Abstract

Single point diamond turning (SPDT) is highly controllable and versatile in producing axially symmetric forms, non-axially-symmetric forms, microstructured surfaces, and free forms. However, the fine SPDT marks left in the surface limit its performance, and they are difficult to reduce or eliminate. It is unpractical for traditional methods to remove the fine marks without destroying their forms, especially for the aspheres and free forms. This paper introduces abrasive jet polishing (AJP) for the posttreatment of diamond-turned surfaces to remove the periodic microstructures. Samples of diamond-turned electroless nickel plated plano mirror were used in the experiments. One sample with an original surface roughness of more than 400nm decreased to 4nm after two iterations abrasive jet polishing; the surface roughness of another sample went from 3.7nm to 1.4nm after polishing. The periodic signatures on both of the samples were removed entirely after polishing. Contrastive experimental research was carried out on electroless nickel mirror with magnetorheological finishing, computer controlled optical surfacing, and AJP. The experimental results indicate that AJP is more appropriate in removing the periodic SPDT marks. Also, a figure maintaining experiment was carried out with the AJP process; the uniform polishing process shows that the AJP process can remove the periodic turning marks without destroying the original form.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  5. D. W. Kim, S. W. Kim, and J. H. Burge, “Non-sequential optimization technique for a computer controlled optical surfacing process using multiple tool influence functions,” Opt. Express 17, 21850–21866 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  11. http://www.zeeko.co.uk/site/tiki-read_article.php?articleId=6.
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  14. H. Fang, P. J. Guo, and J. C. Yu, “Optimization of the material removal in fluid jet polishing,” Opt. Eng. 45, 053401 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  15. C. Supranowitz, C. Hall, P. Dumas, and B. Hallcok, “Improving surface figure and microroughness of IR materials and diamond turned surfaces with magnetorheological finishing (MRF),” Proc. SPIE 6545, 65450S (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  16. R. Steinkopf, A. Gebhardt, S. Scheiding, M. Rohde, O. Stenzel, S. Gliech, A. Duparre, S. Risse, R. Eberhardt, A. Tünnermann, V. Giggel, H. Löscher, G. Ullrich, and P. Rucks, “Metal mirrors with excellent figure and roughness,” Proc. SPIE 7102, 71020C (2008).
    [CrossRef]

2010 (2)

K. S. Chon and Y. Namba, “Single-point diamond turning of electroless nickel for flat X-ray mirror,” J. Mech. Sci. Technol. 24, 1603–1609 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Z. Li, S. Y. Li, Y. F. Dai, and X. Q. Peng, “Optimization and application of influence function in abrasive jet polishing,” Appl. Opt. 49, 2947–2953 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

2008 (1)

R. Steinkopf, A. Gebhardt, S. Scheiding, M. Rohde, O. Stenzel, S. Gliech, A. Duparre, S. Risse, R. Eberhardt, A. Tünnermann, V. Giggel, H. Löscher, G. Ullrich, and P. Rucks, “Metal mirrors with excellent figure and roughness,” Proc. SPIE 7102, 71020C (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

C. Supranowitz, C. Hall, P. Dumas, and B. Hallcok, “Improving surface figure and microroughness of IR materials and diamond turned surfaces with magnetorheological finishing (MRF),” Proc. SPIE 6545, 65450S (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. W. Chastagner and A. J. Shih, “Abrasive jet machining for edge generation,” in Transactions of NAMRI/SME, Vol. 35 (2007), pp. 359–366.

2006 (2)

K. S. Chon, Y. Namba, and K. H. Yoon, “Precision machining of electroless nickel mandrel and fabrication of replicated mirrors for a soft x-ray microscope,” JSME Int. J. Ser. C 49, 56–62 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Fang, P. J. Guo, and J. C. Yu, “Optimization of the material removal in fluid jet polishing,” Opt. Eng. 45, 053401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

H. Y. Wu, W. B. Lee, C. F. Cheung, S. To, and Y. P. Chen, “Computer simulation of single-point diamond turning using finite element method,” J. Mater. Process. Technol. 167, 549–554(2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

A. Shorey, W. Kordonski, and M. Tricard, “Magnetorheological finishing of large and lightweight optics,” Proc. SPIE 5533, 99–107 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

2002 (1)

S. M. Booij, H. V. Brug, J. J. M. Braat, and O. W. Fähnle, “Nanometer deep shaping with fluid jet polishing,” Opt. Eng. 41, 1926–1931 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

1995 (1)

S. C. Fawcett and D. Engelhaupt, “Development of Wolter I x-ray optics by diamond turning and electrochemical replication,” Precis. Eng. 17, 290–297 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Booij, S. M.

S. M. Booij, H. V. Brug, J. J. M. Braat, and O. W. Fähnle, “Nanometer deep shaping with fluid jet polishing,” Opt. Eng. 41, 1926–1931 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Braat, J. J. M.

S. M. Booij, H. V. Brug, J. J. M. Braat, and O. W. Fähnle, “Nanometer deep shaping with fluid jet polishing,” Opt. Eng. 41, 1926–1931 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Brooks, D.

Brug, H. V.

S. M. Booij, H. V. Brug, J. J. M. Braat, and O. W. Fähnle, “Nanometer deep shaping with fluid jet polishing,” Opt. Eng. 41, 1926–1931 (2002).
[CrossRef]

O. W. Fähnle, H. V. Brug, and H. J. Frankena, “Fluid jet polishing of optical surface,” Appl. Opt. 37, 6771–6773(1998).
[CrossRef]

Burge, J. H.

Chastagner, M. W.

M. W. Chastagner and A. J. Shih, “Abrasive jet machining for edge generation,” in Transactions of NAMRI/SME, Vol. 35 (2007), pp. 359–366.

Chen, Y. P.

H. Y. Wu, W. B. Lee, C. F. Cheung, S. To, and Y. P. Chen, “Computer simulation of single-point diamond turning using finite element method,” J. Mater. Process. Technol. 167, 549–554(2005).
[CrossRef]

Cheung, C. F.

H. Y. Wu, W. B. Lee, C. F. Cheung, S. To, and Y. P. Chen, “Computer simulation of single-point diamond turning using finite element method,” J. Mater. Process. Technol. 167, 549–554(2005).
[CrossRef]

Chon, K. S.

K. S. Chon and Y. Namba, “Single-point diamond turning of electroless nickel for flat X-ray mirror,” J. Mech. Sci. Technol. 24, 1603–1609 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. S. Chon, Y. Namba, and K. H. Yoon, “Precision machining of electroless nickel mandrel and fabrication of replicated mirrors for a soft x-ray microscope,” JSME Int. J. Ser. C 49, 56–62 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dai, Y. F.

Dumas, P.

C. Supranowitz, C. Hall, P. Dumas, and B. Hallcok, “Improving surface figure and microroughness of IR materials and diamond turned surfaces with magnetorheological finishing (MRF),” Proc. SPIE 6545, 65450S (2007).
[CrossRef]

Duparre, A.

R. Steinkopf, A. Gebhardt, S. Scheiding, M. Rohde, O. Stenzel, S. Gliech, A. Duparre, S. Risse, R. Eberhardt, A. Tünnermann, V. Giggel, H. Löscher, G. Ullrich, and P. Rucks, “Metal mirrors with excellent figure and roughness,” Proc. SPIE 7102, 71020C (2008).
[CrossRef]

Eberhardt, R.

R. Steinkopf, A. Gebhardt, S. Scheiding, M. Rohde, O. Stenzel, S. Gliech, A. Duparre, S. Risse, R. Eberhardt, A. Tünnermann, V. Giggel, H. Löscher, G. Ullrich, and P. Rucks, “Metal mirrors with excellent figure and roughness,” Proc. SPIE 7102, 71020C (2008).
[CrossRef]

Engelhaupt, D.

S. C. Fawcett and D. Engelhaupt, “Development of Wolter I x-ray optics by diamond turning and electrochemical replication,” Precis. Eng. 17, 290–297 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Fähnle, O. W.

S. M. Booij, H. V. Brug, J. J. M. Braat, and O. W. Fähnle, “Nanometer deep shaping with fluid jet polishing,” Opt. Eng. 41, 1926–1931 (2002).
[CrossRef]

O. W. Fähnle, H. V. Brug, and H. J. Frankena, “Fluid jet polishing of optical surface,” Appl. Opt. 37, 6771–6773(1998).
[CrossRef]

Fang, H.

H. Fang, P. J. Guo, and J. C. Yu, “Optimization of the material removal in fluid jet polishing,” Opt. Eng. 45, 053401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fawcett, S. C.

S. C. Fawcett and D. Engelhaupt, “Development of Wolter I x-ray optics by diamond turning and electrochemical replication,” Precis. Eng. 17, 290–297 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Frankena, H. J.

Freeman, R.

Gebhardt, A.

R. Steinkopf, A. Gebhardt, S. Scheiding, M. Rohde, O. Stenzel, S. Gliech, A. Duparre, S. Risse, R. Eberhardt, A. Tünnermann, V. Giggel, H. Löscher, G. Ullrich, and P. Rucks, “Metal mirrors with excellent figure and roughness,” Proc. SPIE 7102, 71020C (2008).
[CrossRef]

Giggel, V.

R. Steinkopf, A. Gebhardt, S. Scheiding, M. Rohde, O. Stenzel, S. Gliech, A. Duparre, S. Risse, R. Eberhardt, A. Tünnermann, V. Giggel, H. Löscher, G. Ullrich, and P. Rucks, “Metal mirrors with excellent figure and roughness,” Proc. SPIE 7102, 71020C (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gliech, S.

R. Steinkopf, A. Gebhardt, S. Scheiding, M. Rohde, O. Stenzel, S. Gliech, A. Duparre, S. Risse, R. Eberhardt, A. Tünnermann, V. Giggel, H. Löscher, G. Ullrich, and P. Rucks, “Metal mirrors with excellent figure and roughness,” Proc. SPIE 7102, 71020C (2008).
[CrossRef]

Guo, P. J.

H. Fang, P. J. Guo, and J. C. Yu, “Optimization of the material removal in fluid jet polishing,” Opt. Eng. 45, 053401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hall, C.

C. Supranowitz, C. Hall, P. Dumas, and B. Hallcok, “Improving surface figure and microroughness of IR materials and diamond turned surfaces with magnetorheological finishing (MRF),” Proc. SPIE 6545, 65450S (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hallcok, B.

C. Supranowitz, C. Hall, P. Dumas, and B. Hallcok, “Improving surface figure and microroughness of IR materials and diamond turned surfaces with magnetorheological finishing (MRF),” Proc. SPIE 6545, 65450S (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jiao, C. J.

Kim, D. W.

Kim, S. W.

Kim, S.-W.

King, A.

Kordonski, W.

A. Shorey, W. Kordonski, and M. Tricard, “Magnetorheological finishing of large and lightweight optics,” Proc. SPIE 5533, 99–107 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lee, W. B.

H. Y. Wu, W. B. Lee, C. F. Cheung, S. To, and Y. P. Chen, “Computer simulation of single-point diamond turning using finite element method,” J. Mater. Process. Technol. 167, 549–554(2005).
[CrossRef]

Li, S. Y.

Li, Z. Z.

Löscher, H.

R. Steinkopf, A. Gebhardt, S. Scheiding, M. Rohde, O. Stenzel, S. Gliech, A. Duparre, S. Risse, R. Eberhardt, A. Tünnermann, V. Giggel, H. Löscher, G. Ullrich, and P. Rucks, “Metal mirrors with excellent figure and roughness,” Proc. SPIE 7102, 71020C (2008).
[CrossRef]

McCavana, G.

Morton, R.

Namba, Y.

K. S. Chon and Y. Namba, “Single-point diamond turning of electroless nickel for flat X-ray mirror,” J. Mech. Sci. Technol. 24, 1603–1609 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. S. Chon, Y. Namba, and K. H. Yoon, “Precision machining of electroless nickel mandrel and fabrication of replicated mirrors for a soft x-ray microscope,” JSME Int. J. Ser. C 49, 56–62 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Peng, X. Q.

Risse, S.

R. Steinkopf, A. Gebhardt, S. Scheiding, M. Rohde, O. Stenzel, S. Gliech, A. Duparre, S. Risse, R. Eberhardt, A. Tünnermann, V. Giggel, H. Löscher, G. Ullrich, and P. Rucks, “Metal mirrors with excellent figure and roughness,” Proc. SPIE 7102, 71020C (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rohde, M.

R. Steinkopf, A. Gebhardt, S. Scheiding, M. Rohde, O. Stenzel, S. Gliech, A. Duparre, S. Risse, R. Eberhardt, A. Tünnermann, V. Giggel, H. Löscher, G. Ullrich, and P. Rucks, “Metal mirrors with excellent figure and roughness,” Proc. SPIE 7102, 71020C (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rucks, P.

R. Steinkopf, A. Gebhardt, S. Scheiding, M. Rohde, O. Stenzel, S. Gliech, A. Duparre, S. Risse, R. Eberhardt, A. Tünnermann, V. Giggel, H. Löscher, G. Ullrich, and P. Rucks, “Metal mirrors with excellent figure and roughness,” Proc. SPIE 7102, 71020C (2008).
[CrossRef]

Scheiding, S.

R. Steinkopf, A. Gebhardt, S. Scheiding, M. Rohde, O. Stenzel, S. Gliech, A. Duparre, S. Risse, R. Eberhardt, A. Tünnermann, V. Giggel, H. Löscher, G. Ullrich, and P. Rucks, “Metal mirrors with excellent figure and roughness,” Proc. SPIE 7102, 71020C (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shih, A. J.

M. W. Chastagner and A. J. Shih, “Abrasive jet machining for edge generation,” in Transactions of NAMRI/SME, Vol. 35 (2007), pp. 359–366.

Shorey, A.

A. Shorey, W. Kordonski, and M. Tricard, “Magnetorheological finishing of large and lightweight optics,” Proc. SPIE 5533, 99–107 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Steinkopf, R.

R. Steinkopf, A. Gebhardt, S. Scheiding, M. Rohde, O. Stenzel, S. Gliech, A. Duparre, S. Risse, R. Eberhardt, A. Tünnermann, V. Giggel, H. Löscher, G. Ullrich, and P. Rucks, “Metal mirrors with excellent figure and roughness,” Proc. SPIE 7102, 71020C (2008).
[CrossRef]

Stenzel, O.

R. Steinkopf, A. Gebhardt, S. Scheiding, M. Rohde, O. Stenzel, S. Gliech, A. Duparre, S. Risse, R. Eberhardt, A. Tünnermann, V. Giggel, H. Löscher, G. Ullrich, and P. Rucks, “Metal mirrors with excellent figure and roughness,” Proc. SPIE 7102, 71020C (2008).
[CrossRef]

Supranowitz, C.

C. Supranowitz, C. Hall, P. Dumas, and B. Hallcok, “Improving surface figure and microroughness of IR materials and diamond turned surfaces with magnetorheological finishing (MRF),” Proc. SPIE 6545, 65450S (2007).
[CrossRef]

To, S.

H. Y. Wu, W. B. Lee, C. F. Cheung, S. To, and Y. P. Chen, “Computer simulation of single-point diamond turning using finite element method,” J. Mater. Process. Technol. 167, 549–554(2005).
[CrossRef]

Tricard, M.

A. Shorey, W. Kordonski, and M. Tricard, “Magnetorheological finishing of large and lightweight optics,” Proc. SPIE 5533, 99–107 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tünnermann, A.

R. Steinkopf, A. Gebhardt, S. Scheiding, M. Rohde, O. Stenzel, S. Gliech, A. Duparre, S. Risse, R. Eberhardt, A. Tünnermann, V. Giggel, H. Löscher, G. Ullrich, and P. Rucks, “Metal mirrors with excellent figure and roughness,” Proc. SPIE 7102, 71020C (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ullrich, G.

R. Steinkopf, A. Gebhardt, S. Scheiding, M. Rohde, O. Stenzel, S. Gliech, A. Duparre, S. Risse, R. Eberhardt, A. Tünnermann, V. Giggel, H. Löscher, G. Ullrich, and P. Rucks, “Metal mirrors with excellent figure and roughness,” Proc. SPIE 7102, 71020C (2008).
[CrossRef]

Walker, D. D.

Wu, H. Y.

H. Y. Wu, W. B. Lee, C. F. Cheung, S. To, and Y. P. Chen, “Computer simulation of single-point diamond turning using finite element method,” J. Mater. Process. Technol. 167, 549–554(2005).
[CrossRef]

Xie, X. H.

Yoon, K. H.

K. S. Chon, Y. Namba, and K. H. Yoon, “Precision machining of electroless nickel mandrel and fabrication of replicated mirrors for a soft x-ray microscope,” JSME Int. J. Ser. C 49, 56–62 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yu, J. C.

H. Fang, P. J. Guo, and J. C. Yu, “Optimization of the material removal in fluid jet polishing,” Opt. Eng. 45, 053401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (3)

J. Mater. Process. Technol. (1)

H. Y. Wu, W. B. Lee, C. F. Cheung, S. To, and Y. P. Chen, “Computer simulation of single-point diamond turning using finite element method,” J. Mater. Process. Technol. 167, 549–554(2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Mech. Sci. Technol. (1)

K. S. Chon and Y. Namba, “Single-point diamond turning of electroless nickel for flat X-ray mirror,” J. Mech. Sci. Technol. 24, 1603–1609 (2010).
[CrossRef]

JSME Int. J. Ser. C (1)

K. S. Chon, Y. Namba, and K. H. Yoon, “Precision machining of electroless nickel mandrel and fabrication of replicated mirrors for a soft x-ray microscope,” JSME Int. J. Ser. C 49, 56–62 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (2)

S. M. Booij, H. V. Brug, J. J. M. Braat, and O. W. Fähnle, “Nanometer deep shaping with fluid jet polishing,” Opt. Eng. 41, 1926–1931 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. Fang, P. J. Guo, and J. C. Yu, “Optimization of the material removal in fluid jet polishing,” Opt. Eng. 45, 053401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Precis. Eng. (1)

S. C. Fawcett and D. Engelhaupt, “Development of Wolter I x-ray optics by diamond turning and electrochemical replication,” Precis. Eng. 17, 290–297 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (3)

C. Supranowitz, C. Hall, P. Dumas, and B. Hallcok, “Improving surface figure and microroughness of IR materials and diamond turned surfaces with magnetorheological finishing (MRF),” Proc. SPIE 6545, 65450S (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Steinkopf, A. Gebhardt, S. Scheiding, M. Rohde, O. Stenzel, S. Gliech, A. Duparre, S. Risse, R. Eberhardt, A. Tünnermann, V. Giggel, H. Löscher, G. Ullrich, and P. Rucks, “Metal mirrors with excellent figure and roughness,” Proc. SPIE 7102, 71020C (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Shorey, W. Kordonski, and M. Tricard, “Magnetorheological finishing of large and lightweight optics,” Proc. SPIE 5533, 99–107 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

M. W. Chastagner and A. J. Shih, “Abrasive jet machining for edge generation,” in Transactions of NAMRI/SME, Vol. 35 (2007), pp. 359–366.

http://www.zeeko.co.uk/site/tiki-read_article.php?articleId=6.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Surfaces of the rough sample (a) before polishing, (b) after first polishing, and (c) after second polishing.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Analysis of PSD before and after polishing processes.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Surfaces of fine samples (a) before polishing, (b) after AJP, (c) after MRF, and (d) after CCOS.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Analysis of PSD curves obtained by different machining methods.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Comparison of convergence rates using different polishing methods.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Surface figure maintaining in uniform AJP process (a) before polishing, (b) after polishing; (c) PSD analysis before and after polishing.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Photos of the electroless nickel mirror (a) before polishing and (b) after uniformly polishing.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 SPDT Parameters for Different Samples

Tables Icon

Table 2 AJP Parameters for Different Samples

Metrics