of a Kelvin-Helmholtz wave and turbulence in noctilucent clouds,” J. Atmos. Solar Terr. Phys. 72, 1129–1138 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Dubietis, P. Dalin, R. Balčiūnas, and K. Černis, “Observations of noctilucent clouds from Lithuania,” J. Atmos. Solar Terr. Phys. 72, 1090–1099 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Dalin, N. Pertsev, A. Dubietis, M. Zalcik, A. Zadorozhny, M. Connors, I. Schofield, T. McEwan, I. McEachran, S. Frandsen, O. Hansen, H. Andersen, V. Sukhodoev, V. Perminov, R. Balčiunas, and V. Romejko, “A comparison between gound-based observations of noctilucent clouds and Aura satellite data,” J. Atmos. Solar Terr. Phys., doi:10.1016/j.jastp.2011.01.020 (to be published).
[CrossRef]

Barabash, V.

S. Kirkwood, V. Barabash, B. U. E. Brändström, A. Moström, K. Stebel, N. Mitchell, and W. K. Hocking, “Noctilucent clouds, PMSE and 5-day planetary waves: a case study,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 1411–1414 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Baumgarten, G.

G. Baumgarten, J. Fiedler, K. H. Fricke, M. Gerding, M. Hervig, P. Hoffmann, N. Mu¨ller, P.-D. Pautet, M. Rapp, C. Robert, D. Rusch, C. von Savigny, and W. Singer, “The noctilucent cloud (NLC) display during the ECOMA/MASS sounding rocket flights on 3 August 2007: morphology on local and global scales,” Ann. Geophys. 27, 953–965 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Blamont, J. E.

T. M. Donahue, B. Guenther, and J. E. Blamont, “Noctilucent clouds in daytime: circumpolar particulate layers near the summer mesopause,” J. Atmos. Sci. 29, 1205–1209 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Brändström, B. U. E.

S. Kirkwood, V. Barabash, B. U. E. Brändström, A. Moström, K. Stebel, N. Mitchell, and W. K. Hocking, “Noctilucent clouds, PMSE and 5-day planetary waves: a case study,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 1411–1414 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Brausch, J.

M. J. Taylor, M. Gadsden, R. P. Lowe, M. S. Zalcik, and J. Brausch, “Mesospheric cloud observations at unusually low latitudes,” J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys. 64, 991–999 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cernis, K.

A. Dubietis, P. Dalin, R. Balčiūnas, and K. Černis, “Observations of noctilucent clouds from Lithuania,” J. Atmos. Solar Terr. Phys. 72, 1090–1099 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chandran, A.

A. Chandran, D. W. Rusch, A. W. Merkel, S. E. Palo, G. E. Thomas, M. J. Taylor, S. M. Bailey, and J. M. Russell III, “Polar mesospheric cloud structures observed from the CIPS experiment on the AIM spacecraft: atmospheric gravity waves as drivers for longitudinal variability in PMC occurrence,” J. Geophys. Res. 115, D13102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Connors, M.

P. Dalin, N. Pertsev, A. Zadorozhny, M. Connors, I. Schofield, I. Shelton, M. Zalcik, T. McEwan, I. McEachran, S. Frandsen, O. Hansen, H. Andersen, V. Sukhodoev, V. Perminov, and V. Romejko, “Ground-based observations of noctilucent clouds with a northern hemisphere network of automated digital cameras,” J. Atmos. Solar Terr. Phys. 70, 1460–1472 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Dalin, N. Pertsev, A. Dubietis, M. Zalcik, A. Zadorozhny, M. Connors, I. Schofield, T. McEwan, I. McEachran, S. Frandsen, O. Hansen, H. Andersen, V. Sukhodoev, V. Perminov, R. Balčiunas, and V. Romejko, “A comparison between gound-based observations of noctilucent clouds and Aura satellite data,” J. Atmos. Solar Terr. Phys., doi:10.1016/j.jastp.2011.01.020 (to be published).
[CrossRef]

Dalin, P.

A. Dubietis, P. Dalin, R. Balčiūnas, and K. Černis, “Observations of noctilucent clouds from Lithuania,” J. Atmos. Solar Terr. Phys. 72, 1090–1099 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Dalin, N. Pertsev, S. Frandsen, O. Hansen, H. Andersen, A. Dubietis, and R. Balciunas, “A case study of the evolution of a Kelvin-Helmholtz wave and turbulence in noctilucent clouds,” J. Atmos. Solar Terr. Phys. 72, 1129–1138 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Dalin, N. Pertsev, A. Zadorozhny, M. Connors, I. Schofield, I. Shelton, M. Zalcik, T. McEwan, I. McEachran, S. Frandsen, O. Hansen, H. Andersen, V. Sukhodoev, V. Perminov, and V. Romejko, “Ground-based observations of noctilucent clouds with a northern hemisphere network of automated digital cameras,” J. Atmos. Solar Terr. Phys. 70, 1460–1472 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Kirkwood, P. Dalin, and A. Rèchou, “Noctilucent clouds observed from the UK and Denmark—trends and variations over 43 years,” Ann. Geophys. 26, 1243–1254 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Dalin, S. Kirkwood, H. Andersen, O. Hansen, N. Pertsev, and V. Romejko, “Comparison of long-term Moscow and Danish NLC observations: statistical results,” Ann. Geophys. 24, 2841–2849 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Dalin, N. Pertsev, A. Dubietis, M. Zalcik, A. Zadorozhny, M. Connors, I. Schofield, T. McEwan, I. McEachran, S. Frandsen, O. Hansen, H. Andersen, V. Sukhodoev, V. Perminov, R. Balčiunas, and V. Romejko, “A comparison between gound-based observations of noctilucent clouds and Aura satellite data,” J. Atmos. Solar Terr. Phys., doi:10.1016/j.jastp.2011.01.020 (to be published).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

Robert, C.

G. Baumgarten, J. Fiedler, K. H. Fricke, M. Gerding, M. Hervig, P. Hoffmann, N. Mu¨ller, P.-D. Pautet, M. Rapp, C. Robert, D. Rusch, C. von Savigny, and W. Singer, “The noctilucent cloud (NLC) display during the ECOMA/MASS sounding rocket flights on 3 August 2007: morphology on local and global scales,” Ann. Geophys. 27, 953–965 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Romejko, V.

P. Dalin, N. Pertsev, A. Zadorozhny, M. Connors, I. Schofield, I. Shelton, M. Zalcik, T. McEwan, I. McEachran, S. Frandsen, O. Hansen, H. Andersen, V. Sukhodoev, V. Perminov, and V. Romejko, “Ground-based observations of noctilucent clouds with a northern hemisphere network of automated digital cameras,” J. Atmos. Solar Terr. Phys. 70, 1460–1472 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Dalin, S. Kirkwood, H. Andersen, O. Hansen, N. Pertsev, and V. Romejko, “Comparison of long-term Moscow and Danish NLC observations: statistical results,” Ann. Geophys. 24, 2841–2849 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Dalin, N. Pertsev, A. Dubietis, M. Zalcik, A. Zadorozhny, M. Connors, I. Schofield, T. McEwan, I. McEachran, S. Frandsen, O. Hansen, H. Andersen, V. Sukhodoev, V. Perminov, R. Balčiunas, and V. Romejko, “A comparison between gound-based observations of noctilucent clouds and Aura satellite data,” J. Atmos. Solar Terr. Phys., doi:10.1016/j.jastp.2011.01.020 (to be published).
[CrossRef]

Romejko, V. A.

V. A. Romejko, P. A. Dalin, and N. N. Pertsev, “40 years of noctilucent cloud observations near Moscow: database and simple statistics,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8443 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rusch, D.

G. Baumgarten, J. Fiedler, K. H. Fricke, M. Gerding, M. Hervig, P. Hoffmann, N. Mu¨ller, P.-D. Pautet, M. Rapp, C. Robert, D. Rusch, C. von Savigny, and W. Singer, “The noctilucent cloud (NLC) display during the ECOMA/MASS sounding rocket flights on 3 August 2007: morphology on local and global scales,” Ann. Geophys. 27, 953–965 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rusch, D. W.

A. Chandran, D. W. Rusch, A. W. Merkel, S. E. Palo, G. E. Thomas, M. J. Taylor, S. M. Bailey, and J. M. Russell III, “Polar mesospheric cloud structures observed from the CIPS experiment on the AIM spacecraft: atmospheric gravity waves as drivers for longitudinal variability in PMC occurrence,” J. Geophys. Res. 115, D13102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Russell, J. M.

A. Chandran, D. W. Rusch, A. W. Merkel, S. E. Palo, G. E. Thomas, M. J. Taylor, S. M. Bailey, and J. M. Russell III, “Polar mesospheric cloud structures observed from the CIPS experiment on the AIM spacecraft: atmospheric gravity waves as drivers for longitudinal variability in PMC occurrence,” J. Geophys. Res. 115, D13102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Hervig, R. E. Thompson, L. L. Gordley, J. M. Russell, and M. E. Summers, “First confirmation that water ice is the primary component of polar mesospheric clouds,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 971–974 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Schofield, I.

P. Dalin, N. Pertsev, A. Zadorozhny, M. Connors, I. Schofield, I. Shelton, M. Zalcik, T. McEwan, I. McEachran, S. Frandsen, O. Hansen, H. Andersen, V. Sukhodoev, V. Perminov, and V. Romejko, “Ground-based observations of noctilucent clouds with a northern hemisphere network of automated digital cameras,” J. Atmos. Solar Terr. Phys. 70, 1460–1472 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Dalin, N. Pertsev, A. Dubietis, M. Zalcik, A. Zadorozhny, M. Connors, I. Schofield, T. McEwan, I. McEachran, S. Frandsen, O. Hansen, H. Andersen, V. Sukhodoev, V. Perminov, R. Balčiunas, and V. Romejko, “A comparison between gound-based observations of noctilucent clouds and Aura satellite data,” J. Atmos. Solar Terr. Phys., doi:10.1016/j.jastp.2011.01.020 (to be published).
[CrossRef]

Schröder, W.

W. Schröder, “Otto Jesse and the investigation of noctilucent clouds 115 years ago,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 82, 2457–2468 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Gadsden and W. Schröder, Noctilucent Clouds (Springer, 1989).

Schroeder, W.

G. E. Thomas, J. J. Olivero, E. J. Jensen, W. Schroeder, and O. B. Toon, “Relation between increasing methane and the presence of ice clouds at the mesopause,” Nature 338, 490–492 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Shelton, I.

P. Dalin, N. Pertsev, A. Zadorozhny, M. Connors, I. Schofield, I. Shelton, M. Zalcik, T. McEwan, I. McEachran, S. Frandsen, O. Hansen, H. Andersen, V. Sukhodoev, V. Perminov, and V. Romejko, “Ground-based observations of noctilucent clouds with a northern hemisphere network of automated digital cameras,” J. Atmos. Solar Terr. Phys. 70, 1460–1472 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shettle, E. P.

E. P. Shettle, M. T. DeLand, G. E. Thomas, and J. J. Olivero, “Long term variations in the frequency of polar mesospheric clouds in the Northern Hemisphere from SBUV,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 36, L02803 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. T. DeLand, E. P. Shettle, G. E. Thomas, and J. J. Olivero, “A quarter century of satellite polar mesospheric cloud observations,” J. Atmos. Solar Terr. Phys. 68, 9–29 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Singer, W.

G. Baumgarten, J. Fiedler, K. H. Fricke, M. Gerding, M. Hervig, P. Hoffmann, N. Mu¨ller, P.-D. Pautet, M. Rapp, C. Robert, D. Rusch, C. von Savigny, and W. Singer, “The noctilucent cloud (NLC) display during the ECOMA/MASS sounding rocket flights on 3 August 2007: morphology on local and global scales,” Ann. Geophys. 27, 953–965 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Smith, W. S.

J. S. Theon, W. Nordberg, and W. S. Smith, “Temperature measurements in noctilucent clouds,” Science 157, 419–421(1967).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stebel, K.

S. Kirkwood, V. Barabash, B. U. E. Brändström, A. Moström, K. Stebel, N. Mitchell, and W. K. Hocking, “Noctilucent clouds, PMSE and 5-day planetary waves: a case study,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 1411–1414 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Stegman, J.

P.-D. Pautet, J. Stegman, C. M. Wrasse, K. Nielsen, H. Takahashi, M. J. Taylor, K. W. Hoppel, and S. D. Eckermann, “Analysis of gravity waves structures visible in noctilucent clouds,” J. Atmos. Solar Terr. Phys., doi:10.1016/j.jastp.2010.06.001 (to be published).
[CrossRef]

Sukhodoev, V.

P. Dalin, N. Pertsev, A. Zadorozhny, M. Connors, I. Schofield, I. Shelton, M. Zalcik, T. McEwan, I. McEachran, S. Frandsen, O. Hansen, H. Andersen, V. Sukhodoev, V. Perminov, and V. Romejko, “Ground-based observations of noctilucent clouds with a northern hemisphere network of automated digital cameras,” J. Atmos. Solar Terr. Phys. 70, 1460–1472 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Dalin, N. Pertsev, A. Dubietis, M. Zalcik, A. Zadorozhny, M. Connors, I. Schofield, T. McEwan, I. McEachran, S. Frandsen, O. Hansen, H. Andersen, V. Sukhodoev, V. Perminov, R. Balčiunas, and V. Romejko, “A comparison between gound-based observations of noctilucent clouds and Aura satellite data,” J. Atmos. Solar Terr. Phys., doi:10.1016/j.jastp.2011.01.020 (to be published).
[CrossRef]

Summers, M. E.

M. Hervig, R. E. Thompson, L. L. Gordley, J. M. Russell, and M. E. Summers, “First confirmation that water ice is the primary component of polar mesospheric clouds,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 971–974 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Swenson, G. R.

F. Li, G. R. Swenson, A. Z. Liu, M. Taylor, and Y. C. Zhao, “Investigation of a “wall” wave event,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D04104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. R. Swenson, J. Qian, J. M. C. Plane, P. J. Espy, M. J. Taylor, D. N. Turnbull, and R. P. Lowe, “Dynamical and chemical aspects of the mesospheric Na “wall” event on October 9, 1993 during the Airborne Lidar and Observations of Hawaiian Airglow (ALOHA) campaign,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 6361–6380 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, H.

P.-D. Pautet, J. Stegman, C. M. Wrasse, K. Nielsen, H. Takahashi, M. J. Taylor, K. W. Hoppel, and S. D. Eckermann, “Analysis of gravity waves structures visible in noctilucent clouds,” J. Atmos. Solar Terr. Phys., doi:10.1016/j.jastp.2010.06.001 (to be published).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, M.

F. Li, G. R. Swenson, A. Z. Liu, M. Taylor, and Y. C. Zhao, “Investigation of a “wall” wave event,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D04104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, M. J.

A. Chandran, D. W. Rusch, A. W. Merkel, S. E. Palo, G. E. Thomas, M. J. Taylor, S. M. Bailey, and J. M. Russell III, “Polar mesospheric cloud structures observed from the CIPS experiment on the AIM spacecraft: atmospheric gravity waves as drivers for longitudinal variability in PMC occurrence,” J. Geophys. Res. 115, D13102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Taylor, M. Gadsden, R. P. Lowe, M. S. Zalcik, and J. Brausch, “Mesospheric cloud observations at unusually low latitudes,” J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys. 64, 991–999 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. R. Swenson, J. Qian, J. M. C. Plane, P. J. Espy, M. J. Taylor, D. N. Turnbull, and R. P. Lowe, “Dynamical and chemical aspects of the mesospheric Na “wall” event on October 9, 1993 during the Airborne Lidar and Observations of Hawaiian Airglow (ALOHA) campaign,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 6361–6380 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P.-D. Pautet, J. Stegman, C. M. Wrasse, K. Nielsen, H. Takahashi, M. J. Taylor, K. W. Hoppel, and S. D. Eckermann, “Analysis of gravity waves structures visible in noctilucent clouds,” J. Atmos. Solar Terr. Phys., doi:10.1016/j.jastp.2010.06.001 (to be published).
[CrossRef]

Theon, J. S.

J. S. Theon, W. Nordberg, and W. S. Smith, “Temperature measurements in noctilucent clouds,” Science 157, 419–421(1967).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thomas, G. E.

A. Chandran, D. W. Rusch, A. W. Merkel, S. E. Palo, G. E. Thomas, M. J. Taylor, S. M. Bailey, and J. M. Russell III, “Polar mesospheric cloud structures observed from the CIPS experiment on the AIM spacecraft: atmospheric gravity waves as drivers for longitudinal variability in PMC occurrence,” J. Geophys. Res. 115, D13102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. P. Shettle, M. T. DeLand, G. E. Thomas, and J. J. Olivero, “Long term variations in the frequency of polar mesospheric clouds in the Northern Hemisphere from SBUV,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 36, L02803 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Rapp and G. E. Thomas, “Modelling the microphysics of mesospheric ice particles: assessment of current capabilities and basic sensitivities,” J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys. 68, 715–744(2006).
[CrossRef]

M. T. DeLand, E. P. Shettle, G. E. Thomas, and J. J. Olivero, “A quarter century of satellite polar mesospheric cloud observations,” J. Atmos. Solar Terr. Phys. 68, 9–29 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. E. Thomas, “Are noctilucent clouds harbingers of global change in the middle atmosphere?” Adv. Space Res. 32, 1737–1746 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Fritts, J. R. Isler, G. E. Thomas, and Ø. Andreassen, “Wave breaking signatures in noctilucent clouds,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 2039–2042 (1993).
[CrossRef]

G. E. Thomas, “Mesospheric clouds and the physics of the mesopause region,” Rev. Geophys. 29, 553–575 (1991).
[CrossRef]

G. E. Thomas, J. J. Olivero, E. J. Jensen, W. Schroeder, and O. B. Toon, “Relation between increasing methane and the presence of ice clouds at the mesopause,” Nature 338, 490–492 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Thompson, R. E.

M. Hervig, R. E. Thompson, L. L. Gordley, J. M. Russell, and M. E. Summers, “First confirmation that water ice is the primary component of polar mesospheric clouds,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 971–974 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Toon, O. B.

G. E. Thomas, J. J. Olivero, E. J. Jensen, W. Schroeder, and O. B. Toon, “Relation between increasing methane and the presence of ice clouds at the mesopause,” Nature 338, 490–492 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Turnbull, D. N.

G. R. Swenson, J. Qian, J. M. C. Plane, P. J. Espy, M. J. Taylor, D. N. Turnbull, and R. P. Lowe, “Dynamical and chemical aspects of the mesospheric Na “wall” event on October 9, 1993 during the Airborne Lidar and Observations of Hawaiian Airglow (ALOHA) campaign,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 6361–6380 (1998).
[CrossRef]

von Savigny, C.

G. Baumgarten, J. Fiedler, K. H. Fricke, M. Gerding, M. Hervig, P. Hoffmann, N. Mu¨ller, P.-D. Pautet, M. Rapp, C. Robert, D. Rusch, C. von Savigny, and W. Singer, “The noctilucent cloud (NLC) display during the ECOMA/MASS sounding rocket flights on 3 August 2007: morphology on local and global scales,” Ann. Geophys. 27, 953–965 (2009).
[CrossRef]

von Zahn, U.

U. von Zahn, “Are noctilucent clouds truly a ‘miner’s canary’ of global change?” EOS Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 84, 261–268(2003).
[CrossRef]

Witt, G.

P. J. Espy and G. Witt, “Observation of a quasi 16-day oscillation in the polar summer mesospheric temperature,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 1071–1074 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. Witt, “Height, structure and displacements of noctilucent clouds,” Tellus 14, 1–18 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Wrasse, C. M.

P.-D. Pautet, J. Stegman, C. M. Wrasse, K. Nielsen, H. Takahashi, M. J. Taylor, K. W. Hoppel, and S. D. Eckermann, “Analysis of gravity waves structures visible in noctilucent clouds,” J. Atmos. Solar Terr. Phys., doi:10.1016/j.jastp.2010.06.001 (to be published).
[CrossRef]

Zadorozhny, A.

P. Dalin, N. Pertsev, A. Zadorozhny, M. Connors, I. Schofield, I. Shelton, M. Zalcik, T. McEwan, I. McEachran, S. Frandsen, O. Hansen, H. Andersen, V. Sukhodoev, V. Perminov, and V. Romejko, “Ground-based observations of noctilucent clouds with a northern hemisphere network of automated digital cameras,” J. Atmos. Solar Terr. Phys. 70, 1460–1472 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Dalin, N. Pertsev, A. Dubietis, M. Zalcik, A. Zadorozhny, M. Connors, I. Schofield, T. McEwan, I. McEachran, S. Frandsen, O. Hansen, H. Andersen, V. Sukhodoev, V. Perminov, R. Balčiunas, and V. Romejko, “A comparison between gound-based observations of noctilucent clouds and Aura satellite data,” J. Atmos. Solar Terr. Phys., doi:10.1016/j.jastp.2011.01.020 (to be published).
[CrossRef]

Zalcik, M.

P. Dalin, N. Pertsev, A. Zadorozhny, M. Connors, I. Schofield, I. Shelton, M. Zalcik, T. McEwan, I. McEachran, S. Frandsen, O. Hansen, H. Andersen, V. Sukhodoev, V. Perminov, and V. Romejko, “Ground-based observations of noctilucent clouds with a northern hemisphere network of automated digital cameras,” J. Atmos. Solar Terr. Phys. 70, 1460–1472 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Dalin, N. Pertsev, A. Dubietis, M. Zalcik, A. Zadorozhny, M. Connors, I. Schofield, T. McEwan, I. McEachran, S. Frandsen, O. Hansen, H. Andersen, V. Sukhodoev, V. Perminov, R. Balčiunas, and V. Romejko, “A comparison between gound-based observations of noctilucent clouds and Aura satellite data,” J. Atmos. Solar Terr. Phys., doi:10.1016/j.jastp.2011.01.020 (to be published).
[CrossRef]

Zalcik, M. S.

M. J. Taylor, M. Gadsden, R. P. Lowe, M. S. Zalcik, and J. Brausch, “Mesospheric cloud observations at unusually low latitudes,” J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys. 64, 991–999 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, Y. C.

F. Li, G. R. Swenson, A. Z. Liu, M. Taylor, and Y. C. Zhao, “Investigation of a “wall” wave event,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D04104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Space Res. (1)

G. E. Thomas, “Are noctilucent clouds harbingers of global change in the middle atmosphere?” Adv. Space Res. 32, 1737–1746 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ann. Geophys. (3)

P. Dalin, S. Kirkwood, H. Andersen, O. Hansen, N. Pertsev, and V. Romejko, “Comparison of long-term Moscow and Danish NLC observations: statistical results,” Ann. Geophys. 24, 2841–2849 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Kirkwood, P. Dalin, and A. Rèchou, “Noctilucent clouds observed from the UK and Denmark—trends and variations over 43 years,” Ann. Geophys. 26, 1243–1254 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Baumgarten, J. Fiedler, K. H. Fricke, M. Gerding, M. Hervig, P. Hoffmann, N. Mu¨ller, P.-D. Pautet, M. Rapp, C. Robert, D. Rusch, C. von Savigny, and W. Singer, “The noctilucent cloud (NLC) display during the ECOMA/MASS sounding rocket flights on 3 August 2007: morphology on local and global scales,” Ann. Geophys. 27, 953–965 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Astron. Geophys. (1)

T. Hartquist, O. Havnes, and M. Kassa, “Exploring polar mesospheric summer echoes,” Astron. Geophys. 50, 1.8–1.14(2009).
[CrossRef]

Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. (1)

W. Schröder, “Otto Jesse and the investigation of noctilucent clouds 115 years ago,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 82, 2457–2468 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Earth Planets Space (1)

A. Pogoreltsev, “Simulation of planetary waves and their influence on the zonally averaged circulation in the middle atmosphere,” Earth Planets Space 51, 773–784 (1999).

Earth-Sci. Rev. (1)

A. A. Kokhanovsky, “Microphysical and optical properties of noctilucent clouds,” Earth-Sci. Rev. 71, 127–146 (2005).
[CrossRef]

EOS Trans. Am. Geophys. Union (1)

U. von Zahn, “Are noctilucent clouds truly a ‘miner’s canary’ of global change?” EOS Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 84, 261–268(2003).
[CrossRef]

Geophys. Res. Lett. (5)

M. Hervig, R. E. Thompson, L. L. Gordley, J. M. Russell, and M. E. Summers, “First confirmation that water ice is the primary component of polar mesospheric clouds,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 971–974 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. P. Shettle, M. T. DeLand, G. E. Thomas, and J. J. Olivero, “Long term variations in the frequency of polar mesospheric clouds in the Northern Hemisphere from SBUV,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 36, L02803 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Kirkwood, V. Barabash, B. U. E. Brändström, A. Moström, K. Stebel, N. Mitchell, and W. K. Hocking, “Noctilucent clouds, PMSE and 5-day planetary waves: a case study,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 1411–1414 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Fritts, J. R. Isler, G. E. Thomas, and Ø. Andreassen, “Wave breaking signatures in noctilucent clouds,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 2039–2042 (1993).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Espy and G. Witt, “Observation of a quasi 16-day oscillation in the polar summer mesospheric temperature,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 1071–1074 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Sci. (2)

C. O. Hines, “A possible source of waves in noctilucent clouds,” J. Atmos. Sci. 25, 937–942 (1968).
[CrossRef]

T. M. Donahue, B. Guenther, and J. E. Blamont, “Noctilucent clouds in daytime: circumpolar particulate layers near the summer mesopause,” J. Atmos. Sci. 29, 1205–1209 (1972).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys. (2)

M. Rapp and G. E. Thomas, “Modelling the microphysics of mesospheric ice particles: assessment of current capabilities and basic sensitivities,” J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys. 68, 715–744(2006).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Taylor, M. Gadsden, R. P. Lowe, M. S. Zalcik, and J. Brausch, “Mesospheric cloud observations at unusually low latitudes,” J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys. 64, 991–999 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Solar Terr. Phys. (5)

M. Gadsden, “The North-West Europe data on noctilucent clouds: a survey,” J. Atmos. Solar Terr. Phys. 60, 1163–1174(1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Dubietis, P. Dalin, R. Balčiūnas, and K. Černis, “Observations of noctilucent clouds from Lithuania,” J. Atmos. Solar Terr. Phys. 72, 1090–1099 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. T. DeLand, E. P. Shettle, G. E. Thomas, and J. J. Olivero, “A quarter century of satellite polar mesospheric cloud observations,” J. Atmos. Solar Terr. Phys. 68, 9–29 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Dalin, N. Pertsev, S. Frandsen, O. Hansen, H. Andersen, A. Dubietis, and R. Balciunas, “A case study of the evolution of a Kelvin-Helmholtz wave and turbulence in noctilucent clouds,” J. Atmos. Solar Terr. Phys. 72, 1129–1138 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Dalin, N. Pertsev, A. Zadorozhny, M. Connors, I. Schofield, I. Shelton, M. Zalcik, T. McEwan, I. McEachran, S. Frandsen, O. Hansen, H. Andersen, V. Sukhodoev, V. Perminov, and V. Romejko, “Ground-based observations of noctilucent clouds with a northern hemisphere network of automated digital cameras,” J. Atmos. Solar Terr. Phys. 70, 1460–1472 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (5)

A. Chandran, D. W. Rusch, A. W. Merkel, S. E. Palo, G. E. Thomas, M. J. Taylor, S. M. Bailey, and J. M. Russell III, “Polar mesospheric cloud structures observed from the CIPS experiment on the AIM spacecraft: atmospheric gravity waves as drivers for longitudinal variability in PMC occurrence,” J. Geophys. Res. 115, D13102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Rapp, F.-J. Lübken, and A. Müllemann, “Small scale temperature variations in the 12 vicinity of NLC: experimental and model results,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 4392–4412 (2002).
[CrossRef]

V. A. Romejko, P. A. Dalin, and N. N. Pertsev, “40 years of noctilucent cloud observations near Moscow: database and simple statistics,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8443 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. R. Swenson, J. Qian, J. M. C. Plane, P. J. Espy, M. J. Taylor, D. N. Turnbull, and R. P. Lowe, “Dynamical and chemical aspects of the mesospheric Na “wall” event on October 9, 1993 during the Airborne Lidar and Observations of Hawaiian Airglow (ALOHA) campaign,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 6361–6380 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. Li, G. R. Swenson, A. Z. Liu, M. Taylor, and Y. C. Zhao, “Investigation of a “wall” wave event,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D04104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

G. E. Thomas, J. J. Olivero, E. J. Jensen, W. Schroeder, and O. B. Toon, “Relation between increasing methane and the presence of ice clouds at the mesopause,” Nature 338, 490–492 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Q. J. R. Astron. Soc. (1)

M. Gadsden, “Noctilucent clouds,” Q. J. R. Astron. Soc. 27, 351–366 (1986).

Rev. Geophys. (2)

G. E. Thomas, “Mesospheric clouds and the physics of the mesopause region,” Rev. Geophys. 29, 553–575 (1991).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Fritts and M. J. Alexander, “Gravity wave dynamics and effects in the middle atmosphere,” Rev. Geophys. 41, 1003(2003).
[CrossRef]

Science (2)

J. S. Theon, W. Nordberg, and W. S. Smith, “Temperature measurements in noctilucent clouds,” Science 157, 419–421(1967).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Jarvis, “Bridging the atmospheric divide,” Science 293, 2218–2219 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Space Sci. Rev. (2)

B. Fogle and B. Haurwitz, “Noctilucent clouds,” Space Sci. Rev. 6, 279–340 (1966).
[CrossRef]

M. Gadsden, “Noctilucent clouds,” Space Sci. Rev. 33, 279–334 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Tellus (1)

G. Witt, “Height, structure and displacements of noctilucent clouds,” Tellus 14, 1–18 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

P.-D. Pautet, J. Stegman, C. M. Wrasse, K. Nielsen, H. Takahashi, M. J. Taylor, K. W. Hoppel, and S. D. Eckermann, “Analysis of gravity waves structures visible in noctilucent clouds,” J. Atmos. Solar Terr. Phys., doi:10.1016/j.jastp.2010.06.001 (to be published).
[CrossRef]

M. Gadsden and P. Parviainen, Observing Noctilucent Clouds (The International Association of Geomagnetism and Aeronomy, 2006).

Noctilucent cloud observers’ homepage, http://www.kersland.plus.com.

P. Dalin, N. Pertsev, A. Dubietis, M. Zalcik, A. Zadorozhny, M. Connors, I. Schofield, T. McEwan, I. McEachran, S. Frandsen, O. Hansen, H. Andersen, V. Sukhodoev, V. Perminov, R. Balčiunas, and V. Romejko, “A comparison between gound-based observations of noctilucent clouds and Aura satellite data,” J. Atmos. Solar Terr. Phys., doi:10.1016/j.jastp.2011.01.020 (to be published).
[CrossRef]

M. Gadsden and W. Schröder, Noctilucent Clouds (Springer, 1989).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Noctilucent clouds, as seen from Salakas, Lithuania ( 55.6 ° N , 26.2 ° E ).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Comparison of vertical temperature profiles in winter (dashed curve) and in summer (solid curve) at 60 ° N , as measured by the Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) on 14 February 2004 and 13 July 2004, respectively.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic diagram of NLC formation and contributing processes.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Map of the ground-based photographic network locations for NLC monitoring: 1, Port Glasgow (UK); 2, Athabasca (Canada); 3, Kamchatka; 4, Novosibirsk; 5, Moscow (all Russia); 6, Salakas, Vilnius, and Vidiškes (average location, Lithuania); 7, Aarhus and Silkeborg (Denmark).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Dynamics of a quasi-stationary single wave in the NLC field. The size of each image is 45 ° × 20 ° . Numbers at the bottom of the images indicate the local time.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Statistical distributions of the single wave properties: (a) wave width, (b) lifetime, and (c) propagation direction.

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