Abstract

Simultaneously retrieving the complex refractive indices of the core and shell of coated aerosol particles given the measured extinction efficiency as a function of particle dimensions (core diameter and coated diameter) is much more difficult than retrieving the complex refractive index of homogeneous aerosol particles. Not only must the minimization be performed over a four-parameter space, making it less efficient, but in addition the absolute value of the difference between the measured extinction and the calculated extinction does not have an easily distinguished global minimum. Rather, there are a number of local minima to which almost all conventional retrieval algorithms converge. In this work, we develop a new (to our knowledge) retrieval algorithm that employs the numerical method known as simulated annealing with an innovative “temperature” schedule. This study is limited only to spherical particles with a concentric shell and to cases in which the diameter of both the core and the coated particle are known. We find that when the top ranking particle sizes according to their information content are combined from separate experiments to make up the particle size distribution, the simulated annealing retrieval algorithm is quite robust and by far superior to a greedy random perturbation approach often used.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  25. X.-H. Song and P. K. Hopke, “Analysis of source contributions to the ambient aerosol sample by simulated annealing,” Chemom. Intell. Lab. Syst. 34, 275–281 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  26. K. Arai and X. Liang, “Method for estimation of refractive index and size distribution of aerosol using direct and diffuse solar irradiance and aureole by means of simulated annealing,” Adv. Space Res. 32, 2165–2174 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  27. L. Ma, L. Kranendonk, W. Cai, Y. Zhao, and J. Baba, “Application of simulated annealing for simultaneous retrieval of particle size distribution and refractive index,” J. Aerosol Sci. 40, 588–596 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  28. A. Abo Riziq, M. Trainic, C. Erlick, E. Segre, and Y. Rudich, “Extinction efficiencies of coated absorbing aerosols measured with cavity ring down aerosol spectrometry,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8, 1823–1833 (2008).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]

2010

N. Lang-Yona, A. Abo Riziq, C. Erlick, E. Segre, M. Trainic, and Y. Rudich, “Interaction of internally mixed aerosols with light,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 12, 21–31 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Adler, A. Abo Riziq, C. Erlick, and Y. Rudich, “Effect of intrinsic organic carbon on the optical properties of fresh diesel soot,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 107, 6699–6704 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

L. Ma, L. Kranendonk, W. Cai, Y. Zhao, and J. Baba, “Application of simulated annealing for simultaneous retrieval of particle size distribution and refractive index,” J. Aerosol Sci. 40, 588–596 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

A. Abo Riziq, M. Trainic, C. Erlick, E. Segre, and Y. Rudich, “Extinction efficiencies of coated absorbing aerosols measured with cavity ring down aerosol spectrometry,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8, 1823–1833 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. Dinar, A. Abo Riziq, C. Spindler, C. Erlick, G. Kiss, and Y. Rudich, “The complex refractive index of atmospheric and model humiclike substances (HULIS) retrieved by a cavity ring down aerosol spectrometer (CRD-AS),” Faraday Discuss. 137, 279–295 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, and B. R. Flannery, Numerical Recipes, the Art of Scientific Computing, 3rd ed. (Cambridge University, 2007).

A. L. Robinson, N. M. Donahue, M. K. Shrivastava, E. A. Weitkamp, A. M. Sage, A. P. Grieshop, T. E. Lane, J. R. Pierce, and S. N. Pandis, “Rethinking organic aerosols: semivolatile emissions and photochemical aging,” Science 315, 1259–1262(2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Forster, V. Ramaswamy, P. Artaxo, T. Berntsen, R. Betts, D. W. Fahey, J. Haywood, J. Lean, D. C. Lowe, G. Myhre, J. Nganga, R. Prinn, G. Raga, M. Schulz, and R. Van Dorland, “Changes in atmospheric constituents and in radiative forcing,” in Climate Change 2007: the Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, S.Solomon, D.Qin, M.Manning, Z.Chen, M.Marquis, K.B.Averyt, M.Tignor, and H.L.Miller, eds. (Cambridge University, 2007), pp. 129–234.

A. Abo Riziq, C. Erlick, E. Dinar, and Y. Rudich, “Optical properties of absorbing and nonabsorbing aerosols retrieved by cavity ring down (CRD) spectroscopy,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 7, 1523–1536 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

D. A. Lack, E. R. Lovejoy, T. Baynard, A. Pettersson, and A. R. Ravishankara, “Aerosol absorption measurement using photoacoustic spectroscopy: Sensitivity, calibration, and uncertainty developments,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 40, 697–708 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. Bulatov, Y. H. Chen, A. Khalmanov, and I. Schechter, “Absorption and scattering characterization of airborne microparticulates by a cavity ring down technique,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 384, 155–160 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Schwarz, R. S. Gao, D. W. Fahey, D. S. Thomson, L. A. Watts, J. C. Wilson, J. M. Reeves, M. Darbeheshti, D. G. Baumgardner, G. L. Kok, S. H. Chung, M. Schulz, J. Hendricks, A. Lauer, B. Karcher, J. G. Slowik, K. H. Rosenlof, T. L. Thompson, A. O. Langford, M. Loewenstein, and K. C. Aikin, “Single-particle measurements of midlatitude black carbon and light-scattering aerosols from the boundary layer to the lower stratosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, D16207 (2006).
[CrossRef]

I. Veselovskii, M. Korenskii, V. Griaznov, D. N. Whiteman, M. McGill, G. Roy, and L. Bissonnette, “Information content of data measured with a multiple-field-of-view lidar,” Appl. Opt. 45, 6839–6848 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

I. Veselovskii, A. Kolgotin, D. Müller, and D. N. Whiteman, “Information content of multiwavelength lidar data with respect to microphysical particle properties derived from eigenvalue analysis,” Appl. Opt. 44, 5292–5303 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Zhang, M. R. Canagaratna, J. T. Jayne, D. R. Worsnop, and J. L. Jimenez, “Time- and size-resolved chemical composition of submicron particles in Pittsburgh: implications for aerosol sources and processes,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, D07S09 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

A. H. Falkovich, G. Schkolnik, E. Ganor, and Y. Rudich, “Adsorption of organic compounds pertinent to urban environments onto mineral dust particles,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, D01201 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Gelencser, Carbonaceous Aerosol (Springer, 2004).

S. F. Maria, L. M. Russell, M. K. Gilles, and S. C. B. Myneni, “Organic aerosol growth mechanisms and their climate-forcing implications,” Science 306, 1921–1924 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Pettersson, E. R. Lovejoy, C. A. Brock, S. S. Brown, and A. R. Ravishankara, “Measurement of aerosol optical extinction at 532 nm with pulsed cavity ring down spectroscopy,” J. Aerosol Sci. 35, 995–1011 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

K. Arai and X. Liang, “Method for estimation of refractive index and size distribution of aerosol using direct and diffuse solar irradiance and aureole by means of simulated annealing,” Adv. Space Res. 32, 2165–2174 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

O. Dubovik, B. N. Holben, T. Lapyonok, A. Sinyuk, M. I. Mishchenko, P. Yang, and I. Slutsker, “Non-spherical aerosol retrieval method employing light scattering by spheroids,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 1415–1418 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. Lesins, P. Chýlek, and U. Lohmann, “A study of internal and external mixing scenarios and its effect on aerosol optical properties and direct radiative forcing,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 4094–4105 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. M. Russell, S. F. Maria, and S. C. B. Myneni, “Mapping organic coatings on atmospheric particles,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 1779–1782 (2002).
[CrossRef]

V. Bulatov, M. Fisher, and I. Schechter, “Aerosol analysis by cavity-ring-down laser spectroscopy,” Anal. Chim. Acta 466, 1–9 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

S. A. Guazzotti, J. R. Whiteaker, D. Suess, K. R. Coffee, and K. A. Prather, “Real-time measurements of the chemical composition of size-resolved particles during a Santa Ana wind episode, California USA,” Atmos. Environ. 35, 3229–3240(2001).
[CrossRef]

1996

P. Chýlek, G. B. Lesins, G. Videen, J. G. D. Wong, R. G. Pinnick, D. Ngo, and J. D. Klett, “Black carbon and absorption of solar radiation by clouds,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 23365–23371(1996).
[CrossRef]

X.-H. Song and P. K. Hopke, “Analysis of source contributions to the ambient aerosol sample by simulated annealing,” Chemom. Intell. Lab. Syst. 34, 275–281 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1984

S. Kirkpatrick, “Optimization by simulated annealing: quantitative studies,” J. Stat. Phys. 34, 975–986 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983

S. Kirkpatrick, C. D. Gelatt, and M. P. Vecchi, “Optimization by simulated annealing,” Science 220, 671–680 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. F. Bohren and D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, 1983).

1981

1977

S. Twomey, Introduction to the Mathematics of Inversion in Remote Sensing and Indirect Measurements (Dover, 1977).

1953

N. Metropolis, A. W. Rosenbluth, M. N. Rosenbluth, A. H. Teller, and E. Teller, “Equation of state calculations by fast computing machines,” J. Chem. Phys. 21, 1087–1092 (1953).
[CrossRef]

Abo Riziq, A.

G. Adler, A. Abo Riziq, C. Erlick, and Y. Rudich, “Effect of intrinsic organic carbon on the optical properties of fresh diesel soot,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 107, 6699–6704 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. Lang-Yona, A. Abo Riziq, C. Erlick, E. Segre, M. Trainic, and Y. Rudich, “Interaction of internally mixed aerosols with light,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 12, 21–31 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Dinar, A. Abo Riziq, C. Spindler, C. Erlick, G. Kiss, and Y. Rudich, “The complex refractive index of atmospheric and model humiclike substances (HULIS) retrieved by a cavity ring down aerosol spectrometer (CRD-AS),” Faraday Discuss. 137, 279–295 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Abo Riziq, M. Trainic, C. Erlick, E. Segre, and Y. Rudich, “Extinction efficiencies of coated absorbing aerosols measured with cavity ring down aerosol spectrometry,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8, 1823–1833 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Abo Riziq, C. Erlick, E. Dinar, and Y. Rudich, “Optical properties of absorbing and nonabsorbing aerosols retrieved by cavity ring down (CRD) spectroscopy,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 7, 1523–1536 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ackerman, T.

Adler, G.

G. Adler, A. Abo Riziq, C. Erlick, and Y. Rudich, “Effect of intrinsic organic carbon on the optical properties of fresh diesel soot,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 107, 6699–6704 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Aikin, K. C.

J. P. Schwarz, R. S. Gao, D. W. Fahey, D. S. Thomson, L. A. Watts, J. C. Wilson, J. M. Reeves, M. Darbeheshti, D. G. Baumgardner, G. L. Kok, S. H. Chung, M. Schulz, J. Hendricks, A. Lauer, B. Karcher, J. G. Slowik, K. H. Rosenlof, T. L. Thompson, A. O. Langford, M. Loewenstein, and K. C. Aikin, “Single-particle measurements of midlatitude black carbon and light-scattering aerosols from the boundary layer to the lower stratosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, D16207 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Arai, K.

K. Arai and X. Liang, “Method for estimation of refractive index and size distribution of aerosol using direct and diffuse solar irradiance and aureole by means of simulated annealing,” Adv. Space Res. 32, 2165–2174 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Artaxo, P.

P. Forster, V. Ramaswamy, P. Artaxo, T. Berntsen, R. Betts, D. W. Fahey, J. Haywood, J. Lean, D. C. Lowe, G. Myhre, J. Nganga, R. Prinn, G. Raga, M. Schulz, and R. Van Dorland, “Changes in atmospheric constituents and in radiative forcing,” in Climate Change 2007: the Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, S.Solomon, D.Qin, M.Manning, Z.Chen, M.Marquis, K.B.Averyt, M.Tignor, and H.L.Miller, eds. (Cambridge University, 2007), pp. 129–234.

Baba, J.

L. Ma, L. Kranendonk, W. Cai, Y. Zhao, and J. Baba, “Application of simulated annealing for simultaneous retrieval of particle size distribution and refractive index,” J. Aerosol Sci. 40, 588–596 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Baumgardner, D. G.

J. P. Schwarz, R. S. Gao, D. W. Fahey, D. S. Thomson, L. A. Watts, J. C. Wilson, J. M. Reeves, M. Darbeheshti, D. G. Baumgardner, G. L. Kok, S. H. Chung, M. Schulz, J. Hendricks, A. Lauer, B. Karcher, J. G. Slowik, K. H. Rosenlof, T. L. Thompson, A. O. Langford, M. Loewenstein, and K. C. Aikin, “Single-particle measurements of midlatitude black carbon and light-scattering aerosols from the boundary layer to the lower stratosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, D16207 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Baynard, T.

D. A. Lack, E. R. Lovejoy, T. Baynard, A. Pettersson, and A. R. Ravishankara, “Aerosol absorption measurement using photoacoustic spectroscopy: Sensitivity, calibration, and uncertainty developments,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 40, 697–708 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Berntsen, T.

P. Forster, V. Ramaswamy, P. Artaxo, T. Berntsen, R. Betts, D. W. Fahey, J. Haywood, J. Lean, D. C. Lowe, G. Myhre, J. Nganga, R. Prinn, G. Raga, M. Schulz, and R. Van Dorland, “Changes in atmospheric constituents and in radiative forcing,” in Climate Change 2007: the Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, S.Solomon, D.Qin, M.Manning, Z.Chen, M.Marquis, K.B.Averyt, M.Tignor, and H.L.Miller, eds. (Cambridge University, 2007), pp. 129–234.

Betts, R.

P. Forster, V. Ramaswamy, P. Artaxo, T. Berntsen, R. Betts, D. W. Fahey, J. Haywood, J. Lean, D. C. Lowe, G. Myhre, J. Nganga, R. Prinn, G. Raga, M. Schulz, and R. Van Dorland, “Changes in atmospheric constituents and in radiative forcing,” in Climate Change 2007: the Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, S.Solomon, D.Qin, M.Manning, Z.Chen, M.Marquis, K.B.Averyt, M.Tignor, and H.L.Miller, eds. (Cambridge University, 2007), pp. 129–234.

Bissonnette, L.

Bohren, C. F.

C. F. Bohren and D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, 1983).

Brock, C. A.

A. Pettersson, E. R. Lovejoy, C. A. Brock, S. S. Brown, and A. R. Ravishankara, “Measurement of aerosol optical extinction at 532 nm with pulsed cavity ring down spectroscopy,” J. Aerosol Sci. 35, 995–1011 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Brown, S. S.

A. Pettersson, E. R. Lovejoy, C. A. Brock, S. S. Brown, and A. R. Ravishankara, “Measurement of aerosol optical extinction at 532 nm with pulsed cavity ring down spectroscopy,” J. Aerosol Sci. 35, 995–1011 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bulatov, V.

V. Bulatov, Y. H. Chen, A. Khalmanov, and I. Schechter, “Absorption and scattering characterization of airborne microparticulates by a cavity ring down technique,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 384, 155–160 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. Bulatov, M. Fisher, and I. Schechter, “Aerosol analysis by cavity-ring-down laser spectroscopy,” Anal. Chim. Acta 466, 1–9 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cai, W.

L. Ma, L. Kranendonk, W. Cai, Y. Zhao, and J. Baba, “Application of simulated annealing for simultaneous retrieval of particle size distribution and refractive index,” J. Aerosol Sci. 40, 588–596 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Canagaratna, M. R.

Q. Zhang, M. R. Canagaratna, J. T. Jayne, D. R. Worsnop, and J. L. Jimenez, “Time- and size-resolved chemical composition of submicron particles in Pittsburgh: implications for aerosol sources and processes,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, D07S09 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y. H.

V. Bulatov, Y. H. Chen, A. Khalmanov, and I. Schechter, “Absorption and scattering characterization of airborne microparticulates by a cavity ring down technique,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 384, 155–160 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chung, S. H.

J. P. Schwarz, R. S. Gao, D. W. Fahey, D. S. Thomson, L. A. Watts, J. C. Wilson, J. M. Reeves, M. Darbeheshti, D. G. Baumgardner, G. L. Kok, S. H. Chung, M. Schulz, J. Hendricks, A. Lauer, B. Karcher, J. G. Slowik, K. H. Rosenlof, T. L. Thompson, A. O. Langford, M. Loewenstein, and K. C. Aikin, “Single-particle measurements of midlatitude black carbon and light-scattering aerosols from the boundary layer to the lower stratosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, D16207 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chýlek, P.

G. Lesins, P. Chýlek, and U. Lohmann, “A study of internal and external mixing scenarios and its effect on aerosol optical properties and direct radiative forcing,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 4094–4105 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. Chýlek, G. B. Lesins, G. Videen, J. G. D. Wong, R. G. Pinnick, D. Ngo, and J. D. Klett, “Black carbon and absorption of solar radiation by clouds,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 23365–23371(1996).
[CrossRef]

Coffee, K. R.

S. A. Guazzotti, J. R. Whiteaker, D. Suess, K. R. Coffee, and K. A. Prather, “Real-time measurements of the chemical composition of size-resolved particles during a Santa Ana wind episode, California USA,” Atmos. Environ. 35, 3229–3240(2001).
[CrossRef]

Darbeheshti, M.

J. P. Schwarz, R. S. Gao, D. W. Fahey, D. S. Thomson, L. A. Watts, J. C. Wilson, J. M. Reeves, M. Darbeheshti, D. G. Baumgardner, G. L. Kok, S. H. Chung, M. Schulz, J. Hendricks, A. Lauer, B. Karcher, J. G. Slowik, K. H. Rosenlof, T. L. Thompson, A. O. Langford, M. Loewenstein, and K. C. Aikin, “Single-particle measurements of midlatitude black carbon and light-scattering aerosols from the boundary layer to the lower stratosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, D16207 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dinar, E.

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O. Dubovik, B. N. Holben, T. Lapyonok, A. Sinyuk, M. I. Mishchenko, P. Yang, and I. Slutsker, “Non-spherical aerosol retrieval method employing light scattering by spheroids,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 1415–1418 (2002).
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E. Dinar, A. Abo Riziq, C. Spindler, C. Erlick, G. Kiss, and Y. Rudich, “The complex refractive index of atmospheric and model humiclike substances (HULIS) retrieved by a cavity ring down aerosol spectrometer (CRD-AS),” Faraday Discuss. 137, 279–295 (2008).
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J. P. Schwarz, R. S. Gao, D. W. Fahey, D. S. Thomson, L. A. Watts, J. C. Wilson, J. M. Reeves, M. Darbeheshti, D. G. Baumgardner, G. L. Kok, S. H. Chung, M. Schulz, J. Hendricks, A. Lauer, B. Karcher, J. G. Slowik, K. H. Rosenlof, T. L. Thompson, A. O. Langford, M. Loewenstein, and K. C. Aikin, “Single-particle measurements of midlatitude black carbon and light-scattering aerosols from the boundary layer to the lower stratosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, D16207 (2006).
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P. Forster, V. Ramaswamy, P. Artaxo, T. Berntsen, R. Betts, D. W. Fahey, J. Haywood, J. Lean, D. C. Lowe, G. Myhre, J. Nganga, R. Prinn, G. Raga, M. Schulz, and R. Van Dorland, “Changes in atmospheric constituents and in radiative forcing,” in Climate Change 2007: the Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, S.Solomon, D.Qin, M.Manning, Z.Chen, M.Marquis, K.B.Averyt, M.Tignor, and H.L.Miller, eds. (Cambridge University, 2007), pp. 129–234.

Ganor, E.

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J. P. Schwarz, R. S. Gao, D. W. Fahey, D. S. Thomson, L. A. Watts, J. C. Wilson, J. M. Reeves, M. Darbeheshti, D. G. Baumgardner, G. L. Kok, S. H. Chung, M. Schulz, J. Hendricks, A. Lauer, B. Karcher, J. G. Slowik, K. H. Rosenlof, T. L. Thompson, A. O. Langford, M. Loewenstein, and K. C. Aikin, “Single-particle measurements of midlatitude black carbon and light-scattering aerosols from the boundary layer to the lower stratosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, D16207 (2006).
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Grieshop, A. P.

A. L. Robinson, N. M. Donahue, M. K. Shrivastava, E. A. Weitkamp, A. M. Sage, A. P. Grieshop, T. E. Lane, J. R. Pierce, and S. N. Pandis, “Rethinking organic aerosols: semivolatile emissions and photochemical aging,” Science 315, 1259–1262(2007).
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S. A. Guazzotti, J. R. Whiteaker, D. Suess, K. R. Coffee, and K. A. Prather, “Real-time measurements of the chemical composition of size-resolved particles during a Santa Ana wind episode, California USA,” Atmos. Environ. 35, 3229–3240(2001).
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P. Forster, V. Ramaswamy, P. Artaxo, T. Berntsen, R. Betts, D. W. Fahey, J. Haywood, J. Lean, D. C. Lowe, G. Myhre, J. Nganga, R. Prinn, G. Raga, M. Schulz, and R. Van Dorland, “Changes in atmospheric constituents and in radiative forcing,” in Climate Change 2007: the Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, S.Solomon, D.Qin, M.Manning, Z.Chen, M.Marquis, K.B.Averyt, M.Tignor, and H.L.Miller, eds. (Cambridge University, 2007), pp. 129–234.

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J. P. Schwarz, R. S. Gao, D. W. Fahey, D. S. Thomson, L. A. Watts, J. C. Wilson, J. M. Reeves, M. Darbeheshti, D. G. Baumgardner, G. L. Kok, S. H. Chung, M. Schulz, J. Hendricks, A. Lauer, B. Karcher, J. G. Slowik, K. H. Rosenlof, T. L. Thompson, A. O. Langford, M. Loewenstein, and K. C. Aikin, “Single-particle measurements of midlatitude black carbon and light-scattering aerosols from the boundary layer to the lower stratosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, D16207 (2006).
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O. Dubovik, B. N. Holben, T. Lapyonok, A. Sinyuk, M. I. Mishchenko, P. Yang, and I. Slutsker, “Non-spherical aerosol retrieval method employing light scattering by spheroids,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 1415–1418 (2002).
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Kiss, G.

E. Dinar, A. Abo Riziq, C. Spindler, C. Erlick, G. Kiss, and Y. Rudich, “The complex refractive index of atmospheric and model humiclike substances (HULIS) retrieved by a cavity ring down aerosol spectrometer (CRD-AS),” Faraday Discuss. 137, 279–295 (2008).
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P. Chýlek, G. B. Lesins, G. Videen, J. G. D. Wong, R. G. Pinnick, D. Ngo, and J. D. Klett, “Black carbon and absorption of solar radiation by clouds,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 23365–23371(1996).
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J. P. Schwarz, R. S. Gao, D. W. Fahey, D. S. Thomson, L. A. Watts, J. C. Wilson, J. M. Reeves, M. Darbeheshti, D. G. Baumgardner, G. L. Kok, S. H. Chung, M. Schulz, J. Hendricks, A. Lauer, B. Karcher, J. G. Slowik, K. H. Rosenlof, T. L. Thompson, A. O. Langford, M. Loewenstein, and K. C. Aikin, “Single-particle measurements of midlatitude black carbon and light-scattering aerosols from the boundary layer to the lower stratosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, D16207 (2006).
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Korenskii, M.

Kranendonk, L.

L. Ma, L. Kranendonk, W. Cai, Y. Zhao, and J. Baba, “Application of simulated annealing for simultaneous retrieval of particle size distribution and refractive index,” J. Aerosol Sci. 40, 588–596 (2009).
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D. A. Lack, E. R. Lovejoy, T. Baynard, A. Pettersson, and A. R. Ravishankara, “Aerosol absorption measurement using photoacoustic spectroscopy: Sensitivity, calibration, and uncertainty developments,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 40, 697–708 (2006).
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A. L. Robinson, N. M. Donahue, M. K. Shrivastava, E. A. Weitkamp, A. M. Sage, A. P. Grieshop, T. E. Lane, J. R. Pierce, and S. N. Pandis, “Rethinking organic aerosols: semivolatile emissions and photochemical aging,” Science 315, 1259–1262(2007).
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J. P. Schwarz, R. S. Gao, D. W. Fahey, D. S. Thomson, L. A. Watts, J. C. Wilson, J. M. Reeves, M. Darbeheshti, D. G. Baumgardner, G. L. Kok, S. H. Chung, M. Schulz, J. Hendricks, A. Lauer, B. Karcher, J. G. Slowik, K. H. Rosenlof, T. L. Thompson, A. O. Langford, M. Loewenstein, and K. C. Aikin, “Single-particle measurements of midlatitude black carbon and light-scattering aerosols from the boundary layer to the lower stratosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, D16207 (2006).
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N. Lang-Yona, A. Abo Riziq, C. Erlick, E. Segre, M. Trainic, and Y. Rudich, “Interaction of internally mixed aerosols with light,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 12, 21–31 (2010).
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O. Dubovik, B. N. Holben, T. Lapyonok, A. Sinyuk, M. I. Mishchenko, P. Yang, and I. Slutsker, “Non-spherical aerosol retrieval method employing light scattering by spheroids,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 1415–1418 (2002).
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J. P. Schwarz, R. S. Gao, D. W. Fahey, D. S. Thomson, L. A. Watts, J. C. Wilson, J. M. Reeves, M. Darbeheshti, D. G. Baumgardner, G. L. Kok, S. H. Chung, M. Schulz, J. Hendricks, A. Lauer, B. Karcher, J. G. Slowik, K. H. Rosenlof, T. L. Thompson, A. O. Langford, M. Loewenstein, and K. C. Aikin, “Single-particle measurements of midlatitude black carbon and light-scattering aerosols from the boundary layer to the lower stratosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, D16207 (2006).
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P. Forster, V. Ramaswamy, P. Artaxo, T. Berntsen, R. Betts, D. W. Fahey, J. Haywood, J. Lean, D. C. Lowe, G. Myhre, J. Nganga, R. Prinn, G. Raga, M. Schulz, and R. Van Dorland, “Changes in atmospheric constituents and in radiative forcing,” in Climate Change 2007: the Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, S.Solomon, D.Qin, M.Manning, Z.Chen, M.Marquis, K.B.Averyt, M.Tignor, and H.L.Miller, eds. (Cambridge University, 2007), pp. 129–234.

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P. Chýlek, G. B. Lesins, G. Videen, J. G. D. Wong, R. G. Pinnick, D. Ngo, and J. D. Klett, “Black carbon and absorption of solar radiation by clouds,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 23365–23371(1996).
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J. P. Schwarz, R. S. Gao, D. W. Fahey, D. S. Thomson, L. A. Watts, J. C. Wilson, J. M. Reeves, M. Darbeheshti, D. G. Baumgardner, G. L. Kok, S. H. Chung, M. Schulz, J. Hendricks, A. Lauer, B. Karcher, J. G. Slowik, K. H. Rosenlof, T. L. Thompson, A. O. Langford, M. Loewenstein, and K. C. Aikin, “Single-particle measurements of midlatitude black carbon and light-scattering aerosols from the boundary layer to the lower stratosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, D16207 (2006).
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Lohmann, U.

G. Lesins, P. Chýlek, and U. Lohmann, “A study of internal and external mixing scenarios and its effect on aerosol optical properties and direct radiative forcing,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 4094–4105 (2002).
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D. A. Lack, E. R. Lovejoy, T. Baynard, A. Pettersson, and A. R. Ravishankara, “Aerosol absorption measurement using photoacoustic spectroscopy: Sensitivity, calibration, and uncertainty developments,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 40, 697–708 (2006).
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A. Pettersson, E. R. Lovejoy, C. A. Brock, S. S. Brown, and A. R. Ravishankara, “Measurement of aerosol optical extinction at 532 nm with pulsed cavity ring down spectroscopy,” J. Aerosol Sci. 35, 995–1011 (2004).
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P. Forster, V. Ramaswamy, P. Artaxo, T. Berntsen, R. Betts, D. W. Fahey, J. Haywood, J. Lean, D. C. Lowe, G. Myhre, J. Nganga, R. Prinn, G. Raga, M. Schulz, and R. Van Dorland, “Changes in atmospheric constituents and in radiative forcing,” in Climate Change 2007: the Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, S.Solomon, D.Qin, M.Manning, Z.Chen, M.Marquis, K.B.Averyt, M.Tignor, and H.L.Miller, eds. (Cambridge University, 2007), pp. 129–234.

Ma, L.

L. Ma, L. Kranendonk, W. Cai, Y. Zhao, and J. Baba, “Application of simulated annealing for simultaneous retrieval of particle size distribution and refractive index,” J. Aerosol Sci. 40, 588–596 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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S. F. Maria, L. M. Russell, M. K. Gilles, and S. C. B. Myneni, “Organic aerosol growth mechanisms and their climate-forcing implications,” Science 306, 1921–1924 (2004).
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L. M. Russell, S. F. Maria, and S. C. B. Myneni, “Mapping organic coatings on atmospheric particles,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 1779–1782 (2002).
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O. Dubovik, B. N. Holben, T. Lapyonok, A. Sinyuk, M. I. Mishchenko, P. Yang, and I. Slutsker, “Non-spherical aerosol retrieval method employing light scattering by spheroids,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 1415–1418 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Müller, D.

Myhre, G.

P. Forster, V. Ramaswamy, P. Artaxo, T. Berntsen, R. Betts, D. W. Fahey, J. Haywood, J. Lean, D. C. Lowe, G. Myhre, J. Nganga, R. Prinn, G. Raga, M. Schulz, and R. Van Dorland, “Changes in atmospheric constituents and in radiative forcing,” in Climate Change 2007: the Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, S.Solomon, D.Qin, M.Manning, Z.Chen, M.Marquis, K.B.Averyt, M.Tignor, and H.L.Miller, eds. (Cambridge University, 2007), pp. 129–234.

Myneni, S. C. B.

S. F. Maria, L. M. Russell, M. K. Gilles, and S. C. B. Myneni, “Organic aerosol growth mechanisms and their climate-forcing implications,” Science 306, 1921–1924 (2004).
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L. M. Russell, S. F. Maria, and S. C. B. Myneni, “Mapping organic coatings on atmospheric particles,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 1779–1782 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nganga, J.

P. Forster, V. Ramaswamy, P. Artaxo, T. Berntsen, R. Betts, D. W. Fahey, J. Haywood, J. Lean, D. C. Lowe, G. Myhre, J. Nganga, R. Prinn, G. Raga, M. Schulz, and R. Van Dorland, “Changes in atmospheric constituents and in radiative forcing,” in Climate Change 2007: the Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, S.Solomon, D.Qin, M.Manning, Z.Chen, M.Marquis, K.B.Averyt, M.Tignor, and H.L.Miller, eds. (Cambridge University, 2007), pp. 129–234.

Ngo, D.

P. Chýlek, G. B. Lesins, G. Videen, J. G. D. Wong, R. G. Pinnick, D. Ngo, and J. D. Klett, “Black carbon and absorption of solar radiation by clouds,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 23365–23371(1996).
[CrossRef]

Pandis, S. N.

A. L. Robinson, N. M. Donahue, M. K. Shrivastava, E. A. Weitkamp, A. M. Sage, A. P. Grieshop, T. E. Lane, J. R. Pierce, and S. N. Pandis, “Rethinking organic aerosols: semivolatile emissions and photochemical aging,” Science 315, 1259–1262(2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pettersson, A.

D. A. Lack, E. R. Lovejoy, T. Baynard, A. Pettersson, and A. R. Ravishankara, “Aerosol absorption measurement using photoacoustic spectroscopy: Sensitivity, calibration, and uncertainty developments,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 40, 697–708 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Pettersson, E. R. Lovejoy, C. A. Brock, S. S. Brown, and A. R. Ravishankara, “Measurement of aerosol optical extinction at 532 nm with pulsed cavity ring down spectroscopy,” J. Aerosol Sci. 35, 995–1011 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pierce, J. R.

A. L. Robinson, N. M. Donahue, M. K. Shrivastava, E. A. Weitkamp, A. M. Sage, A. P. Grieshop, T. E. Lane, J. R. Pierce, and S. N. Pandis, “Rethinking organic aerosols: semivolatile emissions and photochemical aging,” Science 315, 1259–1262(2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pinnick, R. G.

P. Chýlek, G. B. Lesins, G. Videen, J. G. D. Wong, R. G. Pinnick, D. Ngo, and J. D. Klett, “Black carbon and absorption of solar radiation by clouds,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 23365–23371(1996).
[CrossRef]

Prather, K. A.

S. A. Guazzotti, J. R. Whiteaker, D. Suess, K. R. Coffee, and K. A. Prather, “Real-time measurements of the chemical composition of size-resolved particles during a Santa Ana wind episode, California USA,” Atmos. Environ. 35, 3229–3240(2001).
[CrossRef]

Press, W. H.

W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, and B. R. Flannery, Numerical Recipes, the Art of Scientific Computing, 3rd ed. (Cambridge University, 2007).

Prinn, R.

P. Forster, V. Ramaswamy, P. Artaxo, T. Berntsen, R. Betts, D. W. Fahey, J. Haywood, J. Lean, D. C. Lowe, G. Myhre, J. Nganga, R. Prinn, G. Raga, M. Schulz, and R. Van Dorland, “Changes in atmospheric constituents and in radiative forcing,” in Climate Change 2007: the Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, S.Solomon, D.Qin, M.Manning, Z.Chen, M.Marquis, K.B.Averyt, M.Tignor, and H.L.Miller, eds. (Cambridge University, 2007), pp. 129–234.

Raga, G.

P. Forster, V. Ramaswamy, P. Artaxo, T. Berntsen, R. Betts, D. W. Fahey, J. Haywood, J. Lean, D. C. Lowe, G. Myhre, J. Nganga, R. Prinn, G. Raga, M. Schulz, and R. Van Dorland, “Changes in atmospheric constituents and in radiative forcing,” in Climate Change 2007: the Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, S.Solomon, D.Qin, M.Manning, Z.Chen, M.Marquis, K.B.Averyt, M.Tignor, and H.L.Miller, eds. (Cambridge University, 2007), pp. 129–234.

Ramaswamy, V.

P. Forster, V. Ramaswamy, P. Artaxo, T. Berntsen, R. Betts, D. W. Fahey, J. Haywood, J. Lean, D. C. Lowe, G. Myhre, J. Nganga, R. Prinn, G. Raga, M. Schulz, and R. Van Dorland, “Changes in atmospheric constituents and in radiative forcing,” in Climate Change 2007: the Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, S.Solomon, D.Qin, M.Manning, Z.Chen, M.Marquis, K.B.Averyt, M.Tignor, and H.L.Miller, eds. (Cambridge University, 2007), pp. 129–234.

Ravishankara, A. R.

D. A. Lack, E. R. Lovejoy, T. Baynard, A. Pettersson, and A. R. Ravishankara, “Aerosol absorption measurement using photoacoustic spectroscopy: Sensitivity, calibration, and uncertainty developments,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 40, 697–708 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Pettersson, E. R. Lovejoy, C. A. Brock, S. S. Brown, and A. R. Ravishankara, “Measurement of aerosol optical extinction at 532 nm with pulsed cavity ring down spectroscopy,” J. Aerosol Sci. 35, 995–1011 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Reeves, J. M.

J. P. Schwarz, R. S. Gao, D. W. Fahey, D. S. Thomson, L. A. Watts, J. C. Wilson, J. M. Reeves, M. Darbeheshti, D. G. Baumgardner, G. L. Kok, S. H. Chung, M. Schulz, J. Hendricks, A. Lauer, B. Karcher, J. G. Slowik, K. H. Rosenlof, T. L. Thompson, A. O. Langford, M. Loewenstein, and K. C. Aikin, “Single-particle measurements of midlatitude black carbon and light-scattering aerosols from the boundary layer to the lower stratosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, D16207 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Robinson, A. L.

A. L. Robinson, N. M. Donahue, M. K. Shrivastava, E. A. Weitkamp, A. M. Sage, A. P. Grieshop, T. E. Lane, J. R. Pierce, and S. N. Pandis, “Rethinking organic aerosols: semivolatile emissions and photochemical aging,” Science 315, 1259–1262(2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rosenbluth, A. W.

N. Metropolis, A. W. Rosenbluth, M. N. Rosenbluth, A. H. Teller, and E. Teller, “Equation of state calculations by fast computing machines,” J. Chem. Phys. 21, 1087–1092 (1953).
[CrossRef]

Rosenbluth, M. N.

N. Metropolis, A. W. Rosenbluth, M. N. Rosenbluth, A. H. Teller, and E. Teller, “Equation of state calculations by fast computing machines,” J. Chem. Phys. 21, 1087–1092 (1953).
[CrossRef]

Rosenlof, K. H.

J. P. Schwarz, R. S. Gao, D. W. Fahey, D. S. Thomson, L. A. Watts, J. C. Wilson, J. M. Reeves, M. Darbeheshti, D. G. Baumgardner, G. L. Kok, S. H. Chung, M. Schulz, J. Hendricks, A. Lauer, B. Karcher, J. G. Slowik, K. H. Rosenlof, T. L. Thompson, A. O. Langford, M. Loewenstein, and K. C. Aikin, “Single-particle measurements of midlatitude black carbon and light-scattering aerosols from the boundary layer to the lower stratosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, D16207 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Roy, G.

Rudich, Y.

G. Adler, A. Abo Riziq, C. Erlick, and Y. Rudich, “Effect of intrinsic organic carbon on the optical properties of fresh diesel soot,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 107, 6699–6704 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. Lang-Yona, A. Abo Riziq, C. Erlick, E. Segre, M. Trainic, and Y. Rudich, “Interaction of internally mixed aerosols with light,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 12, 21–31 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Dinar, A. Abo Riziq, C. Spindler, C. Erlick, G. Kiss, and Y. Rudich, “The complex refractive index of atmospheric and model humiclike substances (HULIS) retrieved by a cavity ring down aerosol spectrometer (CRD-AS),” Faraday Discuss. 137, 279–295 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Abo Riziq, M. Trainic, C. Erlick, E. Segre, and Y. Rudich, “Extinction efficiencies of coated absorbing aerosols measured with cavity ring down aerosol spectrometry,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8, 1823–1833 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Abo Riziq, C. Erlick, E. Dinar, and Y. Rudich, “Optical properties of absorbing and nonabsorbing aerosols retrieved by cavity ring down (CRD) spectroscopy,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 7, 1523–1536 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. H. Falkovich, G. Schkolnik, E. Ganor, and Y. Rudich, “Adsorption of organic compounds pertinent to urban environments onto mineral dust particles,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, D01201 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Russell, L. M.

S. F. Maria, L. M. Russell, M. K. Gilles, and S. C. B. Myneni, “Organic aerosol growth mechanisms and their climate-forcing implications,” Science 306, 1921–1924 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. M. Russell, S. F. Maria, and S. C. B. Myneni, “Mapping organic coatings on atmospheric particles,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 1779–1782 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sage, A. M.

A. L. Robinson, N. M. Donahue, M. K. Shrivastava, E. A. Weitkamp, A. M. Sage, A. P. Grieshop, T. E. Lane, J. R. Pierce, and S. N. Pandis, “Rethinking organic aerosols: semivolatile emissions and photochemical aging,” Science 315, 1259–1262(2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schechter, I.

V. Bulatov, Y. H. Chen, A. Khalmanov, and I. Schechter, “Absorption and scattering characterization of airborne microparticulates by a cavity ring down technique,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 384, 155–160 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. Bulatov, M. Fisher, and I. Schechter, “Aerosol analysis by cavity-ring-down laser spectroscopy,” Anal. Chim. Acta 466, 1–9 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Schkolnik, G.

A. H. Falkovich, G. Schkolnik, E. Ganor, and Y. Rudich, “Adsorption of organic compounds pertinent to urban environments onto mineral dust particles,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, D01201 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schulz, M.

P. Forster, V. Ramaswamy, P. Artaxo, T. Berntsen, R. Betts, D. W. Fahey, J. Haywood, J. Lean, D. C. Lowe, G. Myhre, J. Nganga, R. Prinn, G. Raga, M. Schulz, and R. Van Dorland, “Changes in atmospheric constituents and in radiative forcing,” in Climate Change 2007: the Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, S.Solomon, D.Qin, M.Manning, Z.Chen, M.Marquis, K.B.Averyt, M.Tignor, and H.L.Miller, eds. (Cambridge University, 2007), pp. 129–234.

J. P. Schwarz, R. S. Gao, D. W. Fahey, D. S. Thomson, L. A. Watts, J. C. Wilson, J. M. Reeves, M. Darbeheshti, D. G. Baumgardner, G. L. Kok, S. H. Chung, M. Schulz, J. Hendricks, A. Lauer, B. Karcher, J. G. Slowik, K. H. Rosenlof, T. L. Thompson, A. O. Langford, M. Loewenstein, and K. C. Aikin, “Single-particle measurements of midlatitude black carbon and light-scattering aerosols from the boundary layer to the lower stratosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, D16207 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schwarz, J. P.

J. P. Schwarz, R. S. Gao, D. W. Fahey, D. S. Thomson, L. A. Watts, J. C. Wilson, J. M. Reeves, M. Darbeheshti, D. G. Baumgardner, G. L. Kok, S. H. Chung, M. Schulz, J. Hendricks, A. Lauer, B. Karcher, J. G. Slowik, K. H. Rosenlof, T. L. Thompson, A. O. Langford, M. Loewenstein, and K. C. Aikin, “Single-particle measurements of midlatitude black carbon and light-scattering aerosols from the boundary layer to the lower stratosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, D16207 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Segre, E.

N. Lang-Yona, A. Abo Riziq, C. Erlick, E. Segre, M. Trainic, and Y. Rudich, “Interaction of internally mixed aerosols with light,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 12, 21–31 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Abo Riziq, M. Trainic, C. Erlick, E. Segre, and Y. Rudich, “Extinction efficiencies of coated absorbing aerosols measured with cavity ring down aerosol spectrometry,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8, 1823–1833 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shrivastava, M. K.

A. L. Robinson, N. M. Donahue, M. K. Shrivastava, E. A. Weitkamp, A. M. Sage, A. P. Grieshop, T. E. Lane, J. R. Pierce, and S. N. Pandis, “Rethinking organic aerosols: semivolatile emissions and photochemical aging,” Science 315, 1259–1262(2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sinyuk, A.

O. Dubovik, B. N. Holben, T. Lapyonok, A. Sinyuk, M. I. Mishchenko, P. Yang, and I. Slutsker, “Non-spherical aerosol retrieval method employing light scattering by spheroids,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 1415–1418 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Slowik, J. G.

J. P. Schwarz, R. S. Gao, D. W. Fahey, D. S. Thomson, L. A. Watts, J. C. Wilson, J. M. Reeves, M. Darbeheshti, D. G. Baumgardner, G. L. Kok, S. H. Chung, M. Schulz, J. Hendricks, A. Lauer, B. Karcher, J. G. Slowik, K. H. Rosenlof, T. L. Thompson, A. O. Langford, M. Loewenstein, and K. C. Aikin, “Single-particle measurements of midlatitude black carbon and light-scattering aerosols from the boundary layer to the lower stratosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, D16207 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Slutsker, I.

O. Dubovik, B. N. Holben, T. Lapyonok, A. Sinyuk, M. I. Mishchenko, P. Yang, and I. Slutsker, “Non-spherical aerosol retrieval method employing light scattering by spheroids,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 1415–1418 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Song, X.-H.

X.-H. Song and P. K. Hopke, “Analysis of source contributions to the ambient aerosol sample by simulated annealing,” Chemom. Intell. Lab. Syst. 34, 275–281 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Spindler, C.

E. Dinar, A. Abo Riziq, C. Spindler, C. Erlick, G. Kiss, and Y. Rudich, “The complex refractive index of atmospheric and model humiclike substances (HULIS) retrieved by a cavity ring down aerosol spectrometer (CRD-AS),” Faraday Discuss. 137, 279–295 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Suess, D.

S. A. Guazzotti, J. R. Whiteaker, D. Suess, K. R. Coffee, and K. A. Prather, “Real-time measurements of the chemical composition of size-resolved particles during a Santa Ana wind episode, California USA,” Atmos. Environ. 35, 3229–3240(2001).
[CrossRef]

Teller, A. H.

N. Metropolis, A. W. Rosenbluth, M. N. Rosenbluth, A. H. Teller, and E. Teller, “Equation of state calculations by fast computing machines,” J. Chem. Phys. 21, 1087–1092 (1953).
[CrossRef]

Teller, E.

N. Metropolis, A. W. Rosenbluth, M. N. Rosenbluth, A. H. Teller, and E. Teller, “Equation of state calculations by fast computing machines,” J. Chem. Phys. 21, 1087–1092 (1953).
[CrossRef]

Teukolsky, S. A.

W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, and B. R. Flannery, Numerical Recipes, the Art of Scientific Computing, 3rd ed. (Cambridge University, 2007).

Thompson, T. L.

J. P. Schwarz, R. S. Gao, D. W. Fahey, D. S. Thomson, L. A. Watts, J. C. Wilson, J. M. Reeves, M. Darbeheshti, D. G. Baumgardner, G. L. Kok, S. H. Chung, M. Schulz, J. Hendricks, A. Lauer, B. Karcher, J. G. Slowik, K. H. Rosenlof, T. L. Thompson, A. O. Langford, M. Loewenstein, and K. C. Aikin, “Single-particle measurements of midlatitude black carbon and light-scattering aerosols from the boundary layer to the lower stratosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, D16207 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Thomson, D. S.

J. P. Schwarz, R. S. Gao, D. W. Fahey, D. S. Thomson, L. A. Watts, J. C. Wilson, J. M. Reeves, M. Darbeheshti, D. G. Baumgardner, G. L. Kok, S. H. Chung, M. Schulz, J. Hendricks, A. Lauer, B. Karcher, J. G. Slowik, K. H. Rosenlof, T. L. Thompson, A. O. Langford, M. Loewenstein, and K. C. Aikin, “Single-particle measurements of midlatitude black carbon and light-scattering aerosols from the boundary layer to the lower stratosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, D16207 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Toon, O.

Trainic, M.

N. Lang-Yona, A. Abo Riziq, C. Erlick, E. Segre, M. Trainic, and Y. Rudich, “Interaction of internally mixed aerosols with light,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 12, 21–31 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Abo Riziq, M. Trainic, C. Erlick, E. Segre, and Y. Rudich, “Extinction efficiencies of coated absorbing aerosols measured with cavity ring down aerosol spectrometry,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8, 1823–1833 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Twomey, S.

S. Twomey, Introduction to the Mathematics of Inversion in Remote Sensing and Indirect Measurements (Dover, 1977).

Van Dorland, R.

P. Forster, V. Ramaswamy, P. Artaxo, T. Berntsen, R. Betts, D. W. Fahey, J. Haywood, J. Lean, D. C. Lowe, G. Myhre, J. Nganga, R. Prinn, G. Raga, M. Schulz, and R. Van Dorland, “Changes in atmospheric constituents and in radiative forcing,” in Climate Change 2007: the Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, S.Solomon, D.Qin, M.Manning, Z.Chen, M.Marquis, K.B.Averyt, M.Tignor, and H.L.Miller, eds. (Cambridge University, 2007), pp. 129–234.

Vecchi, M. P.

S. Kirkpatrick, C. D. Gelatt, and M. P. Vecchi, “Optimization by simulated annealing,” Science 220, 671–680 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Veselovskii, I.

Vetterling, W. T.

W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, and B. R. Flannery, Numerical Recipes, the Art of Scientific Computing, 3rd ed. (Cambridge University, 2007).

Videen, G.

P. Chýlek, G. B. Lesins, G. Videen, J. G. D. Wong, R. G. Pinnick, D. Ngo, and J. D. Klett, “Black carbon and absorption of solar radiation by clouds,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 23365–23371(1996).
[CrossRef]

Watts, L. A.

J. P. Schwarz, R. S. Gao, D. W. Fahey, D. S. Thomson, L. A. Watts, J. C. Wilson, J. M. Reeves, M. Darbeheshti, D. G. Baumgardner, G. L. Kok, S. H. Chung, M. Schulz, J. Hendricks, A. Lauer, B. Karcher, J. G. Slowik, K. H. Rosenlof, T. L. Thompson, A. O. Langford, M. Loewenstein, and K. C. Aikin, “Single-particle measurements of midlatitude black carbon and light-scattering aerosols from the boundary layer to the lower stratosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, D16207 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Weitkamp, E. A.

A. L. Robinson, N. M. Donahue, M. K. Shrivastava, E. A. Weitkamp, A. M. Sage, A. P. Grieshop, T. E. Lane, J. R. Pierce, and S. N. Pandis, “Rethinking organic aerosols: semivolatile emissions and photochemical aging,” Science 315, 1259–1262(2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Whiteaker, J. R.

S. A. Guazzotti, J. R. Whiteaker, D. Suess, K. R. Coffee, and K. A. Prather, “Real-time measurements of the chemical composition of size-resolved particles during a Santa Ana wind episode, California USA,” Atmos. Environ. 35, 3229–3240(2001).
[CrossRef]

Whiteman, D. N.

Wilson, J. C.

J. P. Schwarz, R. S. Gao, D. W. Fahey, D. S. Thomson, L. A. Watts, J. C. Wilson, J. M. Reeves, M. Darbeheshti, D. G. Baumgardner, G. L. Kok, S. H. Chung, M. Schulz, J. Hendricks, A. Lauer, B. Karcher, J. G. Slowik, K. H. Rosenlof, T. L. Thompson, A. O. Langford, M. Loewenstein, and K. C. Aikin, “Single-particle measurements of midlatitude black carbon and light-scattering aerosols from the boundary layer to the lower stratosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, D16207 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wong, J. G. D.

P. Chýlek, G. B. Lesins, G. Videen, J. G. D. Wong, R. G. Pinnick, D. Ngo, and J. D. Klett, “Black carbon and absorption of solar radiation by clouds,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 23365–23371(1996).
[CrossRef]

Worsnop, D. R.

Q. Zhang, M. R. Canagaratna, J. T. Jayne, D. R. Worsnop, and J. L. Jimenez, “Time- and size-resolved chemical composition of submicron particles in Pittsburgh: implications for aerosol sources and processes,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, D07S09 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yang, P.

O. Dubovik, B. N. Holben, T. Lapyonok, A. Sinyuk, M. I. Mishchenko, P. Yang, and I. Slutsker, “Non-spherical aerosol retrieval method employing light scattering by spheroids,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 1415–1418 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Q.

Q. Zhang, M. R. Canagaratna, J. T. Jayne, D. R. Worsnop, and J. L. Jimenez, “Time- and size-resolved chemical composition of submicron particles in Pittsburgh: implications for aerosol sources and processes,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, D07S09 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, Y.

L. Ma, L. Kranendonk, W. Cai, Y. Zhao, and J. Baba, “Application of simulated annealing for simultaneous retrieval of particle size distribution and refractive index,” J. Aerosol Sci. 40, 588–596 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Space Res.

K. Arai and X. Liang, “Method for estimation of refractive index and size distribution of aerosol using direct and diffuse solar irradiance and aureole by means of simulated annealing,” Adv. Space Res. 32, 2165–2174 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Aerosol Sci. Technol.

D. A. Lack, E. R. Lovejoy, T. Baynard, A. Pettersson, and A. R. Ravishankara, “Aerosol absorption measurement using photoacoustic spectroscopy: Sensitivity, calibration, and uncertainty developments,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 40, 697–708 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Bioanal. Chem.

V. Bulatov, Y. H. Chen, A. Khalmanov, and I. Schechter, “Absorption and scattering characterization of airborne microparticulates by a cavity ring down technique,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 384, 155–160 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Chim. Acta

V. Bulatov, M. Fisher, and I. Schechter, “Aerosol analysis by cavity-ring-down laser spectroscopy,” Anal. Chim. Acta 466, 1–9 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Atmos. Chem. Phys.

A. Abo Riziq, M. Trainic, C. Erlick, E. Segre, and Y. Rudich, “Extinction efficiencies of coated absorbing aerosols measured with cavity ring down aerosol spectrometry,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8, 1823–1833 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Abo Riziq, C. Erlick, E. Dinar, and Y. Rudich, “Optical properties of absorbing and nonabsorbing aerosols retrieved by cavity ring down (CRD) spectroscopy,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 7, 1523–1536 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Atmos. Environ.

S. A. Guazzotti, J. R. Whiteaker, D. Suess, K. R. Coffee, and K. A. Prather, “Real-time measurements of the chemical composition of size-resolved particles during a Santa Ana wind episode, California USA,” Atmos. Environ. 35, 3229–3240(2001).
[CrossRef]

Chemom. Intell. Lab. Syst.

X.-H. Song and P. K. Hopke, “Analysis of source contributions to the ambient aerosol sample by simulated annealing,” Chemom. Intell. Lab. Syst. 34, 275–281 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Faraday Discuss.

E. Dinar, A. Abo Riziq, C. Spindler, C. Erlick, G. Kiss, and Y. Rudich, “The complex refractive index of atmospheric and model humiclike substances (HULIS) retrieved by a cavity ring down aerosol spectrometer (CRD-AS),” Faraday Discuss. 137, 279–295 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Geophys. Res. Lett.

L. M. Russell, S. F. Maria, and S. C. B. Myneni, “Mapping organic coatings on atmospheric particles,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 1779–1782 (2002).
[CrossRef]

O. Dubovik, B. N. Holben, T. Lapyonok, A. Sinyuk, M. I. Mishchenko, P. Yang, and I. Slutsker, “Non-spherical aerosol retrieval method employing light scattering by spheroids,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 1415–1418 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Aerosol Sci.

L. Ma, L. Kranendonk, W. Cai, Y. Zhao, and J. Baba, “Application of simulated annealing for simultaneous retrieval of particle size distribution and refractive index,” J. Aerosol Sci. 40, 588–596 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Pettersson, E. R. Lovejoy, C. A. Brock, S. S. Brown, and A. R. Ravishankara, “Measurement of aerosol optical extinction at 532 nm with pulsed cavity ring down spectroscopy,” J. Aerosol Sci. 35, 995–1011 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys.

N. Metropolis, A. W. Rosenbluth, M. N. Rosenbluth, A. H. Teller, and E. Teller, “Equation of state calculations by fast computing machines,” J. Chem. Phys. 21, 1087–1092 (1953).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res.

A. H. Falkovich, G. Schkolnik, E. Ganor, and Y. Rudich, “Adsorption of organic compounds pertinent to urban environments onto mineral dust particles,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, D01201 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Lesins, P. Chýlek, and U. Lohmann, “A study of internal and external mixing scenarios and its effect on aerosol optical properties and direct radiative forcing,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 4094–4105 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. Chýlek, G. B. Lesins, G. Videen, J. G. D. Wong, R. G. Pinnick, D. Ngo, and J. D. Klett, “Black carbon and absorption of solar radiation by clouds,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 23365–23371(1996).
[CrossRef]

Q. Zhang, M. R. Canagaratna, J. T. Jayne, D. R. Worsnop, and J. L. Jimenez, “Time- and size-resolved chemical composition of submicron particles in Pittsburgh: implications for aerosol sources and processes,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, D07S09 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Schwarz, R. S. Gao, D. W. Fahey, D. S. Thomson, L. A. Watts, J. C. Wilson, J. M. Reeves, M. Darbeheshti, D. G. Baumgardner, G. L. Kok, S. H. Chung, M. Schulz, J. Hendricks, A. Lauer, B. Karcher, J. G. Slowik, K. H. Rosenlof, T. L. Thompson, A. O. Langford, M. Loewenstein, and K. C. Aikin, “Single-particle measurements of midlatitude black carbon and light-scattering aerosols from the boundary layer to the lower stratosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, D16207 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Stat. Phys.

S. Kirkpatrick, “Optimization by simulated annealing: quantitative studies,” J. Stat. Phys. 34, 975–986 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys.

N. Lang-Yona, A. Abo Riziq, C. Erlick, E. Segre, M. Trainic, and Y. Rudich, “Interaction of internally mixed aerosols with light,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 12, 21–31 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA

G. Adler, A. Abo Riziq, C. Erlick, and Y. Rudich, “Effect of intrinsic organic carbon on the optical properties of fresh diesel soot,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 107, 6699–6704 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Science

S. Kirkpatrick, C. D. Gelatt, and M. P. Vecchi, “Optimization by simulated annealing,” Science 220, 671–680 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. Robinson, N. M. Donahue, M. K. Shrivastava, E. A. Weitkamp, A. M. Sage, A. P. Grieshop, T. E. Lane, J. R. Pierce, and S. N. Pandis, “Rethinking organic aerosols: semivolatile emissions and photochemical aging,” Science 315, 1259–1262(2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. F. Maria, L. M. Russell, M. K. Gilles, and S. C. B. Myneni, “Organic aerosol growth mechanisms and their climate-forcing implications,” Science 306, 1921–1924 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

P. Forster, V. Ramaswamy, P. Artaxo, T. Berntsen, R. Betts, D. W. Fahey, J. Haywood, J. Lean, D. C. Lowe, G. Myhre, J. Nganga, R. Prinn, G. Raga, M. Schulz, and R. Van Dorland, “Changes in atmospheric constituents and in radiative forcing,” in Climate Change 2007: the Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, S.Solomon, D.Qin, M.Manning, Z.Chen, M.Marquis, K.B.Averyt, M.Tignor, and H.L.Miller, eds. (Cambridge University, 2007), pp. 129–234.

A. Gelencser, Carbonaceous Aerosol (Springer, 2004).

W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, and B. R. Flannery, Numerical Recipes, the Art of Scientific Computing, 3rd ed. (Cambridge University, 2007).

C. F. Bohren and D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, 1983).

S. Twomey, Introduction to the Mathematics of Inversion in Remote Sensing and Indirect Measurements (Dover, 1977).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Extinction efficiency at 532 nm wavelength versus coated diameter for nigrosin ( m = 1.649 + i 0.238 ) coated by glutaric acid ( m = 1.410 + i 0.000 ) in a single CRD experiment [28]. See Table 1 for particle size data. The blue curve shows a fit to the results obtained from the simulated annealing algorithm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Piecewise constant temperature schedule (blue solid curve) correlated to the order of magnitude of the merit function (red dotted curve) as a function of iteration number for a single successful retrieval attempt for nigrosin ( m = 1.649 + i 0.238 ) coated by glutaric acid ( m = 1.410 + i 0.000 ). Initial indices: 1.837 + i 0.791 , 1.372 + i 0.546 . Final indices: 1.649 + i 0.238 , 1.410 + i 0.000 .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Histogram of number of iterations for successful retrievals: (a) greedy algorithm (27 successful retrievals out of 100 attempts, mean 464,860, standard deviation 190,280), (b) simulated annealing (100 successful retrievals out of 100 attempts, mean 578,580, standard deviation 405,690).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Extinction efficiency at 532 nm wavelength versus coated diameter for nigrosin ( m = 1.649 + i 0.238 ) coated by glutaric acid ( m = 1.410 + i 0.000 ) in a concatenation of three separate CRD experiments [12, 28]. See Table 1 for particle size data. (Note that two coated particles may have the same total coated diameter but different extinction efficiencies if the ratio of the shell thickness to core diameter is different.)

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Minimum eigenvalue of the covariance matrices corresponding to the particle size distribution containing the sizes listed in Table 1, labeled according to the particle size index in the first column of Table 1. (a) The size distribution contains all (23) sizes except for the given size, where lower values of minimum eigenvalue indicate a stronger contribution to the success of the retrieval. (b) The size distribution includes all sizes up to and including the given size, where the sizes are ranked in order of decreasing contribution to the success of the retrieval using the minimum eigenvalues from panel a (ranks are listed in the last column of Table 1), and higher values of minimum eigenvalue indicate a strong contribution to the success of the retrieval. Note how the minimum eigenvalue increases as more sizes are added, peaking at the ninth particle size (particle size index 12), and then tapers off, indicating that additional sizes do not add information.

Tables (2)

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Table 1 Particle Sizes in the Cavity Ring-Down Experiments Included in This Study and Their Information Content Rank

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Table 2 Comparison of a Sample of Greedy Random Perturbation and Simulated Annealing Retrievals Starting from the Same Pair (Core, Shell) of Initial Indices for the Case Shown in Fig. 1 (Nigrosin [ m = 1.649 + i 0.238 ] Coated by Glutaric Acid [ m = 1.410 + i 0.000 ])

Equations (2)

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χ 2 = i = 1 N ( Q ext measured Q ext calculated ) i 2 2 σ i 2 .
C 11 = i = 1 N ( Q ext calculated set   1 × Q ext calculated set   1 ) i , C 12 = i = 1 N ( Q ext calculated set   1 × Q ext calculated set   2 ) i , C 21 = i = 1 N ( Q ext calculated set   2 × Q ext calculated set   1 ) i , C 22 = i = 1 N ( Q ext calculated set   2 × Q ext calculated set   2 ) i .

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