Abstract

Optical security devices applied to banknotes and other documents are exposed to different types of harsh environments involving the cycling of temperature, humidity, chemical agents, and tribomechanical intrusion. In the present work, we study the stability of optically variable devices, namely metameric interference filters, prepared by dual ion beam sputtering onto polycarbonate and glass substrates. Specifically, we assess the color difference as well as the changes in the mechanical properties and integrity of all-dielectric and metal–dielectric systems due to exposure to bleach, detergent and acetone agents, and heat and humidity. The results underline a significant role of the substrate material, of the interfaces, and of the nature and microstructure of the deposited films in long term stability under everyday application conditions.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. L. Setlakwe and L. A. DiNunzio, “Comparative analysis of public opinion research in the U. S. and Canada,” Proc. SPIE 5310, 13–24 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. van Renesse, Optical Document Security, 2nd ed. (Artech House, 1998).
  3. J. A. Dobrowolski, F. C. Ho, and A. Waldorf, “Research on thin film anticounterfeiting coatings at the National Research Council of Canada,” Appl. Opt. 28, 2702–2717 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. R. W. Phillips and A. F. Bleikolm, “Optical coatings for document security,” Appl. Opt. 35, 5529–5534 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. B. Baloukas and L. Martinu, “Metameric interference security image structures,” Appl. Opt. 47, 1585–1593 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. B. Baloukas, J.-M. Lamarre, and L. Martinu, “Active metameric security devices using an electrochromic material,” Appl. Opt. 50, C41–C49 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. B. Baloukas, J.-M. Lamarre, and L. Martinu, “Electrochromic interference filters fabricated from dense and porous tungsten oxide films,” Solar Energy Mater. Solar Cells 95, 807–815 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  8. W. J. Bartz, “Durability of optically variable devices on bank notes,” Proc. SPIE 4677, 81–88 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  9. L. Martinu and J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, “Optical coatings on plastics,” in Optical Interference Filters, N. Kaiser and H.Pulker, eds. (Springer, 2004), pp. 460–489.
  10. E. Kay and S. M. Rossnagel, “The modification of films by ion bombardment,” in Handbook of Ion Beam Processing Technology, J.J.Cuomo, S.M.Rossnagel, and H.R.Kaufman, eds. (Noyes, 1989), pp. 170–193.
  11. L. Martinu and D. Poitras, “Plasma deposition of optical films and coatings: a review,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 18, 2619–2645(2000).
    [CrossRef]
  12. L. Martinu, O. Zabeida, and J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, “Plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition of functional coatings,” in Handbook of Deposition Technologies for Films and Coatings, 3rd ed., P.M.Martin, ed. (Elsevier, 2010), pp. 394–467.
  13. L. Martinu, B. Hichwa, and J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, “Advances in optical coatings stimulated by the development of deposition techniques and the control of ion bombardment,” in 50 Years of Vacuum Coating Technology, D.M.Mattox and V.H.Mattox, eds. (Society of Vacuum Coaters, 2007), pp. 56–69.
  14. E. Çetinörgü, B. Baloukas, O. Zabeida, J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, and L. Martinu, “Mechanical and thermoelastic characteristics of optical thin films deposited by dual ion beam sputtering,” Appl. Opt. 48, 4536–4544 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. S. Larouche and L. Martinu, “OpenFilters: open-source software for the design, optimization, and synthesis of optical filters,” Appl. Opt. 47, C219–C230 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. B. Baloukas, S. Larouche, and L. Martinu, “Playing with light. the quest for new optically variable devices,” in 48th Annual Technical Conference Proceedings (Society of Vacuum Coaters, 2005), pp. 381–386.
  17. B. Baloukas, S. Larouche, and L. Martinu, “Use of metameric filters for future interference security image structures,” Proc. SPIE 6075, 60750T (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  18. B. Hill, T. Roger, and F. W. Vorhagen, “Comparative analysis of quantization of color spaces on the basis of the CIELAB color-difference formula,” ACM Trans. Graph. 16, 109–154 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  19. W. C. Oliver and G. M. Pharr, “An improved technique for determining hardness and elastic modulus using load and displacement sensing indentation experiments,” J. Mater. Res. 7, 1564–1583 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  20. J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, J. Oberste-Berghaus, L. Martinu, R. Blacker, I. Stevenson, G. Sadkhin, D. Morton, S. McEldowney, R. Klinger, P. J. Martin, N. Court, S. Dligatch, M. Gross, and R. P. Netterfield, “Mechanical characteristics of optical coatings prepared by various techniques: a comparative study,” Appl. Opt. 43, 2670–2679 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. M. Ohring, Materials Science of Thin Films (Academic, 1991).
  22. C. C. Lee, C. L. Tien, and J. C. Hsu, “Internal stress and optical properties of Nb2O5 thin films deposited by ion beam sputtering,” Appl. Opt. 41, 2043–2047 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. B. Hunsche, M. Vergöhl, H. Neuhauser, F. Klose, B. Szyszka, and T. Matthee, “Effect of deposition parameters on optical and mechanical properties of Mf- and DC- sputtered Nb2O5 films,” Thin Solid Films 392, 184–190 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  24. D. Rats, D. Poitras, J. M. Soro, L. Martinu, and J. von Stebut, “Mechanical properties of plasma-deposited silicon–based inhomogeneous optical coatings,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 111, 220–228 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  25. L. Martinu, “Plasma deposition and testing of hard coatings on plastics,” in Plasma Processing Polymers, R.d’Agostino, P.Favia, and F.Fracassi, eds. (Kluwer Academic, 1997), pp. 247–272.
  26. P. J. Burnett and D. S. Rickerby, “The relationship between hardness and scratch adhession,” Thin Solid Films 154, 403–416 (1987).
    [CrossRef]

2011 (2)

B. Baloukas, J.-M. Lamarre, and L. Martinu, “Electrochromic interference filters fabricated from dense and porous tungsten oxide films,” Solar Energy Mater. Solar Cells 95, 807–815 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. Baloukas, J.-M. Lamarre, and L. Martinu, “Active metameric security devices using an electrochromic material,” Appl. Opt. 50, C41–C49 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

2008 (2)

2006 (1)

B. Baloukas, S. Larouche, and L. Martinu, “Use of metameric filters for future interference security image structures,” Proc. SPIE 6075, 60750T (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

2002 (2)

2001 (1)

B. Hunsche, M. Vergöhl, H. Neuhauser, F. Klose, B. Szyszka, and T. Matthee, “Effect of deposition parameters on optical and mechanical properties of Mf- and DC- sputtered Nb2O5 films,” Thin Solid Films 392, 184–190 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

L. Martinu and D. Poitras, “Plasma deposition of optical films and coatings: a review,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 18, 2619–2645(2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

D. Rats, D. Poitras, J. M. Soro, L. Martinu, and J. von Stebut, “Mechanical properties of plasma-deposited silicon–based inhomogeneous optical coatings,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 111, 220–228 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

B. Hill, T. Roger, and F. W. Vorhagen, “Comparative analysis of quantization of color spaces on the basis of the CIELAB color-difference formula,” ACM Trans. Graph. 16, 109–154 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1992 (1)

W. C. Oliver and G. M. Pharr, “An improved technique for determining hardness and elastic modulus using load and displacement sensing indentation experiments,” J. Mater. Res. 7, 1564–1583 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

1987 (1)

P. J. Burnett and D. S. Rickerby, “The relationship between hardness and scratch adhession,” Thin Solid Films 154, 403–416 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Baloukas, B.

B. Baloukas, J.-M. Lamarre, and L. Martinu, “Active metameric security devices using an electrochromic material,” Appl. Opt. 50, C41–C49 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Baloukas, J.-M. Lamarre, and L. Martinu, “Electrochromic interference filters fabricated from dense and porous tungsten oxide films,” Solar Energy Mater. Solar Cells 95, 807–815 (2011).
[CrossRef]

E. Çetinörgü, B. Baloukas, O. Zabeida, J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, and L. Martinu, “Mechanical and thermoelastic characteristics of optical thin films deposited by dual ion beam sputtering,” Appl. Opt. 48, 4536–4544 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Baloukas and L. Martinu, “Metameric interference security image structures,” Appl. Opt. 47, 1585–1593 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Baloukas, S. Larouche, and L. Martinu, “Use of metameric filters for future interference security image structures,” Proc. SPIE 6075, 60750T (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. Baloukas, S. Larouche, and L. Martinu, “Playing with light. the quest for new optically variable devices,” in 48th Annual Technical Conference Proceedings (Society of Vacuum Coaters, 2005), pp. 381–386.

Bartz, W. J.

W. J. Bartz, “Durability of optically variable devices on bank notes,” Proc. SPIE 4677, 81–88 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Blacker, R.

Bleikolm, A. F.

Burnett, P. J.

P. J. Burnett and D. S. Rickerby, “The relationship between hardness and scratch adhession,” Thin Solid Films 154, 403–416 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Çetinörgü,

Court, N.

DiNunzio, L. A.

L. Setlakwe and L. A. DiNunzio, “Comparative analysis of public opinion research in the U. S. and Canada,” Proc. SPIE 5310, 13–24 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dligatch, S.

Dobrowolski, J. A.

Gross, M.

Hichwa, B.

L. Martinu, B. Hichwa, and J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, “Advances in optical coatings stimulated by the development of deposition techniques and the control of ion bombardment,” in 50 Years of Vacuum Coating Technology, D.M.Mattox and V.H.Mattox, eds. (Society of Vacuum Coaters, 2007), pp. 56–69.

Hill, B.

B. Hill, T. Roger, and F. W. Vorhagen, “Comparative analysis of quantization of color spaces on the basis of the CIELAB color-difference formula,” ACM Trans. Graph. 16, 109–154 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ho, F. C.

Hsu, J. C.

Hunsche, B.

B. Hunsche, M. Vergöhl, H. Neuhauser, F. Klose, B. Szyszka, and T. Matthee, “Effect of deposition parameters on optical and mechanical properties of Mf- and DC- sputtered Nb2O5 films,” Thin Solid Films 392, 184–190 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kay, E.

E. Kay and S. M. Rossnagel, “The modification of films by ion bombardment,” in Handbook of Ion Beam Processing Technology, J.J.Cuomo, S.M.Rossnagel, and H.R.Kaufman, eds. (Noyes, 1989), pp. 170–193.

Klemberg-Sapieha, J. E.

E. Çetinörgü, B. Baloukas, O. Zabeida, J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, and L. Martinu, “Mechanical and thermoelastic characteristics of optical thin films deposited by dual ion beam sputtering,” Appl. Opt. 48, 4536–4544 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, J. Oberste-Berghaus, L. Martinu, R. Blacker, I. Stevenson, G. Sadkhin, D. Morton, S. McEldowney, R. Klinger, P. J. Martin, N. Court, S. Dligatch, M. Gross, and R. P. Netterfield, “Mechanical characteristics of optical coatings prepared by various techniques: a comparative study,” Appl. Opt. 43, 2670–2679 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Martinu, O. Zabeida, and J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, “Plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition of functional coatings,” in Handbook of Deposition Technologies for Films and Coatings, 3rd ed., P.M.Martin, ed. (Elsevier, 2010), pp. 394–467.

L. Martinu and J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, “Optical coatings on plastics,” in Optical Interference Filters, N. Kaiser and H.Pulker, eds. (Springer, 2004), pp. 460–489.

L. Martinu, B. Hichwa, and J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, “Advances in optical coatings stimulated by the development of deposition techniques and the control of ion bombardment,” in 50 Years of Vacuum Coating Technology, D.M.Mattox and V.H.Mattox, eds. (Society of Vacuum Coaters, 2007), pp. 56–69.

Klinger, R.

Klose, F.

B. Hunsche, M. Vergöhl, H. Neuhauser, F. Klose, B. Szyszka, and T. Matthee, “Effect of deposition parameters on optical and mechanical properties of Mf- and DC- sputtered Nb2O5 films,” Thin Solid Films 392, 184–190 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lamarre, J.-M.

B. Baloukas, J.-M. Lamarre, and L. Martinu, “Active metameric security devices using an electrochromic material,” Appl. Opt. 50, C41–C49 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Baloukas, J.-M. Lamarre, and L. Martinu, “Electrochromic interference filters fabricated from dense and porous tungsten oxide films,” Solar Energy Mater. Solar Cells 95, 807–815 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Larouche, S.

S. Larouche and L. Martinu, “OpenFilters: open-source software for the design, optimization, and synthesis of optical filters,” Appl. Opt. 47, C219–C230 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Baloukas, S. Larouche, and L. Martinu, “Use of metameric filters for future interference security image structures,” Proc. SPIE 6075, 60750T (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. Baloukas, S. Larouche, and L. Martinu, “Playing with light. the quest for new optically variable devices,” in 48th Annual Technical Conference Proceedings (Society of Vacuum Coaters, 2005), pp. 381–386.

Lee, C. C.

Martin, P. J.

Martinu, L.

B. Baloukas, J.-M. Lamarre, and L. Martinu, “Electrochromic interference filters fabricated from dense and porous tungsten oxide films,” Solar Energy Mater. Solar Cells 95, 807–815 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. Baloukas, J.-M. Lamarre, and L. Martinu, “Active metameric security devices using an electrochromic material,” Appl. Opt. 50, C41–C49 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Çetinörgü, B. Baloukas, O. Zabeida, J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, and L. Martinu, “Mechanical and thermoelastic characteristics of optical thin films deposited by dual ion beam sputtering,” Appl. Opt. 48, 4536–4544 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Baloukas and L. Martinu, “Metameric interference security image structures,” Appl. Opt. 47, 1585–1593 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Larouche and L. Martinu, “OpenFilters: open-source software for the design, optimization, and synthesis of optical filters,” Appl. Opt. 47, C219–C230 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Baloukas, S. Larouche, and L. Martinu, “Use of metameric filters for future interference security image structures,” Proc. SPIE 6075, 60750T (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, J. Oberste-Berghaus, L. Martinu, R. Blacker, I. Stevenson, G. Sadkhin, D. Morton, S. McEldowney, R. Klinger, P. J. Martin, N. Court, S. Dligatch, M. Gross, and R. P. Netterfield, “Mechanical characteristics of optical coatings prepared by various techniques: a comparative study,” Appl. Opt. 43, 2670–2679 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Martinu and D. Poitras, “Plasma deposition of optical films and coatings: a review,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 18, 2619–2645(2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Rats, D. Poitras, J. M. Soro, L. Martinu, and J. von Stebut, “Mechanical properties of plasma-deposited silicon–based inhomogeneous optical coatings,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 111, 220–228 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. Martinu, B. Hichwa, and J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, “Advances in optical coatings stimulated by the development of deposition techniques and the control of ion bombardment,” in 50 Years of Vacuum Coating Technology, D.M.Mattox and V.H.Mattox, eds. (Society of Vacuum Coaters, 2007), pp. 56–69.

L. Martinu and J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, “Optical coatings on plastics,” in Optical Interference Filters, N. Kaiser and H.Pulker, eds. (Springer, 2004), pp. 460–489.

L. Martinu, “Plasma deposition and testing of hard coatings on plastics,” in Plasma Processing Polymers, R.d’Agostino, P.Favia, and F.Fracassi, eds. (Kluwer Academic, 1997), pp. 247–272.

L. Martinu, O. Zabeida, and J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, “Plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition of functional coatings,” in Handbook of Deposition Technologies for Films and Coatings, 3rd ed., P.M.Martin, ed. (Elsevier, 2010), pp. 394–467.

B. Baloukas, S. Larouche, and L. Martinu, “Playing with light. the quest for new optically variable devices,” in 48th Annual Technical Conference Proceedings (Society of Vacuum Coaters, 2005), pp. 381–386.

Matthee, T.

B. Hunsche, M. Vergöhl, H. Neuhauser, F. Klose, B. Szyszka, and T. Matthee, “Effect of deposition parameters on optical and mechanical properties of Mf- and DC- sputtered Nb2O5 films,” Thin Solid Films 392, 184–190 (2001).
[CrossRef]

McEldowney, S.

Morton, D.

Netterfield, R. P.

Neuhauser, H.

B. Hunsche, M. Vergöhl, H. Neuhauser, F. Klose, B. Szyszka, and T. Matthee, “Effect of deposition parameters on optical and mechanical properties of Mf- and DC- sputtered Nb2O5 films,” Thin Solid Films 392, 184–190 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Oberste-Berghaus, J.

Ohring, M.

M. Ohring, Materials Science of Thin Films (Academic, 1991).

Oliver, W. C.

W. C. Oliver and G. M. Pharr, “An improved technique for determining hardness and elastic modulus using load and displacement sensing indentation experiments,” J. Mater. Res. 7, 1564–1583 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Pharr, G. M.

W. C. Oliver and G. M. Pharr, “An improved technique for determining hardness and elastic modulus using load and displacement sensing indentation experiments,” J. Mater. Res. 7, 1564–1583 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Phillips, R. W.

Poitras, D.

L. Martinu and D. Poitras, “Plasma deposition of optical films and coatings: a review,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 18, 2619–2645(2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Rats, D. Poitras, J. M. Soro, L. Martinu, and J. von Stebut, “Mechanical properties of plasma-deposited silicon–based inhomogeneous optical coatings,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 111, 220–228 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rats, D.

D. Rats, D. Poitras, J. M. Soro, L. Martinu, and J. von Stebut, “Mechanical properties of plasma-deposited silicon–based inhomogeneous optical coatings,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 111, 220–228 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rickerby, D. S.

P. J. Burnett and D. S. Rickerby, “The relationship between hardness and scratch adhession,” Thin Solid Films 154, 403–416 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Roger, T.

B. Hill, T. Roger, and F. W. Vorhagen, “Comparative analysis of quantization of color spaces on the basis of the CIELAB color-difference formula,” ACM Trans. Graph. 16, 109–154 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rossnagel, S. M.

E. Kay and S. M. Rossnagel, “The modification of films by ion bombardment,” in Handbook of Ion Beam Processing Technology, J.J.Cuomo, S.M.Rossnagel, and H.R.Kaufman, eds. (Noyes, 1989), pp. 170–193.

Sadkhin, G.

Setlakwe, L.

L. Setlakwe and L. A. DiNunzio, “Comparative analysis of public opinion research in the U. S. and Canada,” Proc. SPIE 5310, 13–24 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Soro, J. M.

D. Rats, D. Poitras, J. M. Soro, L. Martinu, and J. von Stebut, “Mechanical properties of plasma-deposited silicon–based inhomogeneous optical coatings,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 111, 220–228 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Stevenson, I.

Szyszka, B.

B. Hunsche, M. Vergöhl, H. Neuhauser, F. Klose, B. Szyszka, and T. Matthee, “Effect of deposition parameters on optical and mechanical properties of Mf- and DC- sputtered Nb2O5 films,” Thin Solid Films 392, 184–190 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tien, C. L.

van Renesse, R.

R. van Renesse, Optical Document Security, 2nd ed. (Artech House, 1998).

Vergöhl, M.

B. Hunsche, M. Vergöhl, H. Neuhauser, F. Klose, B. Szyszka, and T. Matthee, “Effect of deposition parameters on optical and mechanical properties of Mf- and DC- sputtered Nb2O5 films,” Thin Solid Films 392, 184–190 (2001).
[CrossRef]

von Stebut, J.

D. Rats, D. Poitras, J. M. Soro, L. Martinu, and J. von Stebut, “Mechanical properties of plasma-deposited silicon–based inhomogeneous optical coatings,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 111, 220–228 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Vorhagen, F. W.

B. Hill, T. Roger, and F. W. Vorhagen, “Comparative analysis of quantization of color spaces on the basis of the CIELAB color-difference formula,” ACM Trans. Graph. 16, 109–154 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Waldorf, A.

Zabeida, O.

E. Çetinörgü, B. Baloukas, O. Zabeida, J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, and L. Martinu, “Mechanical and thermoelastic characteristics of optical thin films deposited by dual ion beam sputtering,” Appl. Opt. 48, 4536–4544 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Martinu, O. Zabeida, and J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, “Plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition of functional coatings,” in Handbook of Deposition Technologies for Films and Coatings, 3rd ed., P.M.Martin, ed. (Elsevier, 2010), pp. 394–467.

ACM Trans. Graph. (1)

B. Hill, T. Roger, and F. W. Vorhagen, “Comparative analysis of quantization of color spaces on the basis of the CIELAB color-difference formula,” ACM Trans. Graph. 16, 109–154 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (8)

J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, J. Oberste-Berghaus, L. Martinu, R. Blacker, I. Stevenson, G. Sadkhin, D. Morton, S. McEldowney, R. Klinger, P. J. Martin, N. Court, S. Dligatch, M. Gross, and R. P. Netterfield, “Mechanical characteristics of optical coatings prepared by various techniques: a comparative study,” Appl. Opt. 43, 2670–2679 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Çetinörgü, B. Baloukas, O. Zabeida, J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, and L. Martinu, “Mechanical and thermoelastic characteristics of optical thin films deposited by dual ion beam sputtering,” Appl. Opt. 48, 4536–4544 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Larouche and L. Martinu, “OpenFilters: open-source software for the design, optimization, and synthesis of optical filters,” Appl. Opt. 47, C219–C230 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Dobrowolski, F. C. Ho, and A. Waldorf, “Research on thin film anticounterfeiting coatings at the National Research Council of Canada,” Appl. Opt. 28, 2702–2717 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. W. Phillips and A. F. Bleikolm, “Optical coatings for document security,” Appl. Opt. 35, 5529–5534 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Baloukas and L. Martinu, “Metameric interference security image structures,” Appl. Opt. 47, 1585–1593 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Baloukas, J.-M. Lamarre, and L. Martinu, “Active metameric security devices using an electrochromic material,” Appl. Opt. 50, C41–C49 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. C. Lee, C. L. Tien, and J. C. Hsu, “Internal stress and optical properties of Nb2O5 thin films deposited by ion beam sputtering,” Appl. Opt. 41, 2043–2047 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Mater. Res. (1)

W. C. Oliver and G. M. Pharr, “An improved technique for determining hardness and elastic modulus using load and displacement sensing indentation experiments,” J. Mater. Res. 7, 1564–1583 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A (1)

L. Martinu and D. Poitras, “Plasma deposition of optical films and coatings: a review,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 18, 2619–2645(2000).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (3)

L. Setlakwe and L. A. DiNunzio, “Comparative analysis of public opinion research in the U. S. and Canada,” Proc. SPIE 5310, 13–24 (2004).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Bartz, “Durability of optically variable devices on bank notes,” Proc. SPIE 4677, 81–88 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. Baloukas, S. Larouche, and L. Martinu, “Use of metameric filters for future interference security image structures,” Proc. SPIE 6075, 60750T (2006).
[CrossRef]

Solar Energy Mater. Solar Cells (1)

B. Baloukas, J.-M. Lamarre, and L. Martinu, “Electrochromic interference filters fabricated from dense and porous tungsten oxide films,” Solar Energy Mater. Solar Cells 95, 807–815 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Surf. Coat. Technol. (1)

D. Rats, D. Poitras, J. M. Soro, L. Martinu, and J. von Stebut, “Mechanical properties of plasma-deposited silicon–based inhomogeneous optical coatings,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 111, 220–228 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films (2)

B. Hunsche, M. Vergöhl, H. Neuhauser, F. Klose, B. Szyszka, and T. Matthee, “Effect of deposition parameters on optical and mechanical properties of Mf- and DC- sputtered Nb2O5 films,” Thin Solid Films 392, 184–190 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Burnett and D. S. Rickerby, “The relationship between hardness and scratch adhession,” Thin Solid Films 154, 403–416 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Other (8)

L. Martinu, “Plasma deposition and testing of hard coatings on plastics,” in Plasma Processing Polymers, R.d’Agostino, P.Favia, and F.Fracassi, eds. (Kluwer Academic, 1997), pp. 247–272.

L. Martinu and J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, “Optical coatings on plastics,” in Optical Interference Filters, N. Kaiser and H.Pulker, eds. (Springer, 2004), pp. 460–489.

E. Kay and S. M. Rossnagel, “The modification of films by ion bombardment,” in Handbook of Ion Beam Processing Technology, J.J.Cuomo, S.M.Rossnagel, and H.R.Kaufman, eds. (Noyes, 1989), pp. 170–193.

R. van Renesse, Optical Document Security, 2nd ed. (Artech House, 1998).

L. Martinu, O. Zabeida, and J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, “Plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition of functional coatings,” in Handbook of Deposition Technologies for Films and Coatings, 3rd ed., P.M.Martin, ed. (Elsevier, 2010), pp. 394–467.

L. Martinu, B. Hichwa, and J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, “Advances in optical coatings stimulated by the development of deposition techniques and the control of ion bombardment,” in 50 Years of Vacuum Coating Technology, D.M.Mattox and V.H.Mattox, eds. (Society of Vacuum Coaters, 2007), pp. 56–69.

B. Baloukas, S. Larouche, and L. Martinu, “Playing with light. the quest for new optically variable devices,” in 48th Annual Technical Conference Proceedings (Society of Vacuum Coaters, 2005), pp. 381–386.

M. Ohring, Materials Science of Thin Films (Academic, 1991).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Optical transmission spectra of (a) Filter A, (b) Filter B, (c) Filter C, and (d) Filter D deposited on PC substrates before and after the laundry test.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Differential spectra between the optical transmissions (or reflections) before and after the laundry test for Filters A–D (a) on glass and (b) on PC.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Differential spectra between the optical transmissions before and after the bleach test for Filters A and B on glass and on PC.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Differential spectra between the optical transmissions before and after the humidity test for Filters A and B on PC.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Differential spectra between the optical transmissions (or reflections) before and after the extended high temperature test ( 720 h ) for Filters A–D on PC.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Differential spectra between the optical transmissions (or reflections) before and after the exposure to acetone for Filters A–D on glass.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Typical load-displacement ( F - h ) curves of (a) Filter A and (b) Filter B before and after the humidity test.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Optical microscope images of the wear tracks for Filter A on glass following the multipass alumina ball test using (a)  1 N , (b)  2 N , and (c)  3 N loads.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Optical microscope images of the microscratch patterns for Filter A deposited on PC: (a), (b) as deposited, (c), (d) heat treated, and (e), (f) exposed to high humidity.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Optical microscope images of the scratch patterns for Filter B deposited on PC: (a), (b) as-deposited, (c), (d) heat treated.

Tables (5)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Structure, Total Thickness, and Color Coordinates of the As-Deposited Filters A–D a

Tables Icon

Table 2 Optical Constants at 550 nm for All Materials Used in This Study

Tables Icon

Table 3 Color Difference between That Obtained for As-Deposited Filters and That Obtained after Each Individual Test for Three Different Illuminants

Tables Icon

Table 4 H and E r Values for Filters A–D Deposited on c-Si before and after Selected Stability Tests

Tables Icon

Table 5 Critical Load Values for Filters A-D Deposited on c-Si before and after Selected Stability Tests

Metrics