Abstract

The main objective of the present work is to develop an optical fiber relative humidity (RH) sensor having a linear response throughout over the widest possible dynamic range. We report an optical fiber RH sensor based on the evanescent wave absorption spectroscopy that fulfills this objective. The fiber sensor employs a specific nanoparticle (zinc oxide) doped sol–gel nanostructured sensing film of optimum thickness, synthesized over a short length of a centrally decladded straight and uniform optical fiber. A detailed experimental investigation is carried out to analyze the sensor response/characteristics. Fiber sensor response is observed to be linear throughout the dynamic range as wide as 4% to 96% RH. The observed linear sensitivity for the fiber sensor is 0.0012RH1. The average response time of the reported sensor is observed to be as short as 0.06s during the humidification. In addition, the sensor exhibited a very good degree of reversibility and extremely high reliability as well as repeatability.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. D. G. Yarkin, “Impedance of humidity sensitive metal/porous silicon/n-Si structures,” Sens. Actuators A 107, 1–6 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  2. L. Gu, Q. A. Huang, and M. Qin, “A novel capacitive-type humidity sensor using CMOS fabrication technology,” Sens. Actuators B 99, 491–498 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  3. W. S. Wang and A. V. Virkar, “A conductimetric humidity sensor based on proton conducting perovskite oxides,” Sens. Actuators B 98, 282–290 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. J. Steele, G. A. Fitzpatrick, and M. J. Brett, “Capacitive humidity sensors with high sensitivity and subsecond response,” IEEE Sens. J. 7, 955–956 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  5. H. C. Hesse, “Optical fiber chemical sensor,” East German patent 106,086 (1974).
  6. F.T. S.Yu and S.Yin, Fiber Optic Sensors (Marcel Dekker, 2002).
    [CrossRef]
  7. C. Bariain, I. R. Matias, F. J. Arregui, and M. Lopez-Amo, “Optical fiber humidity sensor based on a tapered fiber coated with agarose gel,” Sens. Actuators B 69, 127–131 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. P. Russell and K. S. Fletcher, “Optical sensor for determination of moisture,” Anal. Chim. Acta 170, 209–216 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  9. D. S. Ballantine, “Optical waveguide humidity detector,” Anal. Chem. 58, 2883–2885 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  10. Q. Zhou, M. R. Shahriari, D. Kritz, and G. H. Sigel, “Porous fiber-optic sensor for high-sensitivity humidity measurement,” Anal. Chem. 60, 2317–2320 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  11. B. D. Gupta and Ratnanjali, “A novel probe for fiber optic humidity sensor,” Sens. Actuators B 80, 132–135 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  12. A. Gaston, I. Lozano, F. Perez, F. Auza, and J. Sevilla, “Evanescent wave optical-fiber sensing (temperature, relative humidity, and pH sensors),” IEEE Sens. J. 3, 806–811(2003).
    [CrossRef]
  13. A. A. Herrero, H. Guerrero, and D. Levy, “High-sensitivity sensor of low relative humidity based on overlay on side-polished fibers,” IEEE Sens. J. 4, 52–56 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  16. M. Konstantaki, S. Pissadakis, S. Pispas, N. Madamopoulos, and N. A. Vainos, “Optical fiber long-period grating humidity sensor with poly (ethyleneoxide)/cobalt chloride coating,” Appl. Opt. 45, 4567–4571 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. I. R. Matias, F. J. Arregui, J. M. Corres, and J. Bravo, “Evanescent field fiber-optic sensors for humidity monitoring based on nanocoatings,” IEEE Sens. J. 7, 89–95 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  18. J. M. Corres, F. J. Arregui, and I. R. Matias, “Sensitivity optimization of tapered optical fiber humidity sensors by means of tuning the thickness of nanostructured sensitive coatings,” Sens. Actuators B 122, 442–449 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  19. L. Zhang, F. Gu, J. Lou, X. Yin, and L. Tong, “Fast detection of humidity with a subwavelength-diameter fiber taper coated with gelatin film,” Opt. Express 16, 13349–13352 (2008).
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  20. S. K. Khijwania and B. D. Gupta, “Fiber optic evanescent field absorption sensor: effect of fiber parameters and geometry of the probe,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 31, 625–636 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  21. S. K. Khijwania and B. D. Gupta, “Effect of fiber parameters on the sensitivity of the fiber-optic evanescent field absorption sensor based on tapered probe,” Proc. SPIE 3666, 578–584(1999).
    [CrossRef]

2008 (1)

2007 (3)

J. J. Steele, G. A. Fitzpatrick, and M. J. Brett, “Capacitive humidity sensors with high sensitivity and subsecond response,” IEEE Sens. J. 7, 955–956 (2007).
[CrossRef]

I. R. Matias, F. J. Arregui, J. M. Corres, and J. Bravo, “Evanescent field fiber-optic sensors for humidity monitoring based on nanocoatings,” IEEE Sens. J. 7, 89–95 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Corres, F. J. Arregui, and I. R. Matias, “Sensitivity optimization of tapered optical fiber humidity sensors by means of tuning the thickness of nanostructured sensitive coatings,” Sens. Actuators B 122, 442–449 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

2005 (1)

S. K. Khijwania, K. L. Srinivasan, and J. P. Singh, “Performance optimized optical fiber sensor for humidity measurement,” Opt. Eng. 44, 034401 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (4)

L. Xu, J. C. Fanguy, K. Soni, and S. Tao, “Optical fiber humidity sensor based on evanescent-wave scattering,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1191–1193 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. A. Herrero, H. Guerrero, and D. Levy, “High-sensitivity sensor of low relative humidity based on overlay on side-polished fibers,” IEEE Sens. J. 4, 52–56 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. Gu, Q. A. Huang, and M. Qin, “A novel capacitive-type humidity sensor using CMOS fabrication technology,” Sens. Actuators B 99, 491–498 (2004).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Wang and A. V. Virkar, “A conductimetric humidity sensor based on proton conducting perovskite oxides,” Sens. Actuators B 98, 282–290 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

D. G. Yarkin, “Impedance of humidity sensitive metal/porous silicon/n-Si structures,” Sens. Actuators A 107, 1–6 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Gaston, I. Lozano, F. Perez, F. Auza, and J. Sevilla, “Evanescent wave optical-fiber sensing (temperature, relative humidity, and pH sensors),” IEEE Sens. J. 3, 806–811(2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

B. D. Gupta and Ratnanjali, “A novel probe for fiber optic humidity sensor,” Sens. Actuators B 80, 132–135 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

C. Bariain, I. R. Matias, F. J. Arregui, and M. Lopez-Amo, “Optical fiber humidity sensor based on a tapered fiber coated with agarose gel,” Sens. Actuators B 69, 127–131 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

S. K. Khijwania and B. D. Gupta, “Fiber optic evanescent field absorption sensor: effect of fiber parameters and geometry of the probe,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 31, 625–636 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Khijwania and B. D. Gupta, “Effect of fiber parameters on the sensitivity of the fiber-optic evanescent field absorption sensor based on tapered probe,” Proc. SPIE 3666, 578–584(1999).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

Q. Zhou, M. R. Shahriari, D. Kritz, and G. H. Sigel, “Porous fiber-optic sensor for high-sensitivity humidity measurement,” Anal. Chem. 60, 2317–2320 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

D. S. Ballantine, “Optical waveguide humidity detector,” Anal. Chem. 58, 2883–2885 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

A. P. Russell and K. S. Fletcher, “Optical sensor for determination of moisture,” Anal. Chim. Acta 170, 209–216 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Arregui, F. J.

I. R. Matias, F. J. Arregui, J. M. Corres, and J. Bravo, “Evanescent field fiber-optic sensors for humidity monitoring based on nanocoatings,” IEEE Sens. J. 7, 89–95 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Corres, F. J. Arregui, and I. R. Matias, “Sensitivity optimization of tapered optical fiber humidity sensors by means of tuning the thickness of nanostructured sensitive coatings,” Sens. Actuators B 122, 442–449 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Bariain, I. R. Matias, F. J. Arregui, and M. Lopez-Amo, “Optical fiber humidity sensor based on a tapered fiber coated with agarose gel,” Sens. Actuators B 69, 127–131 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Auza, F.

A. Gaston, I. Lozano, F. Perez, F. Auza, and J. Sevilla, “Evanescent wave optical-fiber sensing (temperature, relative humidity, and pH sensors),” IEEE Sens. J. 3, 806–811(2003).
[CrossRef]

Ballantine, D. S.

D. S. Ballantine, “Optical waveguide humidity detector,” Anal. Chem. 58, 2883–2885 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Bariain, C.

C. Bariain, I. R. Matias, F. J. Arregui, and M. Lopez-Amo, “Optical fiber humidity sensor based on a tapered fiber coated with agarose gel,” Sens. Actuators B 69, 127–131 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bravo, J.

I. R. Matias, F. J. Arregui, J. M. Corres, and J. Bravo, “Evanescent field fiber-optic sensors for humidity monitoring based on nanocoatings,” IEEE Sens. J. 7, 89–95 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Brett, M. J.

J. J. Steele, G. A. Fitzpatrick, and M. J. Brett, “Capacitive humidity sensors with high sensitivity and subsecond response,” IEEE Sens. J. 7, 955–956 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Corres, J. M.

J. M. Corres, F. J. Arregui, and I. R. Matias, “Sensitivity optimization of tapered optical fiber humidity sensors by means of tuning the thickness of nanostructured sensitive coatings,” Sens. Actuators B 122, 442–449 (2007).
[CrossRef]

I. R. Matias, F. J. Arregui, J. M. Corres, and J. Bravo, “Evanescent field fiber-optic sensors for humidity monitoring based on nanocoatings,” IEEE Sens. J. 7, 89–95 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fanguy, J. C.

Fitzpatrick, G. A.

J. J. Steele, G. A. Fitzpatrick, and M. J. Brett, “Capacitive humidity sensors with high sensitivity and subsecond response,” IEEE Sens. J. 7, 955–956 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fletcher, K. S.

A. P. Russell and K. S. Fletcher, “Optical sensor for determination of moisture,” Anal. Chim. Acta 170, 209–216 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Gaston, A.

A. Gaston, I. Lozano, F. Perez, F. Auza, and J. Sevilla, “Evanescent wave optical-fiber sensing (temperature, relative humidity, and pH sensors),” IEEE Sens. J. 3, 806–811(2003).
[CrossRef]

Gu, F.

Gu, L.

L. Gu, Q. A. Huang, and M. Qin, “A novel capacitive-type humidity sensor using CMOS fabrication technology,” Sens. Actuators B 99, 491–498 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Guerrero, H.

A. A. Herrero, H. Guerrero, and D. Levy, “High-sensitivity sensor of low relative humidity based on overlay on side-polished fibers,” IEEE Sens. J. 4, 52–56 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gupta, B. D.

B. D. Gupta and Ratnanjali, “A novel probe for fiber optic humidity sensor,” Sens. Actuators B 80, 132–135 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Khijwania and B. D. Gupta, “Fiber optic evanescent field absorption sensor: effect of fiber parameters and geometry of the probe,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 31, 625–636 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Khijwania and B. D. Gupta, “Effect of fiber parameters on the sensitivity of the fiber-optic evanescent field absorption sensor based on tapered probe,” Proc. SPIE 3666, 578–584(1999).
[CrossRef]

Herrero, A. A.

A. A. Herrero, H. Guerrero, and D. Levy, “High-sensitivity sensor of low relative humidity based on overlay on side-polished fibers,” IEEE Sens. J. 4, 52–56 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hesse, H. C.

H. C. Hesse, “Optical fiber chemical sensor,” East German patent 106,086 (1974).

Huang, Q. A.

L. Gu, Q. A. Huang, and M. Qin, “A novel capacitive-type humidity sensor using CMOS fabrication technology,” Sens. Actuators B 99, 491–498 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Khijwania, S. K.

S. K. Khijwania, K. L. Srinivasan, and J. P. Singh, “Performance optimized optical fiber sensor for humidity measurement,” Opt. Eng. 44, 034401 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Khijwania and B. D. Gupta, “Fiber optic evanescent field absorption sensor: effect of fiber parameters and geometry of the probe,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 31, 625–636 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Khijwania and B. D. Gupta, “Effect of fiber parameters on the sensitivity of the fiber-optic evanescent field absorption sensor based on tapered probe,” Proc. SPIE 3666, 578–584(1999).
[CrossRef]

Konstantaki, M.

Kritz, D.

Q. Zhou, M. R. Shahriari, D. Kritz, and G. H. Sigel, “Porous fiber-optic sensor for high-sensitivity humidity measurement,” Anal. Chem. 60, 2317–2320 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Levy, D.

A. A. Herrero, H. Guerrero, and D. Levy, “High-sensitivity sensor of low relative humidity based on overlay on side-polished fibers,” IEEE Sens. J. 4, 52–56 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lopez-Amo, M.

C. Bariain, I. R. Matias, F. J. Arregui, and M. Lopez-Amo, “Optical fiber humidity sensor based on a tapered fiber coated with agarose gel,” Sens. Actuators B 69, 127–131 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lou, J.

Lozano, I.

A. Gaston, I. Lozano, F. Perez, F. Auza, and J. Sevilla, “Evanescent wave optical-fiber sensing (temperature, relative humidity, and pH sensors),” IEEE Sens. J. 3, 806–811(2003).
[CrossRef]

Madamopoulos, N.

Matias, I. R.

J. M. Corres, F. J. Arregui, and I. R. Matias, “Sensitivity optimization of tapered optical fiber humidity sensors by means of tuning the thickness of nanostructured sensitive coatings,” Sens. Actuators B 122, 442–449 (2007).
[CrossRef]

I. R. Matias, F. J. Arregui, J. M. Corres, and J. Bravo, “Evanescent field fiber-optic sensors for humidity monitoring based on nanocoatings,” IEEE Sens. J. 7, 89–95 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Bariain, I. R. Matias, F. J. Arregui, and M. Lopez-Amo, “Optical fiber humidity sensor based on a tapered fiber coated with agarose gel,” Sens. Actuators B 69, 127–131 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Perez, F.

A. Gaston, I. Lozano, F. Perez, F. Auza, and J. Sevilla, “Evanescent wave optical-fiber sensing (temperature, relative humidity, and pH sensors),” IEEE Sens. J. 3, 806–811(2003).
[CrossRef]

Pispas, S.

Pissadakis, S.

Qin, M.

L. Gu, Q. A. Huang, and M. Qin, “A novel capacitive-type humidity sensor using CMOS fabrication technology,” Sens. Actuators B 99, 491–498 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ratnanjali,

B. D. Gupta and Ratnanjali, “A novel probe for fiber optic humidity sensor,” Sens. Actuators B 80, 132–135 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Russell, A. P.

A. P. Russell and K. S. Fletcher, “Optical sensor for determination of moisture,” Anal. Chim. Acta 170, 209–216 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Sevilla, J.

A. Gaston, I. Lozano, F. Perez, F. Auza, and J. Sevilla, “Evanescent wave optical-fiber sensing (temperature, relative humidity, and pH sensors),” IEEE Sens. J. 3, 806–811(2003).
[CrossRef]

Shahriari, M. R.

Q. Zhou, M. R. Shahriari, D. Kritz, and G. H. Sigel, “Porous fiber-optic sensor for high-sensitivity humidity measurement,” Anal. Chem. 60, 2317–2320 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Sigel, G. H.

Q. Zhou, M. R. Shahriari, D. Kritz, and G. H. Sigel, “Porous fiber-optic sensor for high-sensitivity humidity measurement,” Anal. Chem. 60, 2317–2320 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Singh, J. P.

S. K. Khijwania, K. L. Srinivasan, and J. P. Singh, “Performance optimized optical fiber sensor for humidity measurement,” Opt. Eng. 44, 034401 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Soni, K.

Srinivasan, K. L.

S. K. Khijwania, K. L. Srinivasan, and J. P. Singh, “Performance optimized optical fiber sensor for humidity measurement,” Opt. Eng. 44, 034401 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Steele, J. J.

J. J. Steele, G. A. Fitzpatrick, and M. J. Brett, “Capacitive humidity sensors with high sensitivity and subsecond response,” IEEE Sens. J. 7, 955–956 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tao, S.

Tong, L.

Vainos, N. A.

Virkar, A. V.

W. S. Wang and A. V. Virkar, “A conductimetric humidity sensor based on proton conducting perovskite oxides,” Sens. Actuators B 98, 282–290 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wang, W. S.

W. S. Wang and A. V. Virkar, “A conductimetric humidity sensor based on proton conducting perovskite oxides,” Sens. Actuators B 98, 282–290 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Xu, L.

Yarkin, D. G.

D. G. Yarkin, “Impedance of humidity sensitive metal/porous silicon/n-Si structures,” Sens. Actuators A 107, 1–6 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yin, X.

Zhang, L.

Zhou, Q.

Q. Zhou, M. R. Shahriari, D. Kritz, and G. H. Sigel, “Porous fiber-optic sensor for high-sensitivity humidity measurement,” Anal. Chem. 60, 2317–2320 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Chem. (2)

D. S. Ballantine, “Optical waveguide humidity detector,” Anal. Chem. 58, 2883–2885 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Q. Zhou, M. R. Shahriari, D. Kritz, and G. H. Sigel, “Porous fiber-optic sensor for high-sensitivity humidity measurement,” Anal. Chem. 60, 2317–2320 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Chim. Acta (1)

A. P. Russell and K. S. Fletcher, “Optical sensor for determination of moisture,” Anal. Chim. Acta 170, 209–216 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

IEEE Sens. J. (4)

I. R. Matias, F. J. Arregui, J. M. Corres, and J. Bravo, “Evanescent field fiber-optic sensors for humidity monitoring based on nanocoatings,” IEEE Sens. J. 7, 89–95 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Gaston, I. Lozano, F. Perez, F. Auza, and J. Sevilla, “Evanescent wave optical-fiber sensing (temperature, relative humidity, and pH sensors),” IEEE Sens. J. 3, 806–811(2003).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Herrero, H. Guerrero, and D. Levy, “High-sensitivity sensor of low relative humidity based on overlay on side-polished fibers,” IEEE Sens. J. 4, 52–56 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Steele, G. A. Fitzpatrick, and M. J. Brett, “Capacitive humidity sensors with high sensitivity and subsecond response,” IEEE Sens. J. 7, 955–956 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

S. K. Khijwania, K. L. Srinivasan, and J. P. Singh, “Performance optimized optical fiber sensor for humidity measurement,” Opt. Eng. 44, 034401 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Opt. Quantum Electron. (1)

S. K. Khijwania and B. D. Gupta, “Fiber optic evanescent field absorption sensor: effect of fiber parameters and geometry of the probe,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 31, 625–636 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

S. K. Khijwania and B. D. Gupta, “Effect of fiber parameters on the sensitivity of the fiber-optic evanescent field absorption sensor based on tapered probe,” Proc. SPIE 3666, 578–584(1999).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Actuators A (1)

D. G. Yarkin, “Impedance of humidity sensitive metal/porous silicon/n-Si structures,” Sens. Actuators A 107, 1–6 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Actuators B (5)

L. Gu, Q. A. Huang, and M. Qin, “A novel capacitive-type humidity sensor using CMOS fabrication technology,” Sens. Actuators B 99, 491–498 (2004).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Wang and A. V. Virkar, “A conductimetric humidity sensor based on proton conducting perovskite oxides,” Sens. Actuators B 98, 282–290 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Bariain, I. R. Matias, F. J. Arregui, and M. Lopez-Amo, “Optical fiber humidity sensor based on a tapered fiber coated with agarose gel,” Sens. Actuators B 69, 127–131 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. D. Gupta and Ratnanjali, “A novel probe for fiber optic humidity sensor,” Sens. Actuators B 80, 132–135 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Corres, F. J. Arregui, and I. R. Matias, “Sensitivity optimization of tapered optical fiber humidity sensors by means of tuning the thickness of nanostructured sensitive coatings,” Sens. Actuators B 122, 442–449 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

H. C. Hesse, “Optical fiber chemical sensor,” East German patent 106,086 (1974).

F.T. S.Yu and S.Yin, Fiber Optic Sensors (Marcel Dekker, 2002).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup for the optical fiber humidity sensor. PD, photodetector.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimentally observed response of the developed optical fiber RH sensor.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Observed time response behavior of the optical fiber humidity sensor for a cyclic humidity perturbation.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Repeatability and reliability test: Fiber sensor output on the three different days, each at an interval of 4 days for 25%, 55%, and 85% RH.

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