Abstract

We fabricated a single-mode planar waveguide in z-cut Nd:YVO4 by multienergy He ion implantation in total fluence of 4.5×1016  ions/cm2 at room temperature and investigated optical properties of Nd:YVO4 before and after He ion implantation by measuring transmission, confocal microluminescence, and confocal Raman spectra. Absorption bands and the photoluminescence features of the bulk Nd:YVO4 crystal have been preserved after He ion implantation. In Raman spectra, most of the peak positions and peak widths had no obvious change before and after He ion implantation. The guiding mode and near-field image in the waveguide were measured by the prism coupling method and end-face coupling method, respectively. We investigated the damage behavior of a Nd:YVO4 waveguide after implantation, annealing treatment by the Rutherford backscattering/channeling technique. The minimum yield of the virgin z-cut Nd:YVO4 was 1.98%, which increased to 4.73% after He ion implantation and decreased to 3.20% after annealing at 600K for 30 minutes.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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  1. P. P. Yaney and L. G. DeShazer, “Spectroscopic studies and analysis of the laser states of Nd3+ in YVO4,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 1405–1414 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  2. P. Zeller and P. Peuser, “Efficient, multiwatt, continuous-wave laser operation on the 4F(3/2)−4I(9/2) transitions of Nd:YVO4 and Nd:YAG,” Opt. Lett. 25, 34–36 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. A. Kaminskii, Laser Crystals: their Physics and Properties (Springer, 1990).
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    [CrossRef]
  5. F. Chen, L. Wang, Y. Jiang, X. L. Wang, K. M. Wang, G. Fu, Q. M. Lu, C. E. Rüter, and D. Kip, “Optical channel waveguides in Nd:YVO4 crystal produced by O+ ion implantation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 071123 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  6. F. Chen, X. L. Wang, K. M. Wang, Q. M. Lu, and D. Y. Shen, “Ion-implanted Nd:YVO4 planar waveguide: refractive-index characterization and propagation mode reduction,” Opt. Lett. 27, 1111–1113 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  7. F. Chen, X. L. Wang, K. M. Wang, Q. M. Lu, and D. Y. Shen, “Optical waveguides formed in Nd:YVO4 by MeV Si+ implantation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3473–3475 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. E. Sánchez-Morales, G. V. Vázquez, H. Márquez, J. Rickards, and R. Trejo-Luna, “Optical waveguides formed in Nd:YVO4 crystals by C implantation,” J. Mod. Opt. 53, 539–545 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. E. Sánchez-Morales, G. V. Vázquez, E. B. Mejía, H. Márquez, J. Rickards, and R. Trejo-Luna, “Laser emission in Nd:YVO4 channel waveguides at 1064 nm,” Appl. Phys. B 94, 215–219 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. E. Sánchez-Morales, G. V. Vázquez, P. Moretti, and H. Márquez, “Optical waveguides in Nd:YVO4 crystals by multi-implants with protons and helium ions,” Opt. Mater. 29, 840–844 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  11. A. Benayas, D. Jaque, S. J. Hettrick, J. S. Wilkinson, and D. P. Shepherd, “Investigation of neodymium-diffused yttrium vanadate waveguides by confocal microluminescence,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 103104–103106 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  12. X. H. Liu, K. M. Wang, J. H. Zhao, S. M. Zhang, and M. Chen, “Annealing behavior of single mode planar waveguide in YVO4 produced by He ion implantation,” Opt. Mater. 33, 424–427 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  13. H. R. Xia, X. L. Meng, M. Guo, L. Zhu, H. J. Zhang, and J. Y. Wang, “Spectral parameters of Nd-doped yttrium orthovanadate crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 88, 5134–5137 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  14. M. G. Hur, W. S. Yang, S. J. Suh, M. A. Ivanov, V. V. Kochurikhin, and D. H. Yoon, “Optical properties of EFG grown Nd:YVO4 single crystals dependent on Nd concentration,” J. Cryst. Growth 237–239, 745–748 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  15. X. Cui, J. She, K. Cui, C. Gao, C. Hou, W. Wei, and B. Peng, “Nd3+ doped LaF3 nanoparticles with a larger emission cross-section,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 489, 191–194 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  16. K. Zou, H. Guo, M. Lu, W. Li, C. Hou, W. Wei, J. He, B. Peng, and B. Xiangli, “Broad-spectrum and long-lifetime emissions of Nd3+ ions in lead fluorosilicate glass,” Opt. Express 17, 10001–10009 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. X. H. Liu, Q. Huang, J. H. Zhao, P. Liu, X. L. Wang, J. F. Du, and N. K. Huang, “Annealing effect on planar waveguides in LiNbO3 produced by oxygen ion implantation,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 257, 1918–1922 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  18. C. Cali, F. Cornacchia, A. Di Lieto, F. Marchetti, and M. Tonelli, “Nd:YVO4 crystalline film grown by pulsed laser deposition,” Opt. Mater. 31, 1331–1333 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  19. H. Zhang, X. Meng, L. Zhu, C. Wang, Y. T. Chow, and M. Lu, “Growth, spectra and influence of annealing effect on laser properties of Nd:YVO4 crystal,” Opt. Mater. 14, 25–30 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  20. V. Buissette, A. Huignard, T. Gacoin, J. P. Boilot, P. Aschehoug, and B. Viana, “Luminescence properties of YVO4:Ln (Ln=Nd, Yb, and Yb-Er) nanoparticles,” Surf. Sci. 532–535, 444–449 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  21. S. A. Miller, H. H. Caspers, and H. E. Rast, “Lattice vibrations of yttrium vanadate,” Phys. Rev. 168, 964–969 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  22. I. Guedes, Y. Hirano, M. Grimsditch, N. Wakabayashi, C. K. Loong, and L. A. Boatner, “Raman study of phonon modes in ErVO4 single crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 90, 1843–1846(2001).
    [CrossRef]
  23. H. R. Xia, L. X. Li, H. J. Zhang, X. L. Meng, L. Zhu, Z. H. Yang, X. S. Liu, and J. Y. Wang, “Raman spectra and laser properties of Yb-doped yttrium orthovanadate crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 87, 269–273 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  24. J. F. Ziegler, “SRIM-2003,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 219–220, 1027–1036 (2004).
    [CrossRef]

2011 (2)

X. H. Liu, K. M. Wang, J. H. Zhao, S. M. Zhang, and M. Chen, “Annealing behavior of single mode planar waveguide in YVO4 produced by He ion implantation,” Opt. Mater. 33, 424–427 (2011).
[CrossRef]

X. H. Liu, Q. Huang, J. H. Zhao, P. Liu, X. L. Wang, J. F. Du, and N. K. Huang, “Annealing effect on planar waveguides in LiNbO3 produced by oxygen ion implantation,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 257, 1918–1922 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

X. Cui, J. She, K. Cui, C. Gao, C. Hou, W. Wei, and B. Peng, “Nd3+ doped LaF3 nanoparticles with a larger emission cross-section,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 489, 191–194 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (3)

K. Zou, H. Guo, M. Lu, W. Li, C. Hou, W. Wei, J. He, B. Peng, and B. Xiangli, “Broad-spectrum and long-lifetime emissions of Nd3+ ions in lead fluorosilicate glass,” Opt. Express 17, 10001–10009 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. E. Sánchez-Morales, G. V. Vázquez, E. B. Mejía, H. Márquez, J. Rickards, and R. Trejo-Luna, “Laser emission in Nd:YVO4 channel waveguides at 1064 nm,” Appl. Phys. B 94, 215–219 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Cali, F. Cornacchia, A. Di Lieto, F. Marchetti, and M. Tonelli, “Nd:YVO4 crystalline film grown by pulsed laser deposition,” Opt. Mater. 31, 1331–1333 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

A. Benayas, D. Jaque, S. J. Hettrick, J. S. Wilkinson, and D. P. Shepherd, “Investigation of neodymium-diffused yttrium vanadate waveguides by confocal microluminescence,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 103104–103106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

M. E. Sánchez-Morales, G. V. Vázquez, P. Moretti, and H. Márquez, “Optical waveguides in Nd:YVO4 crystals by multi-implants with protons and helium ions,” Opt. Mater. 29, 840–844 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Chen, X. L. Wang, and K. M. Wang, “Development of ion-implanted optical waveguides in optical materials: a review,” Opt. Mater. 29, 1523–1542 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

F. Chen, L. Wang, Y. Jiang, X. L. Wang, K. M. Wang, G. Fu, Q. M. Lu, C. E. Rüter, and D. Kip, “Optical channel waveguides in Nd:YVO4 crystal produced by O+ ion implantation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 071123 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Sánchez-Morales, G. V. Vázquez, H. Márquez, J. Rickards, and R. Trejo-Luna, “Optical waveguides formed in Nd:YVO4 crystals by C implantation,” J. Mod. Opt. 53, 539–545 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

J. F. Ziegler, “SRIM-2003,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 219–220, 1027–1036 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

V. Buissette, A. Huignard, T. Gacoin, J. P. Boilot, P. Aschehoug, and B. Viana, “Luminescence properties of YVO4:Ln (Ln=Nd, Yb, and Yb-Er) nanoparticles,” Surf. Sci. 532–535, 444–449 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (3)

F. Chen, X. L. Wang, K. M. Wang, Q. M. Lu, and D. Y. Shen, “Ion-implanted Nd:YVO4 planar waveguide: refractive-index characterization and propagation mode reduction,” Opt. Lett. 27, 1111–1113 (2002).
[CrossRef]

F. Chen, X. L. Wang, K. M. Wang, Q. M. Lu, and D. Y. Shen, “Optical waveguides formed in Nd:YVO4 by MeV Si+ implantation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3473–3475 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Hur, W. S. Yang, S. J. Suh, M. A. Ivanov, V. V. Kochurikhin, and D. H. Yoon, “Optical properties of EFG grown Nd:YVO4 single crystals dependent on Nd concentration,” J. Cryst. Growth 237–239, 745–748 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

I. Guedes, Y. Hirano, M. Grimsditch, N. Wakabayashi, C. K. Loong, and L. A. Boatner, “Raman study of phonon modes in ErVO4 single crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 90, 1843–1846(2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (4)

H. R. Xia, L. X. Li, H. J. Zhang, X. L. Meng, L. Zhu, Z. H. Yang, X. S. Liu, and J. Y. Wang, “Raman spectra and laser properties of Yb-doped yttrium orthovanadate crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 87, 269–273 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, X. Meng, L. Zhu, C. Wang, Y. T. Chow, and M. Lu, “Growth, spectra and influence of annealing effect on laser properties of Nd:YVO4 crystal,” Opt. Mater. 14, 25–30 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Xia, X. L. Meng, M. Guo, L. Zhu, H. J. Zhang, and J. Y. Wang, “Spectral parameters of Nd-doped yttrium orthovanadate crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 88, 5134–5137 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. Zeller and P. Peuser, “Efficient, multiwatt, continuous-wave laser operation on the 4F(3/2)−4I(9/2) transitions of Nd:YVO4 and Nd:YAG,” Opt. Lett. 25, 34–36 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

A. A. Kaminskii, Laser Crystals: their Physics and Properties (Springer, 1990).

1976 (1)

1968 (1)

S. A. Miller, H. H. Caspers, and H. E. Rast, “Lattice vibrations of yttrium vanadate,” Phys. Rev. 168, 964–969 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Aschehoug, P.

V. Buissette, A. Huignard, T. Gacoin, J. P. Boilot, P. Aschehoug, and B. Viana, “Luminescence properties of YVO4:Ln (Ln=Nd, Yb, and Yb-Er) nanoparticles,” Surf. Sci. 532–535, 444–449 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Benayas, A.

A. Benayas, D. Jaque, S. J. Hettrick, J. S. Wilkinson, and D. P. Shepherd, “Investigation of neodymium-diffused yttrium vanadate waveguides by confocal microluminescence,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 103104–103106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Boatner, L. A.

I. Guedes, Y. Hirano, M. Grimsditch, N. Wakabayashi, C. K. Loong, and L. A. Boatner, “Raman study of phonon modes in ErVO4 single crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 90, 1843–1846(2001).
[CrossRef]

Boilot, J. P.

V. Buissette, A. Huignard, T. Gacoin, J. P. Boilot, P. Aschehoug, and B. Viana, “Luminescence properties of YVO4:Ln (Ln=Nd, Yb, and Yb-Er) nanoparticles,” Surf. Sci. 532–535, 444–449 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Buissette, V.

V. Buissette, A. Huignard, T. Gacoin, J. P. Boilot, P. Aschehoug, and B. Viana, “Luminescence properties of YVO4:Ln (Ln=Nd, Yb, and Yb-Er) nanoparticles,” Surf. Sci. 532–535, 444–449 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cali, C.

C. Cali, F. Cornacchia, A. Di Lieto, F. Marchetti, and M. Tonelli, “Nd:YVO4 crystalline film grown by pulsed laser deposition,” Opt. Mater. 31, 1331–1333 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Caspers, H. H.

S. A. Miller, H. H. Caspers, and H. E. Rast, “Lattice vibrations of yttrium vanadate,” Phys. Rev. 168, 964–969 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Chen, F.

F. Chen, X. L. Wang, and K. M. Wang, “Development of ion-implanted optical waveguides in optical materials: a review,” Opt. Mater. 29, 1523–1542 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Chen, L. Wang, Y. Jiang, X. L. Wang, K. M. Wang, G. Fu, Q. M. Lu, C. E. Rüter, and D. Kip, “Optical channel waveguides in Nd:YVO4 crystal produced by O+ ion implantation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 071123 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Chen, X. L. Wang, K. M. Wang, Q. M. Lu, and D. Y. Shen, “Ion-implanted Nd:YVO4 planar waveguide: refractive-index characterization and propagation mode reduction,” Opt. Lett. 27, 1111–1113 (2002).
[CrossRef]

F. Chen, X. L. Wang, K. M. Wang, Q. M. Lu, and D. Y. Shen, “Optical waveguides formed in Nd:YVO4 by MeV Si+ implantation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3473–3475 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chen, M.

X. H. Liu, K. M. Wang, J. H. Zhao, S. M. Zhang, and M. Chen, “Annealing behavior of single mode planar waveguide in YVO4 produced by He ion implantation,” Opt. Mater. 33, 424–427 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chow, Y. T.

H. Zhang, X. Meng, L. Zhu, C. Wang, Y. T. Chow, and M. Lu, “Growth, spectra and influence of annealing effect on laser properties of Nd:YVO4 crystal,” Opt. Mater. 14, 25–30 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Cornacchia, F.

C. Cali, F. Cornacchia, A. Di Lieto, F. Marchetti, and M. Tonelli, “Nd:YVO4 crystalline film grown by pulsed laser deposition,” Opt. Mater. 31, 1331–1333 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cui, K.

X. Cui, J. She, K. Cui, C. Gao, C. Hou, W. Wei, and B. Peng, “Nd3+ doped LaF3 nanoparticles with a larger emission cross-section,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 489, 191–194 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cui, X.

X. Cui, J. She, K. Cui, C. Gao, C. Hou, W. Wei, and B. Peng, “Nd3+ doped LaF3 nanoparticles with a larger emission cross-section,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 489, 191–194 (2010).
[CrossRef]

DeShazer, L. G.

Di Lieto, A.

C. Cali, F. Cornacchia, A. Di Lieto, F. Marchetti, and M. Tonelli, “Nd:YVO4 crystalline film grown by pulsed laser deposition,” Opt. Mater. 31, 1331–1333 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Du, J. F.

X. H. Liu, Q. Huang, J. H. Zhao, P. Liu, X. L. Wang, J. F. Du, and N. K. Huang, “Annealing effect on planar waveguides in LiNbO3 produced by oxygen ion implantation,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 257, 1918–1922 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Fu, G.

F. Chen, L. Wang, Y. Jiang, X. L. Wang, K. M. Wang, G. Fu, Q. M. Lu, C. E. Rüter, and D. Kip, “Optical channel waveguides in Nd:YVO4 crystal produced by O+ ion implantation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 071123 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gacoin, T.

V. Buissette, A. Huignard, T. Gacoin, J. P. Boilot, P. Aschehoug, and B. Viana, “Luminescence properties of YVO4:Ln (Ln=Nd, Yb, and Yb-Er) nanoparticles,” Surf. Sci. 532–535, 444–449 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gao, C.

X. Cui, J. She, K. Cui, C. Gao, C. Hou, W. Wei, and B. Peng, “Nd3+ doped LaF3 nanoparticles with a larger emission cross-section,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 489, 191–194 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Grimsditch, M.

I. Guedes, Y. Hirano, M. Grimsditch, N. Wakabayashi, C. K. Loong, and L. A. Boatner, “Raman study of phonon modes in ErVO4 single crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 90, 1843–1846(2001).
[CrossRef]

Guedes, I.

I. Guedes, Y. Hirano, M. Grimsditch, N. Wakabayashi, C. K. Loong, and L. A. Boatner, “Raman study of phonon modes in ErVO4 single crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 90, 1843–1846(2001).
[CrossRef]

Guo, H.

Guo, M.

H. R. Xia, X. L. Meng, M. Guo, L. Zhu, H. J. Zhang, and J. Y. Wang, “Spectral parameters of Nd-doped yttrium orthovanadate crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 88, 5134–5137 (2000).
[CrossRef]

He, J.

Hettrick, S. J.

A. Benayas, D. Jaque, S. J. Hettrick, J. S. Wilkinson, and D. P. Shepherd, “Investigation of neodymium-diffused yttrium vanadate waveguides by confocal microluminescence,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 103104–103106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hirano, Y.

I. Guedes, Y. Hirano, M. Grimsditch, N. Wakabayashi, C. K. Loong, and L. A. Boatner, “Raman study of phonon modes in ErVO4 single crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 90, 1843–1846(2001).
[CrossRef]

Hou, C.

X. Cui, J. She, K. Cui, C. Gao, C. Hou, W. Wei, and B. Peng, “Nd3+ doped LaF3 nanoparticles with a larger emission cross-section,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 489, 191–194 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Zou, H. Guo, M. Lu, W. Li, C. Hou, W. Wei, J. He, B. Peng, and B. Xiangli, “Broad-spectrum and long-lifetime emissions of Nd3+ ions in lead fluorosilicate glass,” Opt. Express 17, 10001–10009 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, N. K.

X. H. Liu, Q. Huang, J. H. Zhao, P. Liu, X. L. Wang, J. F. Du, and N. K. Huang, “Annealing effect on planar waveguides in LiNbO3 produced by oxygen ion implantation,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 257, 1918–1922 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Q.

X. H. Liu, Q. Huang, J. H. Zhao, P. Liu, X. L. Wang, J. F. Du, and N. K. Huang, “Annealing effect on planar waveguides in LiNbO3 produced by oxygen ion implantation,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 257, 1918–1922 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Huignard, A.

V. Buissette, A. Huignard, T. Gacoin, J. P. Boilot, P. Aschehoug, and B. Viana, “Luminescence properties of YVO4:Ln (Ln=Nd, Yb, and Yb-Er) nanoparticles,” Surf. Sci. 532–535, 444–449 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hur, M. G.

M. G. Hur, W. S. Yang, S. J. Suh, M. A. Ivanov, V. V. Kochurikhin, and D. H. Yoon, “Optical properties of EFG grown Nd:YVO4 single crystals dependent on Nd concentration,” J. Cryst. Growth 237–239, 745–748 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ivanov, M. A.

M. G. Hur, W. S. Yang, S. J. Suh, M. A. Ivanov, V. V. Kochurikhin, and D. H. Yoon, “Optical properties of EFG grown Nd:YVO4 single crystals dependent on Nd concentration,” J. Cryst. Growth 237–239, 745–748 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jaque, D.

A. Benayas, D. Jaque, S. J. Hettrick, J. S. Wilkinson, and D. P. Shepherd, “Investigation of neodymium-diffused yttrium vanadate waveguides by confocal microluminescence,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 103104–103106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, Y.

F. Chen, L. Wang, Y. Jiang, X. L. Wang, K. M. Wang, G. Fu, Q. M. Lu, C. E. Rüter, and D. Kip, “Optical channel waveguides in Nd:YVO4 crystal produced by O+ ion implantation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 071123 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kaminskii, A. A.

A. A. Kaminskii, Laser Crystals: their Physics and Properties (Springer, 1990).

Kip, D.

F. Chen, L. Wang, Y. Jiang, X. L. Wang, K. M. Wang, G. Fu, Q. M. Lu, C. E. Rüter, and D. Kip, “Optical channel waveguides in Nd:YVO4 crystal produced by O+ ion implantation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 071123 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kochurikhin, V. V.

M. G. Hur, W. S. Yang, S. J. Suh, M. A. Ivanov, V. V. Kochurikhin, and D. H. Yoon, “Optical properties of EFG grown Nd:YVO4 single crystals dependent on Nd concentration,” J. Cryst. Growth 237–239, 745–748 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Li, L. X.

H. R. Xia, L. X. Li, H. J. Zhang, X. L. Meng, L. Zhu, Z. H. Yang, X. S. Liu, and J. Y. Wang, “Raman spectra and laser properties of Yb-doped yttrium orthovanadate crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 87, 269–273 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Li, W.

Liu, P.

X. H. Liu, Q. Huang, J. H. Zhao, P. Liu, X. L. Wang, J. F. Du, and N. K. Huang, “Annealing effect on planar waveguides in LiNbO3 produced by oxygen ion implantation,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 257, 1918–1922 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Liu, X. H.

X. H. Liu, Q. Huang, J. H. Zhao, P. Liu, X. L. Wang, J. F. Du, and N. K. Huang, “Annealing effect on planar waveguides in LiNbO3 produced by oxygen ion implantation,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 257, 1918–1922 (2011).
[CrossRef]

X. H. Liu, K. M. Wang, J. H. Zhao, S. M. Zhang, and M. Chen, “Annealing behavior of single mode planar waveguide in YVO4 produced by He ion implantation,” Opt. Mater. 33, 424–427 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Liu, X. S.

H. R. Xia, L. X. Li, H. J. Zhang, X. L. Meng, L. Zhu, Z. H. Yang, X. S. Liu, and J. Y. Wang, “Raman spectra and laser properties of Yb-doped yttrium orthovanadate crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 87, 269–273 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Loong, C. K.

I. Guedes, Y. Hirano, M. Grimsditch, N. Wakabayashi, C. K. Loong, and L. A. Boatner, “Raman study of phonon modes in ErVO4 single crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 90, 1843–1846(2001).
[CrossRef]

Lu, M.

K. Zou, H. Guo, M. Lu, W. Li, C. Hou, W. Wei, J. He, B. Peng, and B. Xiangli, “Broad-spectrum and long-lifetime emissions of Nd3+ ions in lead fluorosilicate glass,” Opt. Express 17, 10001–10009 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Zhang, X. Meng, L. Zhu, C. Wang, Y. T. Chow, and M. Lu, “Growth, spectra and influence of annealing effect on laser properties of Nd:YVO4 crystal,” Opt. Mater. 14, 25–30 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lu, Q. M.

F. Chen, L. Wang, Y. Jiang, X. L. Wang, K. M. Wang, G. Fu, Q. M. Lu, C. E. Rüter, and D. Kip, “Optical channel waveguides in Nd:YVO4 crystal produced by O+ ion implantation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 071123 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Chen, X. L. Wang, K. M. Wang, Q. M. Lu, and D. Y. Shen, “Ion-implanted Nd:YVO4 planar waveguide: refractive-index characterization and propagation mode reduction,” Opt. Lett. 27, 1111–1113 (2002).
[CrossRef]

F. Chen, X. L. Wang, K. M. Wang, Q. M. Lu, and D. Y. Shen, “Optical waveguides formed in Nd:YVO4 by MeV Si+ implantation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3473–3475 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Marchetti, F.

C. Cali, F. Cornacchia, A. Di Lieto, F. Marchetti, and M. Tonelli, “Nd:YVO4 crystalline film grown by pulsed laser deposition,” Opt. Mater. 31, 1331–1333 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Márquez, H.

M. E. Sánchez-Morales, G. V. Vázquez, E. B. Mejía, H. Márquez, J. Rickards, and R. Trejo-Luna, “Laser emission in Nd:YVO4 channel waveguides at 1064 nm,” Appl. Phys. B 94, 215–219 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Sánchez-Morales, G. V. Vázquez, P. Moretti, and H. Márquez, “Optical waveguides in Nd:YVO4 crystals by multi-implants with protons and helium ions,” Opt. Mater. 29, 840–844 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Sánchez-Morales, G. V. Vázquez, H. Márquez, J. Rickards, and R. Trejo-Luna, “Optical waveguides formed in Nd:YVO4 crystals by C implantation,” J. Mod. Opt. 53, 539–545 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mejía, E. B.

M. E. Sánchez-Morales, G. V. Vázquez, E. B. Mejía, H. Márquez, J. Rickards, and R. Trejo-Luna, “Laser emission in Nd:YVO4 channel waveguides at 1064 nm,” Appl. Phys. B 94, 215–219 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Meng, X.

H. Zhang, X. Meng, L. Zhu, C. Wang, Y. T. Chow, and M. Lu, “Growth, spectra and influence of annealing effect on laser properties of Nd:YVO4 crystal,” Opt. Mater. 14, 25–30 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Meng, X. L.

H. R. Xia, L. X. Li, H. J. Zhang, X. L. Meng, L. Zhu, Z. H. Yang, X. S. Liu, and J. Y. Wang, “Raman spectra and laser properties of Yb-doped yttrium orthovanadate crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 87, 269–273 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Xia, X. L. Meng, M. Guo, L. Zhu, H. J. Zhang, and J. Y. Wang, “Spectral parameters of Nd-doped yttrium orthovanadate crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 88, 5134–5137 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Miller, S. A.

S. A. Miller, H. H. Caspers, and H. E. Rast, “Lattice vibrations of yttrium vanadate,” Phys. Rev. 168, 964–969 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Moretti, P.

M. E. Sánchez-Morales, G. V. Vázquez, P. Moretti, and H. Márquez, “Optical waveguides in Nd:YVO4 crystals by multi-implants with protons and helium ions,” Opt. Mater. 29, 840–844 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Peng, B.

X. Cui, J. She, K. Cui, C. Gao, C. Hou, W. Wei, and B. Peng, “Nd3+ doped LaF3 nanoparticles with a larger emission cross-section,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 489, 191–194 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Zou, H. Guo, M. Lu, W. Li, C. Hou, W. Wei, J. He, B. Peng, and B. Xiangli, “Broad-spectrum and long-lifetime emissions of Nd3+ ions in lead fluorosilicate glass,” Opt. Express 17, 10001–10009 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peuser, P.

Rast, H. E.

S. A. Miller, H. H. Caspers, and H. E. Rast, “Lattice vibrations of yttrium vanadate,” Phys. Rev. 168, 964–969 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Rickards, J.

M. E. Sánchez-Morales, G. V. Vázquez, E. B. Mejía, H. Márquez, J. Rickards, and R. Trejo-Luna, “Laser emission in Nd:YVO4 channel waveguides at 1064 nm,” Appl. Phys. B 94, 215–219 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Sánchez-Morales, G. V. Vázquez, H. Márquez, J. Rickards, and R. Trejo-Luna, “Optical waveguides formed in Nd:YVO4 crystals by C implantation,” J. Mod. Opt. 53, 539–545 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rüter, C. E.

F. Chen, L. Wang, Y. Jiang, X. L. Wang, K. M. Wang, G. Fu, Q. M. Lu, C. E. Rüter, and D. Kip, “Optical channel waveguides in Nd:YVO4 crystal produced by O+ ion implantation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 071123 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sánchez-Morales, M. E.

M. E. Sánchez-Morales, G. V. Vázquez, E. B. Mejía, H. Márquez, J. Rickards, and R. Trejo-Luna, “Laser emission in Nd:YVO4 channel waveguides at 1064 nm,” Appl. Phys. B 94, 215–219 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Sánchez-Morales, G. V. Vázquez, P. Moretti, and H. Márquez, “Optical waveguides in Nd:YVO4 crystals by multi-implants with protons and helium ions,” Opt. Mater. 29, 840–844 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Sánchez-Morales, G. V. Vázquez, H. Márquez, J. Rickards, and R. Trejo-Luna, “Optical waveguides formed in Nd:YVO4 crystals by C implantation,” J. Mod. Opt. 53, 539–545 (2006).
[CrossRef]

She, J.

X. Cui, J. She, K. Cui, C. Gao, C. Hou, W. Wei, and B. Peng, “Nd3+ doped LaF3 nanoparticles with a larger emission cross-section,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 489, 191–194 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Shen, D. Y.

F. Chen, X. L. Wang, K. M. Wang, Q. M. Lu, and D. Y. Shen, “Optical waveguides formed in Nd:YVO4 by MeV Si+ implantation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3473–3475 (2002).
[CrossRef]

F. Chen, X. L. Wang, K. M. Wang, Q. M. Lu, and D. Y. Shen, “Ion-implanted Nd:YVO4 planar waveguide: refractive-index characterization and propagation mode reduction,” Opt. Lett. 27, 1111–1113 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Shepherd, D. P.

A. Benayas, D. Jaque, S. J. Hettrick, J. S. Wilkinson, and D. P. Shepherd, “Investigation of neodymium-diffused yttrium vanadate waveguides by confocal microluminescence,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 103104–103106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Suh, S. J.

M. G. Hur, W. S. Yang, S. J. Suh, M. A. Ivanov, V. V. Kochurikhin, and D. H. Yoon, “Optical properties of EFG grown Nd:YVO4 single crystals dependent on Nd concentration,” J. Cryst. Growth 237–239, 745–748 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tonelli, M.

C. Cali, F. Cornacchia, A. Di Lieto, F. Marchetti, and M. Tonelli, “Nd:YVO4 crystalline film grown by pulsed laser deposition,” Opt. Mater. 31, 1331–1333 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Trejo-Luna, R.

M. E. Sánchez-Morales, G. V. Vázquez, E. B. Mejía, H. Márquez, J. Rickards, and R. Trejo-Luna, “Laser emission in Nd:YVO4 channel waveguides at 1064 nm,” Appl. Phys. B 94, 215–219 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Sánchez-Morales, G. V. Vázquez, H. Márquez, J. Rickards, and R. Trejo-Luna, “Optical waveguides formed in Nd:YVO4 crystals by C implantation,” J. Mod. Opt. 53, 539–545 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Vázquez, G. V.

M. E. Sánchez-Morales, G. V. Vázquez, E. B. Mejía, H. Márquez, J. Rickards, and R. Trejo-Luna, “Laser emission in Nd:YVO4 channel waveguides at 1064 nm,” Appl. Phys. B 94, 215–219 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Sánchez-Morales, G. V. Vázquez, P. Moretti, and H. Márquez, “Optical waveguides in Nd:YVO4 crystals by multi-implants with protons and helium ions,” Opt. Mater. 29, 840–844 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Sánchez-Morales, G. V. Vázquez, H. Márquez, J. Rickards, and R. Trejo-Luna, “Optical waveguides formed in Nd:YVO4 crystals by C implantation,” J. Mod. Opt. 53, 539–545 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Viana, B.

V. Buissette, A. Huignard, T. Gacoin, J. P. Boilot, P. Aschehoug, and B. Viana, “Luminescence properties of YVO4:Ln (Ln=Nd, Yb, and Yb-Er) nanoparticles,” Surf. Sci. 532–535, 444–449 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wakabayashi, N.

I. Guedes, Y. Hirano, M. Grimsditch, N. Wakabayashi, C. K. Loong, and L. A. Boatner, “Raman study of phonon modes in ErVO4 single crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 90, 1843–1846(2001).
[CrossRef]

Wang, C.

H. Zhang, X. Meng, L. Zhu, C. Wang, Y. T. Chow, and M. Lu, “Growth, spectra and influence of annealing effect on laser properties of Nd:YVO4 crystal,” Opt. Mater. 14, 25–30 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J. Y.

H. R. Xia, L. X. Li, H. J. Zhang, X. L. Meng, L. Zhu, Z. H. Yang, X. S. Liu, and J. Y. Wang, “Raman spectra and laser properties of Yb-doped yttrium orthovanadate crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 87, 269–273 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Xia, X. L. Meng, M. Guo, L. Zhu, H. J. Zhang, and J. Y. Wang, “Spectral parameters of Nd-doped yttrium orthovanadate crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 88, 5134–5137 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wang, K. M.

X. H. Liu, K. M. Wang, J. H. Zhao, S. M. Zhang, and M. Chen, “Annealing behavior of single mode planar waveguide in YVO4 produced by He ion implantation,” Opt. Mater. 33, 424–427 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. Chen, X. L. Wang, and K. M. Wang, “Development of ion-implanted optical waveguides in optical materials: a review,” Opt. Mater. 29, 1523–1542 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Chen, L. Wang, Y. Jiang, X. L. Wang, K. M. Wang, G. Fu, Q. M. Lu, C. E. Rüter, and D. Kip, “Optical channel waveguides in Nd:YVO4 crystal produced by O+ ion implantation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 071123 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Chen, X. L. Wang, K. M. Wang, Q. M. Lu, and D. Y. Shen, “Ion-implanted Nd:YVO4 planar waveguide: refractive-index characterization and propagation mode reduction,” Opt. Lett. 27, 1111–1113 (2002).
[CrossRef]

F. Chen, X. L. Wang, K. M. Wang, Q. M. Lu, and D. Y. Shen, “Optical waveguides formed in Nd:YVO4 by MeV Si+ implantation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3473–3475 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L.

F. Chen, L. Wang, Y. Jiang, X. L. Wang, K. M. Wang, G. Fu, Q. M. Lu, C. E. Rüter, and D. Kip, “Optical channel waveguides in Nd:YVO4 crystal produced by O+ ion implantation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 071123 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X. L.

X. H. Liu, Q. Huang, J. H. Zhao, P. Liu, X. L. Wang, J. F. Du, and N. K. Huang, “Annealing effect on planar waveguides in LiNbO3 produced by oxygen ion implantation,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 257, 1918–1922 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. Chen, X. L. Wang, and K. M. Wang, “Development of ion-implanted optical waveguides in optical materials: a review,” Opt. Mater. 29, 1523–1542 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Chen, L. Wang, Y. Jiang, X. L. Wang, K. M. Wang, G. Fu, Q. M. Lu, C. E. Rüter, and D. Kip, “Optical channel waveguides in Nd:YVO4 crystal produced by O+ ion implantation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 071123 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Chen, X. L. Wang, K. M. Wang, Q. M. Lu, and D. Y. Shen, “Optical waveguides formed in Nd:YVO4 by MeV Si+ implantation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3473–3475 (2002).
[CrossRef]

F. Chen, X. L. Wang, K. M. Wang, Q. M. Lu, and D. Y. Shen, “Ion-implanted Nd:YVO4 planar waveguide: refractive-index characterization and propagation mode reduction,” Opt. Lett. 27, 1111–1113 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wei, W.

X. Cui, J. She, K. Cui, C. Gao, C. Hou, W. Wei, and B. Peng, “Nd3+ doped LaF3 nanoparticles with a larger emission cross-section,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 489, 191–194 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Zou, H. Guo, M. Lu, W. Li, C. Hou, W. Wei, J. He, B. Peng, and B. Xiangli, “Broad-spectrum and long-lifetime emissions of Nd3+ ions in lead fluorosilicate glass,” Opt. Express 17, 10001–10009 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wilkinson, J. S.

A. Benayas, D. Jaque, S. J. Hettrick, J. S. Wilkinson, and D. P. Shepherd, “Investigation of neodymium-diffused yttrium vanadate waveguides by confocal microluminescence,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 103104–103106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Xia, H. R.

H. R. Xia, X. L. Meng, M. Guo, L. Zhu, H. J. Zhang, and J. Y. Wang, “Spectral parameters of Nd-doped yttrium orthovanadate crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 88, 5134–5137 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Xia, L. X. Li, H. J. Zhang, X. L. Meng, L. Zhu, Z. H. Yang, X. S. Liu, and J. Y. Wang, “Raman spectra and laser properties of Yb-doped yttrium orthovanadate crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 87, 269–273 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Xiangli, B.

Yaney, P. P.

Yang, W. S.

M. G. Hur, W. S. Yang, S. J. Suh, M. A. Ivanov, V. V. Kochurikhin, and D. H. Yoon, “Optical properties of EFG grown Nd:YVO4 single crystals dependent on Nd concentration,” J. Cryst. Growth 237–239, 745–748 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Z. H.

H. R. Xia, L. X. Li, H. J. Zhang, X. L. Meng, L. Zhu, Z. H. Yang, X. S. Liu, and J. Y. Wang, “Raman spectra and laser properties of Yb-doped yttrium orthovanadate crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 87, 269–273 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yoon, D. H.

M. G. Hur, W. S. Yang, S. J. Suh, M. A. Ivanov, V. V. Kochurikhin, and D. H. Yoon, “Optical properties of EFG grown Nd:YVO4 single crystals dependent on Nd concentration,” J. Cryst. Growth 237–239, 745–748 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zeller, P.

Zhang, H.

H. Zhang, X. Meng, L. Zhu, C. Wang, Y. T. Chow, and M. Lu, “Growth, spectra and influence of annealing effect on laser properties of Nd:YVO4 crystal,” Opt. Mater. 14, 25–30 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, H. J.

H. R. Xia, L. X. Li, H. J. Zhang, X. L. Meng, L. Zhu, Z. H. Yang, X. S. Liu, and J. Y. Wang, “Raman spectra and laser properties of Yb-doped yttrium orthovanadate crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 87, 269–273 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Xia, X. L. Meng, M. Guo, L. Zhu, H. J. Zhang, and J. Y. Wang, “Spectral parameters of Nd-doped yttrium orthovanadate crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 88, 5134–5137 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, S. M.

X. H. Liu, K. M. Wang, J. H. Zhao, S. M. Zhang, and M. Chen, “Annealing behavior of single mode planar waveguide in YVO4 produced by He ion implantation,” Opt. Mater. 33, 424–427 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, J. H.

X. H. Liu, K. M. Wang, J. H. Zhao, S. M. Zhang, and M. Chen, “Annealing behavior of single mode planar waveguide in YVO4 produced by He ion implantation,” Opt. Mater. 33, 424–427 (2011).
[CrossRef]

X. H. Liu, Q. Huang, J. H. Zhao, P. Liu, X. L. Wang, J. F. Du, and N. K. Huang, “Annealing effect on planar waveguides in LiNbO3 produced by oxygen ion implantation,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 257, 1918–1922 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, L.

H. Zhang, X. Meng, L. Zhu, C. Wang, Y. T. Chow, and M. Lu, “Growth, spectra and influence of annealing effect on laser properties of Nd:YVO4 crystal,” Opt. Mater. 14, 25–30 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Xia, L. X. Li, H. J. Zhang, X. L. Meng, L. Zhu, Z. H. Yang, X. S. Liu, and J. Y. Wang, “Raman spectra and laser properties of Yb-doped yttrium orthovanadate crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 87, 269–273 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Xia, X. L. Meng, M. Guo, L. Zhu, H. J. Zhang, and J. Y. Wang, “Spectral parameters of Nd-doped yttrium orthovanadate crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 88, 5134–5137 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ziegler, J. F.

J. F. Ziegler, “SRIM-2003,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 219–220, 1027–1036 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zou, K.

Appl. Phys. B (1)

M. E. Sánchez-Morales, G. V. Vázquez, E. B. Mejía, H. Márquez, J. Rickards, and R. Trejo-Luna, “Laser emission in Nd:YVO4 channel waveguides at 1064 nm,” Appl. Phys. B 94, 215–219 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

F. Chen, X. L. Wang, K. M. Wang, Q. M. Lu, and D. Y. Shen, “Optical waveguides formed in Nd:YVO4 by MeV Si+ implantation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3473–3475 (2002).
[CrossRef]

F. Chen, L. Wang, Y. Jiang, X. L. Wang, K. M. Wang, G. Fu, Q. M. Lu, C. E. Rüter, and D. Kip, “Optical channel waveguides in Nd:YVO4 crystal produced by O+ ion implantation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 071123 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Surf. Sci. (1)

X. H. Liu, Q. Huang, J. H. Zhao, P. Liu, X. L. Wang, J. F. Du, and N. K. Huang, “Annealing effect on planar waveguides in LiNbO3 produced by oxygen ion implantation,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 257, 1918–1922 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

X. Cui, J. She, K. Cui, C. Gao, C. Hou, W. Wei, and B. Peng, “Nd3+ doped LaF3 nanoparticles with a larger emission cross-section,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 489, 191–194 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (4)

I. Guedes, Y. Hirano, M. Grimsditch, N. Wakabayashi, C. K. Loong, and L. A. Boatner, “Raman study of phonon modes in ErVO4 single crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 90, 1843–1846(2001).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Xia, L. X. Li, H. J. Zhang, X. L. Meng, L. Zhu, Z. H. Yang, X. S. Liu, and J. Y. Wang, “Raman spectra and laser properties of Yb-doped yttrium orthovanadate crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 87, 269–273 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Benayas, D. Jaque, S. J. Hettrick, J. S. Wilkinson, and D. P. Shepherd, “Investigation of neodymium-diffused yttrium vanadate waveguides by confocal microluminescence,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 103104–103106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Xia, X. L. Meng, M. Guo, L. Zhu, H. J. Zhang, and J. Y. Wang, “Spectral parameters of Nd-doped yttrium orthovanadate crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 88, 5134–5137 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Cryst. Growth (1)

M. G. Hur, W. S. Yang, S. J. Suh, M. A. Ivanov, V. V. Kochurikhin, and D. H. Yoon, “Optical properties of EFG grown Nd:YVO4 single crystals dependent on Nd concentration,” J. Cryst. Growth 237–239, 745–748 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

M. E. Sánchez-Morales, G. V. Vázquez, H. Márquez, J. Rickards, and R. Trejo-Luna, “Optical waveguides formed in Nd:YVO4 crystals by C implantation,” J. Mod. Opt. 53, 539–545 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B (1)

J. F. Ziegler, “SRIM-2003,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 219–220, 1027–1036 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Opt. Mater. (5)

M. E. Sánchez-Morales, G. V. Vázquez, P. Moretti, and H. Márquez, “Optical waveguides in Nd:YVO4 crystals by multi-implants with protons and helium ions,” Opt. Mater. 29, 840–844 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. H. Liu, K. M. Wang, J. H. Zhao, S. M. Zhang, and M. Chen, “Annealing behavior of single mode planar waveguide in YVO4 produced by He ion implantation,” Opt. Mater. 33, 424–427 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Cali, F. Cornacchia, A. Di Lieto, F. Marchetti, and M. Tonelli, “Nd:YVO4 crystalline film grown by pulsed laser deposition,” Opt. Mater. 31, 1331–1333 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, X. Meng, L. Zhu, C. Wang, Y. T. Chow, and M. Lu, “Growth, spectra and influence of annealing effect on laser properties of Nd:YVO4 crystal,” Opt. Mater. 14, 25–30 (2000).
[CrossRef]

F. Chen, X. L. Wang, and K. M. Wang, “Development of ion-implanted optical waveguides in optical materials: a review,” Opt. Mater. 29, 1523–1542 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. (1)

S. A. Miller, H. H. Caspers, and H. E. Rast, “Lattice vibrations of yttrium vanadate,” Phys. Rev. 168, 964–969 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Surf. Sci. (1)

V. Buissette, A. Huignard, T. Gacoin, J. P. Boilot, P. Aschehoug, and B. Viana, “Luminescence properties of YVO4:Ln (Ln=Nd, Yb, and Yb-Er) nanoparticles,” Surf. Sci. 532–535, 444–449 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

A. A. Kaminskii, Laser Crystals: their Physics and Properties (Springer, 1990).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Comparison of room temperature optical transmission coefficients of Nd : YVO 4 ( 10 mm × 10 mm × 1.5 mm ) before (solid curve) and after (dashed curve) He ion implantation. The decreases of the transmission coefficients correspond to the absorption bands. All transitions start from the I 9 / 2 4 level to the marked levels.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Nonpolarized fluorescence spectra of Nd : YVO 4 at room temperature in the substrate (solid curve) and the waveguide (curve line) regions. (b) Fluorescence lifetime of the F 3 / 2 4 level of Nd : YVO 4 ( ( at.2%) .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Raman spectrum of z-cut Nd : YVO 4 ( ( at.2%) ) recorded on the end face, in the substrate (solid curve) and the waveguide (dashed curve) regions after annealing treatment.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Damage distribution and (b) He concentration profiles for multienergy He ion implanted in Nd : YVO 4 calculated by SRIM 2003.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Measured relative intensity of the TE polarized light reflected from the prism versus the ordinary refractive index ( n o ) of the incident light for waveguides before (solid curve) and after (dashed curve) annealing. The dotted line indicates the ordinary refractive index in the substrate. (b) The refractive index of bulk at the wavelength of 633 nm .

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Near-field light intensity distributions of the TE polarized light through the Nd : YVO 4 waveguide after annealing at 600 K for 30 minutes under (a) 2D and (b) 3D condition, respectively.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

RBS/channeling spectra of the He ion implanted Nd : YVO 4 crystal before (dashed curve) and after (solid curve) annealing at 600 K for 30 min . Virgin (-○-) and random spectra (-♦-) are reported for reference.

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