Abstract

We propose and study experimentally and numerically a passively mode-locked figure-eight fiber laser scheme generating noiselike optical pulses, or subns wave packets with a fine inner structure of subps pulses presenting random amplitudes and durations. The particular design of the nonlinear optical loop mirror (NOLM) used in this laser, relying on nonlinear polarization rotation, allows adjusting the switching power through input polarization control. Experimental results show stable pulsed operation over a limited range of the NOLM input polarization angle. Interestingly, the spectral and temporal characteristics of these pulses are observed to be widely variable over that range. In particular, the spectral width varies from 16 to 52nm and this spectral variation is associated with an inverse evolution in the durations of the bunch and of the inner ultrashort pulses. Simulation results are in good agreement with the experiment. They confirm the strong dependence of the pulse properties on the value of the NOLM switching power, although NOLM switching is not alone responsible for the appearance of the noiselike pulsing mode.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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2009 (2)

O. Pottiez, B. Ibarra-Escamilla, and E. A. Kuzin, “Large signal-to-noise-ratio enhancement of ultrashort pulsed optical signals using a power-symmetric Nonlinear Optical Loop Mirror with output polarization selection,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 15, 172–180 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Kobtsev, S. Kukarin, S. Smirnov, S. Turitsyn, and A. Latkin, “Generation of double-scale femto/pico-second optical lumps in mode-locked fiber lasers,” Opt. Express 17, 20707–20713(2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

B. Ibarra-Escamilla, O. Pottiez, E. A. Kuzin, J. W. Haus, R. Grajales-Coutiño, and P. Zaca-Moran, “Experimental investigation of self-starting operation in a F8L based on a symmetrical NOLM,” Opt. Commun. 281, 1226–1232 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Ibarra-Escamilla, O. Pottiez, J. W. Haus, E. A. Kuzin, M. Bello-Jimenez, and A. Flores-Rosas, “Wavelength-tunable picosecond pulses from a passively mode-locked figure-eight Erbium-doped fiber laser with a Sagnac fiber filter,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. 3, 08036 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

2006 (2)

T. Tanemura and K. Kikuchi, “Circular birefringence fiber for nonlinear optical signal processing,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 4108–4119 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. M. Zhao and D. Y. Tang, “Generation of 15 nJ bunched noise-like pulses with 93 nm bandwidth in an erbium doped fiber ring laser,” Appl. Phys. B 83, 553–557 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (5)

2002 (2)

F. Ö. Ilday, F. W. Wise, and T. Sosnowski, “High-energy femtosecond stretched-pulse fiber laser with a nonlinear optical loop mirror,” Opt. Lett. 27, 1531–1533 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Attygalle, A. Nirmalathas, and H. F. Liu, “Novel technique for reduction of amplitude modulation of pulse trains generated by subharmonic synchronous mode-locked laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 543–545 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

2000 (1)

J. U. Kang, “Broadband quasi-stationary pulses in mode-locked fiber ring laser,” Opt. Commun. 182, 433–436 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

M. Horowitz and Y. Silberberg, “Control of noiselike pulse generation in erbium-doped fiber lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1389–1391 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (3)

1996 (1)

1995 (1)

1993 (2)

1991 (1)

1990 (1)

1988 (1)

1972 (1)

V. E. Zacharov and A. B. Shabat, “Exact theory of two-dimentional self-focusing and one-dimentional self modulation of waves in nonlinear media,” Sov. Phys. JETP 61, 62–69(1972).

Agrawal, G. P.

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic Press, 1995).

Attygalle, M.

M. Attygalle, A. Nirmalathas, and H. F. Liu, “Novel technique for reduction of amplitude modulation of pulse trains generated by subharmonic synchronous mode-locked laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 543–545 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Barad, Y.

Bello-Jimenez, M.

B. Ibarra-Escamilla, O. Pottiez, J. W. Haus, E. A. Kuzin, M. Bello-Jimenez, and A. Flores-Rosas, “Wavelength-tunable picosecond pulses from a passively mode-locked figure-eight Erbium-doped fiber laser with a Sagnac fiber filter,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. 3, 08036 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Buckley, J. R.

Chernykh, A. I.

Dennis, M. L.

Doran, N. J.

Duling, I. N.

Fermann, M. E.

Fleischer, S. B.

Flores-Rosas, A.

B. Ibarra-Escamilla, O. Pottiez, J. W. Haus, E. A. Kuzin, M. Bello-Jimenez, and A. Flores-Rosas, “Wavelength-tunable picosecond pulses from a passively mode-locked figure-eight Erbium-doped fiber laser with a Sagnac fiber filter,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. 3, 08036 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Friebele, E. J.

Garcia-Gomez, D. E.

Grajales-Coutiño, R.

B. Ibarra-Escamilla, O. Pottiez, E. A. Kuzin, J. W. Haus, R. Grajales-Coutiño, and P. Zaca-Moran, “Experimental investigation of self-starting operation in a F8L based on a symmetrical NOLM,” Opt. Commun. 281, 1226–1232 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Ibarra-Escamilla, E. A. Kuzin, P. Zaca-Moran, R. Grajales-Coutiño, F. Mendez-Martinez, O. Pottiez, R. Rojas-Laguna, and J. W. Haus, “Experimental investigation of the nonlinear optical loop mirror with twisted fiber and birefringence bias,” Opt. Express 13, 10760–10767 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haberl, F.

Haus, H. A.

Haus, J. W.

B. Ibarra-Escamilla, O. Pottiez, J. W. Haus, E. A. Kuzin, M. Bello-Jimenez, and A. Flores-Rosas, “Wavelength-tunable picosecond pulses from a passively mode-locked figure-eight Erbium-doped fiber laser with a Sagnac fiber filter,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. 3, 08036 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Ibarra-Escamilla, O. Pottiez, E. A. Kuzin, J. W. Haus, R. Grajales-Coutiño, and P. Zaca-Moran, “Experimental investigation of self-starting operation in a F8L based on a symmetrical NOLM,” Opt. Commun. 281, 1226–1232 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Ibarra-Escamilla, E. A. Kuzin, P. Zaca-Moran, R. Grajales-Coutiño, F. Mendez-Martinez, O. Pottiez, R. Rojas-Laguna, and J. W. Haus, “Experimental investigation of the nonlinear optical loop mirror with twisted fiber and birefringence bias,” Opt. Express 13, 10760–10767 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. A. Kuzin, B. Ibarra-Escamilla, D. E. Garcia-Gomez, and J. W. Haus, “Fiber laser mode locked by a Sagnac interferometer with nonlinear polarization rotation,” Opt. Lett. 26, 1559–1561 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. A. Kuzin, N. Korneev, J. W. Haus, and B. Ibarra-Escamilla, “Theory of nonlinear loop mirrors with twisted low-birefringence fiber,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 18, 919–925 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hofer, M.

Horowitz, M.

M. Horowitz and Y. Silberberg, “Control of noiselike pulse generation in erbium-doped fiber lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1389–1391 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Horowitz, Y. Barad, and Y. Silberberg, “Noiselike pulses with a broadband spectrum generated from an erbium-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 22, 799–801 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ibarra-Escamilla, B.

O. Pottiez, B. Ibarra-Escamilla, and E. A. Kuzin, “Large signal-to-noise-ratio enhancement of ultrashort pulsed optical signals using a power-symmetric Nonlinear Optical Loop Mirror with output polarization selection,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 15, 172–180 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. Ibarra-Escamilla, O. Pottiez, E. A. Kuzin, J. W. Haus, R. Grajales-Coutiño, and P. Zaca-Moran, “Experimental investigation of self-starting operation in a F8L based on a symmetrical NOLM,” Opt. Commun. 281, 1226–1232 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Ibarra-Escamilla, O. Pottiez, J. W. Haus, E. A. Kuzin, M. Bello-Jimenez, and A. Flores-Rosas, “Wavelength-tunable picosecond pulses from a passively mode-locked figure-eight Erbium-doped fiber laser with a Sagnac fiber filter,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. 3, 08036 (2008).
[CrossRef]

O. Pottiez, E. A. Kuzin, B. Ibarra-Escamilla, and F. Mendez-Martinez, “Theoretical investigation of the NOLM with highly twisted fibre and a λ/4 birefringence bias,” Opt. Commun. 254, 152–167 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. Ibarra-Escamilla, E. A. Kuzin, P. Zaca-Moran, R. Grajales-Coutiño, F. Mendez-Martinez, O. Pottiez, R. Rojas-Laguna, and J. W. Haus, “Experimental investigation of the nonlinear optical loop mirror with twisted fiber and birefringence bias,” Opt. Express 13, 10760–10767 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. A. Kuzin, B. Ibarra-Escamilla, D. E. Garcia-Gomez, and J. W. Haus, “Fiber laser mode locked by a Sagnac interferometer with nonlinear polarization rotation,” Opt. Lett. 26, 1559–1561 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. A. Kuzin, N. Korneev, J. W. Haus, and B. Ibarra-Escamilla, “Theory of nonlinear loop mirrors with twisted low-birefringence fiber,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 18, 919–925 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ilday, F. Ö.

Ippen, E. P.

Kang, J. U.

Kikuchi, K.

T. Tanemura and K. Kikuchi, “Circular birefringence fiber for nonlinear optical signal processing,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 4108–4119 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Takushima, K. Yasunaka, Y. Ozeki, and K. Kikuchi, “87 nm bandwidth noise-like pulse generation from erbium-doped fibre laser,” Electron. Lett. 41, 399–400 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kobtsev, S.

Korneev, N.

Kukarin, S.

Kuzin, E. A.

O. Pottiez, B. Ibarra-Escamilla, and E. A. Kuzin, “Large signal-to-noise-ratio enhancement of ultrashort pulsed optical signals using a power-symmetric Nonlinear Optical Loop Mirror with output polarization selection,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 15, 172–180 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. Ibarra-Escamilla, O. Pottiez, E. A. Kuzin, J. W. Haus, R. Grajales-Coutiño, and P. Zaca-Moran, “Experimental investigation of self-starting operation in a F8L based on a symmetrical NOLM,” Opt. Commun. 281, 1226–1232 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Ibarra-Escamilla, O. Pottiez, J. W. Haus, E. A. Kuzin, M. Bello-Jimenez, and A. Flores-Rosas, “Wavelength-tunable picosecond pulses from a passively mode-locked figure-eight Erbium-doped fiber laser with a Sagnac fiber filter,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. 3, 08036 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Ibarra-Escamilla, E. A. Kuzin, P. Zaca-Moran, R. Grajales-Coutiño, F. Mendez-Martinez, O. Pottiez, R. Rojas-Laguna, and J. W. Haus, “Experimental investigation of the nonlinear optical loop mirror with twisted fiber and birefringence bias,” Opt. Express 13, 10760–10767 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Pottiez, E. A. Kuzin, B. Ibarra-Escamilla, and F. Mendez-Martinez, “Theoretical investigation of the NOLM with highly twisted fibre and a λ/4 birefringence bias,” Opt. Commun. 254, 152–167 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. A. Kuzin, B. Ibarra-Escamilla, D. E. Garcia-Gomez, and J. W. Haus, “Fiber laser mode locked by a Sagnac interferometer with nonlinear polarization rotation,” Opt. Lett. 26, 1559–1561 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. A. Kuzin, N. Korneev, J. W. Haus, and B. Ibarra-Escamilla, “Theory of nonlinear loop mirrors with twisted low-birefringence fiber,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 18, 919–925 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Latkin, A.

Lenz, G.

Liu, H. F.

M. Attygalle, A. Nirmalathas, and H. F. Liu, “Novel technique for reduction of amplitude modulation of pulse trains generated by subharmonic synchronous mode-locked laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 543–545 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Margalit, M.

Matsas, V. J.

Mendez-Martinez, F.

Namiki, S.

Nelson, L. E.

Newson, T. P.

Nirmalathas, A.

M. Attygalle, A. Nirmalathas, and H. F. Liu, “Novel technique for reduction of amplitude modulation of pulse trains generated by subharmonic synchronous mode-locked laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 543–545 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ozeki, Y.

Y. Takushima, K. Yasunaka, Y. Ozeki, and K. Kikuchi, “87 nm bandwidth noise-like pulse generation from erbium-doped fibre laser,” Electron. Lett. 41, 399–400 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Payne, D. N.

Pottiez, O.

O. Pottiez, B. Ibarra-Escamilla, and E. A. Kuzin, “Large signal-to-noise-ratio enhancement of ultrashort pulsed optical signals using a power-symmetric Nonlinear Optical Loop Mirror with output polarization selection,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 15, 172–180 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. Ibarra-Escamilla, O. Pottiez, E. A. Kuzin, J. W. Haus, R. Grajales-Coutiño, and P. Zaca-Moran, “Experimental investigation of self-starting operation in a F8L based on a symmetrical NOLM,” Opt. Commun. 281, 1226–1232 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Ibarra-Escamilla, O. Pottiez, J. W. Haus, E. A. Kuzin, M. Bello-Jimenez, and A. Flores-Rosas, “Wavelength-tunable picosecond pulses from a passively mode-locked figure-eight Erbium-doped fiber laser with a Sagnac fiber filter,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. 3, 08036 (2008).
[CrossRef]

O. Pottiez, E. A. Kuzin, B. Ibarra-Escamilla, and F. Mendez-Martinez, “Theoretical investigation of the NOLM with highly twisted fibre and a λ/4 birefringence bias,” Opt. Commun. 254, 152–167 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. Ibarra-Escamilla, E. A. Kuzin, P. Zaca-Moran, R. Grajales-Coutiño, F. Mendez-Martinez, O. Pottiez, R. Rojas-Laguna, and J. W. Haus, “Experimental investigation of the nonlinear optical loop mirror with twisted fiber and birefringence bias,” Opt. Express 13, 10760–10767 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Putnam, M. A.

Richardson, D. J.

Rojas-Laguna, R.

Shabat, A. B.

V. E. Zacharov and A. B. Shabat, “Exact theory of two-dimentional self-focusing and one-dimentional self modulation of waves in nonlinear media,” Sov. Phys. JETP 61, 62–69(1972).

Silberberg, Y.

M. Horowitz and Y. Silberberg, “Control of noiselike pulse generation in erbium-doped fiber lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1389–1391 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Horowitz, Y. Barad, and Y. Silberberg, “Noiselike pulses with a broadband spectrum generated from an erbium-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 22, 799–801 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smirnov, S.

Sosnowski, T.

Takushima, Y.

Y. Takushima, K. Yasunaka, Y. Ozeki, and K. Kikuchi, “87 nm bandwidth noise-like pulse generation from erbium-doped fibre laser,” Electron. Lett. 41, 399–400 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tamura, K.

Tanemura, T.

Tang, D. Y.

Trebino, R.

R. Trebino, Frequency Resolved Optical Gating: the Measurement of Ultrashort Optical Pulses (Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2000).

Tsai, T.-E.

Turitsyn, S.

Turitsyn, S. K.

Wise, F. W.

Wong, W. S.

Wood, D.

Wu, J.

Yasunaka, K.

Y. Takushima, K. Yasunaka, Y. Ozeki, and K. Kikuchi, “87 nm bandwidth noise-like pulse generation from erbium-doped fibre laser,” Electron. Lett. 41, 399–400 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zaca-Moran, P.

B. Ibarra-Escamilla, O. Pottiez, E. A. Kuzin, J. W. Haus, R. Grajales-Coutiño, and P. Zaca-Moran, “Experimental investigation of self-starting operation in a F8L based on a symmetrical NOLM,” Opt. Commun. 281, 1226–1232 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Ibarra-Escamilla, E. A. Kuzin, P. Zaca-Moran, R. Grajales-Coutiño, F. Mendez-Martinez, O. Pottiez, R. Rojas-Laguna, and J. W. Haus, “Experimental investigation of the nonlinear optical loop mirror with twisted fiber and birefringence bias,” Opt. Express 13, 10760–10767 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zacharov, V. E.

V. E. Zacharov and A. B. Shabat, “Exact theory of two-dimentional self-focusing and one-dimentional self modulation of waves in nonlinear media,” Sov. Phys. JETP 61, 62–69(1972).

Zhao, B.

Zhao, L. M.

Appl. Phys. B (1)

L. M. Zhao and D. Y. Tang, “Generation of 15 nJ bunched noise-like pulses with 93 nm bandwidth in an erbium doped fiber ring laser,” Appl. Phys. B 83, 553–557 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

Y. Takushima, K. Yasunaka, Y. Ozeki, and K. Kikuchi, “87 nm bandwidth noise-like pulse generation from erbium-doped fibre laser,” Electron. Lett. 41, 399–400 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

M. Horowitz and Y. Silberberg, “Control of noiselike pulse generation in erbium-doped fiber lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1389–1391 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Attygalle, A. Nirmalathas, and H. F. Liu, “Novel technique for reduction of amplitude modulation of pulse trains generated by subharmonic synchronous mode-locked laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 543–545 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Eur. Opt. Soc. (1)

B. Ibarra-Escamilla, O. Pottiez, J. W. Haus, E. A. Kuzin, M. Bello-Jimenez, and A. Flores-Rosas, “Wavelength-tunable picosecond pulses from a passively mode-locked figure-eight Erbium-doped fiber laser with a Sagnac fiber filter,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. 3, 08036 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Commun. (3)

O. Pottiez, E. A. Kuzin, B. Ibarra-Escamilla, and F. Mendez-Martinez, “Theoretical investigation of the NOLM with highly twisted fibre and a λ/4 birefringence bias,” Opt. Commun. 254, 152–167 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. U. Kang, “Broadband quasi-stationary pulses in mode-locked fiber ring laser,” Opt. Commun. 182, 433–436 (2000).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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Opt. Fiber Technol. (1)

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Oscilloscope trace of the detected pulse train.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Optical spectra of the mode-locked pulses measured at Output 1 (solid, dashed and dashed-dotted) and Output 2 (dotted) for different adjustments of the HWR.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Autocorrelation traces for different positions of the HWR, measured with two different time scales. Values of 3 dB bandwidth are indicated as curve labels.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Sampling oscilloscope traces of the pulses detected at Output 1, for different positions of the HWR. The values of the 3 dB bandwidth are included in the figure.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Setup used for numerical simulations.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) pulse profiles, (b) optical spectra and (c) autocorrelation traces simulated for the NOLM switching power values of 110 W , 320 W and 500 W . The Gaussian spectrum of the amplifier used in the simulations is also shown in Fig. (b) (dotted).

Equations (2)

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C + z = Δ β 1 2 C + t j β 2 2 2 C + t 2 + j 2 3 γ ( | C + | 2 + 2 | C | 2 ) C + j γ T R [ 1 2 t ( | C + | 2 + | C | 2 ) C + + t ( Re ( C + C * ) ) C ] + g 2 C + + 1 L a Ω a 2 2 C + t 2 ; C z = + Δ β 1 2 C t j β 2 2 2 C t 2 + j 2 3 γ ( | C | 2 + 2 | C + | 2 ) C j γ T R [ 1 2 t ( | C + | 2 + | C | 2 ) C + t ( Re ( C + C * ) ) C + ] + g 2 C + 1 L a Ω a 2 2 C t 2 .
g ( E p ) = g 0 1 + E p / E sat ,

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