Abstract

We report a phenomenon of spontaneous formation of self-organized 2D periodic arrays of nanostructures (protrusions) by directly exposing a silicon surface to multiple nanosecond laser pulses. These self- organized 2D periodic nanostructures are produced toward the edge as an annular region around the circular laser spot. The heights of these nanostructures are around 500nm with tip diameter ~100nm. The period of the nanostructures is about 1064nm, the wavelength of the incident radiation. In the central region of the laser spot, nanostructures are destroyed because of the higher laser intensity (due to the Gaussian shape of the laser beam) and accumulation of large number of laser pulses. Optical diffraction from these nanostructures indicates a threefold symmetry, which is in accordance with the observed morphological symmetries of these nanostructures.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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  4. A. Borowiec and H. K. Haugen, “Subwavelength ripple formation on the surfaces of compound semiconductors irradiated with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4462–4464 (2003).
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  6. B. K. Nayak and M. C. Gupta, “Ultrafast laser-induced self-organized conical micro/nano surface structures and their origin,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 48, 966–973 (2010).
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  7. B. K. Nayak, M. C. Gupta, and K. W. Kolasinski, “Ultrafast-laser-assisted chemical restructuring of silicon and germanium surfaces,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 253, 6580–6583 (2007).
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  8. B. K. Nayak and M. C. Gupta, “Femtosecond-laser-induced-crystallization and simultaneous formation of light trapping microstructures in thin a-Si:H films,” Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process. 89, 663–666 (2007).
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  15. D. Riedel, J. Hernandez-Pozos, E. Palmer, and K. Kolasinski, “Fabrication of ordered arrays of silicon cones by optical diffraction in ultrafast laser etching with SF6,” Appl. Phys. A 78, 381–385 (2004).
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  26. A. Medvid, Y. Fukuda, A. Michko, P. Onufrievs, and Y. Anma, “2D lattice formation by YAG:Nd laser on the surface of Ge single crystal,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 244, 120–123 (2005).
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  31. M. Meyyappan and R. S. Subramanian, “Thermocapillary migration of a gas bubble in an arbitrary direction with respect to a plane surface,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 115, 206–219 (1987).
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  32. J. C. Xiej, H. Lin, J. H. Han, X. Q. Dong, W. R. Hu, A. Hirata, and M. Sakurai, “Experimental investigation on Marangoni drop migrations using drop shaft facility,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 41, 2077–2081 (1998).
    [CrossRef]

2010 (3)

B. K. Nayak and M. C. Gupta, “Ultrafast laser-induced self-organized conical micro/nano surface structures and their origin,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 48, 966–973 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. K. Nayak and M. C. Gupta, “Self-organized micro/nano structures in metal surfaces by ultrafast laser irradiation,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 48, 940–949 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Xiao, T. Wu, and P. Y. Chiou, “Near field photothermal printing of gold microstructures and nanostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 031112–031113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

K. Nishioka and S. Horita, “Periodic arrays of submicron Si and Ni dots on SiO2 fabricated using linearly polarized Nd:YAG pulsed laser,” Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process. 91, 235–240 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. K. Nayak, M. C. Gupta, and K. W. Kolasinski, “Formation of nano-textured conical microstructures in titanium metal surface by femtosecond laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. A 90, 399–402 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (4)

B. K. Nayak, M. C. Gupta, and K. W. Kolasinski, “Ultrafast-laser-assisted chemical restructuring of silicon and germanium surfaces,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 253, 6580–6583 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. K. Nayak and M. C. Gupta, “Femtosecond-laser-induced-crystallization and simultaneous formation of light trapping microstructures in thin a-Si:H films,” Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process. 89, 663–666 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. K. Nayak, M. C. Gupta, and K. W. Kolasinski, “Spontaneous formation of nanospiked microstructures in germanium by femtosecond laser irradiation,” Nanotech. 18, 195302(2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. F. Guan, A. V. Melechko, A. J. Pedraza, M. L. Simpson, and P. D. Rack, “Non-lithographic organization of nickel catalyst for carbon nanofiber synthesis on laser-induced periodic surface structures,” Nanotech. 18, 335306–335307 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

L. Longstreth-Spoor, J. Trice, H. Garcia, C. Zhang, and R. Kalyanaraman, “Nanostructure and microstructure of laser-interference-induced dynamic patterning of Co on Si,” J. Phys. D 39, 5149–5159 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

A. Medvid, Y. Fukuda, A. Michko, P. Onufrievs, and Y. Anma, “2D lattice formation by YAG:Nd laser on the surface of Ge single crystal,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 244, 120–123 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. García-Santamaría, J. F. Galisteo-López, P. V. Braun, and C. López, “Optical diffraction and high-energy features in three-dimensional photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 195112 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

Y. F. Guan, A. J. Pedraza, J. D. Fowlkes, and D. A. Joy, “Nanostructures produced by ultraviolet laser irradiation of silicon. II. Nanoprotrusions and nanoparticles,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 22, 2836–2843 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Riedel, J. Hernandez-Pozos, E. Palmer, and K. Kolasinski, “Fabrication of ordered arrays of silicon cones by optical diffraction in ultrafast laser etching with SF6,” Appl. Phys. A 78, 381–385 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (3)

M. Y. Shen, C. H. Crouch, J. E. Carey, R. Younkin, E. Mazur, M. Sheehy, and C. M. Friend, “Formation of regular arrays of silicon microspikes by femtosecond laser irradiation through a mask,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1715–1717 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Borowiec and H. K. Haugen, “Subwavelength ripple formation on the surfaces of compound semiconductors irradiated with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4462–4464 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. Lu, S. Theppakuttai, and S. C. Chen, “Marangoni effect in nanosphere-enhanced laser nanopatterning of silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4143–4145 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

S. I. Dolgaev, S. V. Lavrishev, A. A. Lyalin, A. V. Simakin, V. V. Voronov, and G. A. Shafeev, “Formation of conical microstructures upon laser evaporation of solids,” Appl. Phys. A 73, 177–181 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

A. Pedraza, J. Fowlkes, and D. Lowndes, “Silicon microcolumn arrays grown by nanosecond pulsed-excimer laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 2322–2324 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

J. C. Xiej, H. Lin, J. H. Han, X. Q. Dong, W. R. Hu, A. Hirata, and M. Sakurai, “Experimental investigation on Marangoni drop migrations using drop shaft facility,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 41, 2077–2081 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T.-H. Her, R. Finlay, C. Wu, S. Deliwala, and E. Mazur, “Microstructuring of silicon with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1673–1675 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

M. Bolle and S. Lazare, “Characterization of submicrometer periodic structures produced on polymer surfaces with low fluence ultraviolet laser radiation,” J. Appl. Phys. 73, 3516–3524 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

M. Meyyappan and R. S. Subramanian, “Thermocapillary migration of a gas bubble in an arbitrary direction with respect to a plane surface,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 115, 206–219 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

A. Siegman and P. Fauchet, “Stimulated Wood’s anomalies on laser-illuminated surfaces,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 22, 1384–1403 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1983 (2)

J. Young, J. Preston, H. van Driel, and J. Sipe, “Laser-induced periodic surface structure. II. Experiments on Ge, Si, Al, and brass,” Phys. Rev. B 27, 1155–1172 (1983).
[CrossRef]

T. Noriaki, S. Sumio, and M. Yoh, “New experimental evidence of surface ripples on gallium arsenide in laser annealing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 42, 424–426 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

Z. Guosheng, P. Fauchet, and A. Siegman, “Growth of spontaneous periodic surface structures on solids during laser illumination,” Phys. Rev. B 26, 5366–5381 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1981 (2)

P. A. Temple and M. J. Soileau, “Polarization charge model for laser-induced ripple patterns in dielectric materials,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 2067–2072 (1981).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Subramanian, “Slow migration of a gas bubble in a thermal gradient,” AIChE J. 27, 646–653 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

K. Affolter, W. Luthy, and M. Wittmer, “Interference effects on the surface of Nd:Y AG-Iaser-reacted Pd-silicide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 36, 559–561 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1959 (1)

N. O. Young, J. S. Goldstein, and M. J. Block, “The motion of bubbles in a vertical temperature gradient,” J. Fluid Mech. 6, 350–356 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Affolter, K.

K. Affolter, W. Luthy, and M. Wittmer, “Interference effects on the surface of Nd:Y AG-Iaser-reacted Pd-silicide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 36, 559–561 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Anma, Y.

A. Medvid, Y. Fukuda, A. Michko, P. Onufrievs, and Y. Anma, “2D lattice formation by YAG:Nd laser on the surface of Ge single crystal,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 244, 120–123 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Block, M. J.

N. O. Young, J. S. Goldstein, and M. J. Block, “The motion of bubbles in a vertical temperature gradient,” J. Fluid Mech. 6, 350–356 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Bolle, M.

M. Bolle and S. Lazare, “Characterization of submicrometer periodic structures produced on polymer surfaces with low fluence ultraviolet laser radiation,” J. Appl. Phys. 73, 3516–3524 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Borowiec, A.

A. Borowiec and H. K. Haugen, “Subwavelength ripple formation on the surfaces of compound semiconductors irradiated with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4462–4464 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Braun, P. V.

F. García-Santamaría, J. F. Galisteo-López, P. V. Braun, and C. López, “Optical diffraction and high-energy features in three-dimensional photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 195112 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Carey, J. E.

M. Y. Shen, C. H. Crouch, J. E. Carey, R. Younkin, E. Mazur, M. Sheehy, and C. M. Friend, “Formation of regular arrays of silicon microspikes by femtosecond laser irradiation through a mask,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1715–1717 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chen, S. C.

Y. Lu, S. Theppakuttai, and S. C. Chen, “Marangoni effect in nanosphere-enhanced laser nanopatterning of silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4143–4145 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chiou, P. Y.

F. Xiao, T. Wu, and P. Y. Chiou, “Near field photothermal printing of gold microstructures and nanostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 031112–031113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Crouch, C. H.

M. Y. Shen, C. H. Crouch, J. E. Carey, R. Younkin, E. Mazur, M. Sheehy, and C. M. Friend, “Formation of regular arrays of silicon microspikes by femtosecond laser irradiation through a mask,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1715–1717 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Deliwala, S.

T.-H. Her, R. Finlay, C. Wu, S. Deliwala, and E. Mazur, “Microstructuring of silicon with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1673–1675 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dolgaev, S. I.

S. I. Dolgaev, S. V. Lavrishev, A. A. Lyalin, A. V. Simakin, V. V. Voronov, and G. A. Shafeev, “Formation of conical microstructures upon laser evaporation of solids,” Appl. Phys. A 73, 177–181 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Dong, X. Q.

J. C. Xiej, H. Lin, J. H. Han, X. Q. Dong, W. R. Hu, A. Hirata, and M. Sakurai, “Experimental investigation on Marangoni drop migrations using drop shaft facility,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 41, 2077–2081 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fauchet, P.

A. Siegman and P. Fauchet, “Stimulated Wood’s anomalies on laser-illuminated surfaces,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 22, 1384–1403 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Z. Guosheng, P. Fauchet, and A. Siegman, “Growth of spontaneous periodic surface structures on solids during laser illumination,” Phys. Rev. B 26, 5366–5381 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Finlay, R.

T.-H. Her, R. Finlay, C. Wu, S. Deliwala, and E. Mazur, “Microstructuring of silicon with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1673–1675 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fowlkes, J.

A. Pedraza, J. Fowlkes, and D. Lowndes, “Silicon microcolumn arrays grown by nanosecond pulsed-excimer laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 2322–2324 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fowlkes, J. D.

Y. F. Guan, A. J. Pedraza, J. D. Fowlkes, and D. A. Joy, “Nanostructures produced by ultraviolet laser irradiation of silicon. II. Nanoprotrusions and nanoparticles,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 22, 2836–2843 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Friend, C. M.

M. Y. Shen, C. H. Crouch, J. E. Carey, R. Younkin, E. Mazur, M. Sheehy, and C. M. Friend, “Formation of regular arrays of silicon microspikes by femtosecond laser irradiation through a mask,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1715–1717 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fukuda, Y.

A. Medvid, Y. Fukuda, A. Michko, P. Onufrievs, and Y. Anma, “2D lattice formation by YAG:Nd laser on the surface of Ge single crystal,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 244, 120–123 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Galisteo-López, J. F.

F. García-Santamaría, J. F. Galisteo-López, P. V. Braun, and C. López, “Optical diffraction and high-energy features in three-dimensional photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 195112 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Garcia, H.

L. Longstreth-Spoor, J. Trice, H. Garcia, C. Zhang, and R. Kalyanaraman, “Nanostructure and microstructure of laser-interference-induced dynamic patterning of Co on Si,” J. Phys. D 39, 5149–5159 (2006).
[CrossRef]

García-Santamaría, F.

F. García-Santamaría, J. F. Galisteo-López, P. V. Braun, and C. López, “Optical diffraction and high-energy features in three-dimensional photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 195112 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Goldstein, J. S.

N. O. Young, J. S. Goldstein, and M. J. Block, “The motion of bubbles in a vertical temperature gradient,” J. Fluid Mech. 6, 350–356 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Guan, Y. F.

Y. F. Guan, A. V. Melechko, A. J. Pedraza, M. L. Simpson, and P. D. Rack, “Non-lithographic organization of nickel catalyst for carbon nanofiber synthesis on laser-induced periodic surface structures,” Nanotech. 18, 335306–335307 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. F. Guan, A. J. Pedraza, J. D. Fowlkes, and D. A. Joy, “Nanostructures produced by ultraviolet laser irradiation of silicon. II. Nanoprotrusions and nanoparticles,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 22, 2836–2843 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Guosheng, Z.

Z. Guosheng, P. Fauchet, and A. Siegman, “Growth of spontaneous periodic surface structures on solids during laser illumination,” Phys. Rev. B 26, 5366–5381 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Gupta, M. C.

B. K. Nayak and M. C. Gupta, “Ultrafast laser-induced self-organized conical micro/nano surface structures and their origin,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 48, 966–973 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. K. Nayak and M. C. Gupta, “Self-organized micro/nano structures in metal surfaces by ultrafast laser irradiation,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 48, 940–949 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. K. Nayak, M. C. Gupta, and K. W. Kolasinski, “Formation of nano-textured conical microstructures in titanium metal surface by femtosecond laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. A 90, 399–402 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. K. Nayak, M. C. Gupta, and K. W. Kolasinski, “Spontaneous formation of nanospiked microstructures in germanium by femtosecond laser irradiation,” Nanotech. 18, 195302(2007).
[CrossRef]

B. K. Nayak, M. C. Gupta, and K. W. Kolasinski, “Ultrafast-laser-assisted chemical restructuring of silicon and germanium surfaces,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 253, 6580–6583 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. K. Nayak and M. C. Gupta, “Femtosecond-laser-induced-crystallization and simultaneous formation of light trapping microstructures in thin a-Si:H films,” Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process. 89, 663–666 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Han, J. H.

J. C. Xiej, H. Lin, J. H. Han, X. Q. Dong, W. R. Hu, A. Hirata, and M. Sakurai, “Experimental investigation on Marangoni drop migrations using drop shaft facility,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 41, 2077–2081 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Haugen, H. K.

A. Borowiec and H. K. Haugen, “Subwavelength ripple formation on the surfaces of compound semiconductors irradiated with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4462–4464 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Her, T.-H.

T.-H. Her, R. Finlay, C. Wu, S. Deliwala, and E. Mazur, “Microstructuring of silicon with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1673–1675 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hernandez-Pozos, J.

D. Riedel, J. Hernandez-Pozos, E. Palmer, and K. Kolasinski, “Fabrication of ordered arrays of silicon cones by optical diffraction in ultrafast laser etching with SF6,” Appl. Phys. A 78, 381–385 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hirata, A.

J. C. Xiej, H. Lin, J. H. Han, X. Q. Dong, W. R. Hu, A. Hirata, and M. Sakurai, “Experimental investigation on Marangoni drop migrations using drop shaft facility,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 41, 2077–2081 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Horita, S.

K. Nishioka and S. Horita, “Periodic arrays of submicron Si and Ni dots on SiO2 fabricated using linearly polarized Nd:YAG pulsed laser,” Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process. 91, 235–240 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hu, W. R.

J. C. Xiej, H. Lin, J. H. Han, X. Q. Dong, W. R. Hu, A. Hirata, and M. Sakurai, “Experimental investigation on Marangoni drop migrations using drop shaft facility,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 41, 2077–2081 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Joy, D. A.

Y. F. Guan, A. J. Pedraza, J. D. Fowlkes, and D. A. Joy, “Nanostructures produced by ultraviolet laser irradiation of silicon. II. Nanoprotrusions and nanoparticles,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 22, 2836–2843 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kalyanaraman, R.

L. Longstreth-Spoor, J. Trice, H. Garcia, C. Zhang, and R. Kalyanaraman, “Nanostructure and microstructure of laser-interference-induced dynamic patterning of Co on Si,” J. Phys. D 39, 5149–5159 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kolasinski, K.

D. Riedel, J. Hernandez-Pozos, E. Palmer, and K. Kolasinski, “Fabrication of ordered arrays of silicon cones by optical diffraction in ultrafast laser etching with SF6,” Appl. Phys. A 78, 381–385 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kolasinski, K. W.

B. K. Nayak, M. C. Gupta, and K. W. Kolasinski, “Formation of nano-textured conical microstructures in titanium metal surface by femtosecond laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. A 90, 399–402 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. K. Nayak, M. C. Gupta, and K. W. Kolasinski, “Spontaneous formation of nanospiked microstructures in germanium by femtosecond laser irradiation,” Nanotech. 18, 195302(2007).
[CrossRef]

B. K. Nayak, M. C. Gupta, and K. W. Kolasinski, “Ultrafast-laser-assisted chemical restructuring of silicon and germanium surfaces,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 253, 6580–6583 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lavrishev, S. V.

S. I. Dolgaev, S. V. Lavrishev, A. A. Lyalin, A. V. Simakin, V. V. Voronov, and G. A. Shafeev, “Formation of conical microstructures upon laser evaporation of solids,” Appl. Phys. A 73, 177–181 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lazare, S.

M. Bolle and S. Lazare, “Characterization of submicrometer periodic structures produced on polymer surfaces with low fluence ultraviolet laser radiation,” J. Appl. Phys. 73, 3516–3524 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Lin, H.

J. C. Xiej, H. Lin, J. H. Han, X. Q. Dong, W. R. Hu, A. Hirata, and M. Sakurai, “Experimental investigation on Marangoni drop migrations using drop shaft facility,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 41, 2077–2081 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Longstreth-Spoor, L.

L. Longstreth-Spoor, J. Trice, H. Garcia, C. Zhang, and R. Kalyanaraman, “Nanostructure and microstructure of laser-interference-induced dynamic patterning of Co on Si,” J. Phys. D 39, 5149–5159 (2006).
[CrossRef]

López, C.

F. García-Santamaría, J. F. Galisteo-López, P. V. Braun, and C. López, “Optical diffraction and high-energy features in three-dimensional photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 195112 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lowndes, D.

A. Pedraza, J. Fowlkes, and D. Lowndes, “Silicon microcolumn arrays grown by nanosecond pulsed-excimer laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 2322–2324 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lu, Y.

Y. Lu, S. Theppakuttai, and S. C. Chen, “Marangoni effect in nanosphere-enhanced laser nanopatterning of silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4143–4145 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Luthy, W.

K. Affolter, W. Luthy, and M. Wittmer, “Interference effects on the surface of Nd:Y AG-Iaser-reacted Pd-silicide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 36, 559–561 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Lyalin, A. A.

S. I. Dolgaev, S. V. Lavrishev, A. A. Lyalin, A. V. Simakin, V. V. Voronov, and G. A. Shafeev, “Formation of conical microstructures upon laser evaporation of solids,” Appl. Phys. A 73, 177–181 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mazur, E.

M. Y. Shen, C. H. Crouch, J. E. Carey, R. Younkin, E. Mazur, M. Sheehy, and C. M. Friend, “Formation of regular arrays of silicon microspikes by femtosecond laser irradiation through a mask,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1715–1717 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T.-H. Her, R. Finlay, C. Wu, S. Deliwala, and E. Mazur, “Microstructuring of silicon with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1673–1675 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Medvid, A.

A. Medvid, Y. Fukuda, A. Michko, P. Onufrievs, and Y. Anma, “2D lattice formation by YAG:Nd laser on the surface of Ge single crystal,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 244, 120–123 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Melechko, A. V.

Y. F. Guan, A. V. Melechko, A. J. Pedraza, M. L. Simpson, and P. D. Rack, “Non-lithographic organization of nickel catalyst for carbon nanofiber synthesis on laser-induced periodic surface structures,” Nanotech. 18, 335306–335307 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Meyyappan, M.

M. Meyyappan and R. S. Subramanian, “Thermocapillary migration of a gas bubble in an arbitrary direction with respect to a plane surface,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 115, 206–219 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Michko, A.

A. Medvid, Y. Fukuda, A. Michko, P. Onufrievs, and Y. Anma, “2D lattice formation by YAG:Nd laser on the surface of Ge single crystal,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 244, 120–123 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nayak, B. K.

B. K. Nayak and M. C. Gupta, “Self-organized micro/nano structures in metal surfaces by ultrafast laser irradiation,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 48, 940–949 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. K. Nayak and M. C. Gupta, “Ultrafast laser-induced self-organized conical micro/nano surface structures and their origin,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 48, 966–973 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. K. Nayak, M. C. Gupta, and K. W. Kolasinski, “Formation of nano-textured conical microstructures in titanium metal surface by femtosecond laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. A 90, 399–402 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. K. Nayak and M. C. Gupta, “Femtosecond-laser-induced-crystallization and simultaneous formation of light trapping microstructures in thin a-Si:H films,” Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process. 89, 663–666 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. K. Nayak, M. C. Gupta, and K. W. Kolasinski, “Spontaneous formation of nanospiked microstructures in germanium by femtosecond laser irradiation,” Nanotech. 18, 195302(2007).
[CrossRef]

B. K. Nayak, M. C. Gupta, and K. W. Kolasinski, “Ultrafast-laser-assisted chemical restructuring of silicon and germanium surfaces,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 253, 6580–6583 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nishioka, K.

K. Nishioka and S. Horita, “Periodic arrays of submicron Si and Ni dots on SiO2 fabricated using linearly polarized Nd:YAG pulsed laser,” Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process. 91, 235–240 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Noriaki, T.

T. Noriaki, S. Sumio, and M. Yoh, “New experimental evidence of surface ripples on gallium arsenide in laser annealing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 42, 424–426 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Onufrievs, P.

A. Medvid, Y. Fukuda, A. Michko, P. Onufrievs, and Y. Anma, “2D lattice formation by YAG:Nd laser on the surface of Ge single crystal,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 244, 120–123 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Palmer, E.

D. Riedel, J. Hernandez-Pozos, E. Palmer, and K. Kolasinski, “Fabrication of ordered arrays of silicon cones by optical diffraction in ultrafast laser etching with SF6,” Appl. Phys. A 78, 381–385 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pedraza, A.

A. Pedraza, J. Fowlkes, and D. Lowndes, “Silicon microcolumn arrays grown by nanosecond pulsed-excimer laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 2322–2324 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pedraza, A. J.

Y. F. Guan, A. V. Melechko, A. J. Pedraza, M. L. Simpson, and P. D. Rack, “Non-lithographic organization of nickel catalyst for carbon nanofiber synthesis on laser-induced periodic surface structures,” Nanotech. 18, 335306–335307 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. F. Guan, A. J. Pedraza, J. D. Fowlkes, and D. A. Joy, “Nanostructures produced by ultraviolet laser irradiation of silicon. II. Nanoprotrusions and nanoparticles,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 22, 2836–2843 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Preston, J.

J. Young, J. Preston, H. van Driel, and J. Sipe, “Laser-induced periodic surface structure. II. Experiments on Ge, Si, Al, and brass,” Phys. Rev. B 27, 1155–1172 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Rack, P. D.

Y. F. Guan, A. V. Melechko, A. J. Pedraza, M. L. Simpson, and P. D. Rack, “Non-lithographic organization of nickel catalyst for carbon nanofiber synthesis on laser-induced periodic surface structures,” Nanotech. 18, 335306–335307 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Riedel, D.

D. Riedel, J. Hernandez-Pozos, E. Palmer, and K. Kolasinski, “Fabrication of ordered arrays of silicon cones by optical diffraction in ultrafast laser etching with SF6,” Appl. Phys. A 78, 381–385 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sakurai, M.

J. C. Xiej, H. Lin, J. H. Han, X. Q. Dong, W. R. Hu, A. Hirata, and M. Sakurai, “Experimental investigation on Marangoni drop migrations using drop shaft facility,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 41, 2077–2081 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Shafeev, G. A.

S. I. Dolgaev, S. V. Lavrishev, A. A. Lyalin, A. V. Simakin, V. V. Voronov, and G. A. Shafeev, “Formation of conical microstructures upon laser evaporation of solids,” Appl. Phys. A 73, 177–181 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sheehy, M.

M. Y. Shen, C. H. Crouch, J. E. Carey, R. Younkin, E. Mazur, M. Sheehy, and C. M. Friend, “Formation of regular arrays of silicon microspikes by femtosecond laser irradiation through a mask,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1715–1717 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shen, M. Y.

M. Y. Shen, C. H. Crouch, J. E. Carey, R. Younkin, E. Mazur, M. Sheehy, and C. M. Friend, “Formation of regular arrays of silicon microspikes by femtosecond laser irradiation through a mask,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1715–1717 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Siegman, A.

A. Siegman and P. Fauchet, “Stimulated Wood’s anomalies on laser-illuminated surfaces,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 22, 1384–1403 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Z. Guosheng, P. Fauchet, and A. Siegman, “Growth of spontaneous periodic surface structures on solids during laser illumination,” Phys. Rev. B 26, 5366–5381 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Simakin, A. V.

S. I. Dolgaev, S. V. Lavrishev, A. A. Lyalin, A. V. Simakin, V. V. Voronov, and G. A. Shafeev, “Formation of conical microstructures upon laser evaporation of solids,” Appl. Phys. A 73, 177–181 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Simpson, M. L.

Y. F. Guan, A. V. Melechko, A. J. Pedraza, M. L. Simpson, and P. D. Rack, “Non-lithographic organization of nickel catalyst for carbon nanofiber synthesis on laser-induced periodic surface structures,” Nanotech. 18, 335306–335307 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sipe, J.

J. Young, J. Preston, H. van Driel, and J. Sipe, “Laser-induced periodic surface structure. II. Experiments on Ge, Si, Al, and brass,” Phys. Rev. B 27, 1155–1172 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Soileau, M. J.

P. A. Temple and M. J. Soileau, “Polarization charge model for laser-induced ripple patterns in dielectric materials,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 2067–2072 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Subramanian, R. S.

M. Meyyappan and R. S. Subramanian, “Thermocapillary migration of a gas bubble in an arbitrary direction with respect to a plane surface,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 115, 206–219 (1987).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Subramanian, “Slow migration of a gas bubble in a thermal gradient,” AIChE J. 27, 646–653 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Sumio, S.

T. Noriaki, S. Sumio, and M. Yoh, “New experimental evidence of surface ripples on gallium arsenide in laser annealing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 42, 424–426 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Temple, P. A.

P. A. Temple and M. J. Soileau, “Polarization charge model for laser-induced ripple patterns in dielectric materials,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 2067–2072 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Theppakuttai, S.

Y. Lu, S. Theppakuttai, and S. C. Chen, “Marangoni effect in nanosphere-enhanced laser nanopatterning of silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4143–4145 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Trice, J.

L. Longstreth-Spoor, J. Trice, H. Garcia, C. Zhang, and R. Kalyanaraman, “Nanostructure and microstructure of laser-interference-induced dynamic patterning of Co on Si,” J. Phys. D 39, 5149–5159 (2006).
[CrossRef]

van Driel, H.

J. Young, J. Preston, H. van Driel, and J. Sipe, “Laser-induced periodic surface structure. II. Experiments on Ge, Si, Al, and brass,” Phys. Rev. B 27, 1155–1172 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Voronov, V. V.

S. I. Dolgaev, S. V. Lavrishev, A. A. Lyalin, A. V. Simakin, V. V. Voronov, and G. A. Shafeev, “Formation of conical microstructures upon laser evaporation of solids,” Appl. Phys. A 73, 177–181 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Weber, S.

S. Weber, “Fourier Transform Lab—Student Edition,” Software v.1.1.1, 18 March 2009: http://www.jcrystal.com/products/ftlse/index.htm).

Wittmer, M.

K. Affolter, W. Luthy, and M. Wittmer, “Interference effects on the surface of Nd:Y AG-Iaser-reacted Pd-silicide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 36, 559–561 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Wu, C.

T.-H. Her, R. Finlay, C. Wu, S. Deliwala, and E. Mazur, “Microstructuring of silicon with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1673–1675 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wu, T.

F. Xiao, T. Wu, and P. Y. Chiou, “Near field photothermal printing of gold microstructures and nanostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 031112–031113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Xiao, F.

F. Xiao, T. Wu, and P. Y. Chiou, “Near field photothermal printing of gold microstructures and nanostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 031112–031113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Xiej, J. C.

J. C. Xiej, H. Lin, J. H. Han, X. Q. Dong, W. R. Hu, A. Hirata, and M. Sakurai, “Experimental investigation on Marangoni drop migrations using drop shaft facility,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 41, 2077–2081 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yoh, M.

T. Noriaki, S. Sumio, and M. Yoh, “New experimental evidence of surface ripples on gallium arsenide in laser annealing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 42, 424–426 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Young, J.

J. Young, J. Preston, H. van Driel, and J. Sipe, “Laser-induced periodic surface structure. II. Experiments on Ge, Si, Al, and brass,” Phys. Rev. B 27, 1155–1172 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Young, N. O.

N. O. Young, J. S. Goldstein, and M. J. Block, “The motion of bubbles in a vertical temperature gradient,” J. Fluid Mech. 6, 350–356 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Younkin, R.

M. Y. Shen, C. H. Crouch, J. E. Carey, R. Younkin, E. Mazur, M. Sheehy, and C. M. Friend, “Formation of regular arrays of silicon microspikes by femtosecond laser irradiation through a mask,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1715–1717 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, C.

L. Longstreth-Spoor, J. Trice, H. Garcia, C. Zhang, and R. Kalyanaraman, “Nanostructure and microstructure of laser-interference-induced dynamic patterning of Co on Si,” J. Phys. D 39, 5149–5159 (2006).
[CrossRef]

AIChE J. (1)

R. S. Subramanian, “Slow migration of a gas bubble in a thermal gradient,” AIChE J. 27, 646–653 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. A (3)

B. K. Nayak, M. C. Gupta, and K. W. Kolasinski, “Formation of nano-textured conical microstructures in titanium metal surface by femtosecond laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. A 90, 399–402 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Dolgaev, S. V. Lavrishev, A. A. Lyalin, A. V. Simakin, V. V. Voronov, and G. A. Shafeev, “Formation of conical microstructures upon laser evaporation of solids,” Appl. Phys. A 73, 177–181 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Riedel, J. Hernandez-Pozos, E. Palmer, and K. Kolasinski, “Fabrication of ordered arrays of silicon cones by optical diffraction in ultrafast laser etching with SF6,” Appl. Phys. A 78, 381–385 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process. (2)

B. K. Nayak and M. C. Gupta, “Femtosecond-laser-induced-crystallization and simultaneous formation of light trapping microstructures in thin a-Si:H films,” Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process. 89, 663–666 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Nishioka and S. Horita, “Periodic arrays of submicron Si and Ni dots on SiO2 fabricated using linearly polarized Nd:YAG pulsed laser,” Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process. 91, 235–240 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (8)

F. Xiao, T. Wu, and P. Y. Chiou, “Near field photothermal printing of gold microstructures and nanostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 031112–031113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Lu, S. Theppakuttai, and S. C. Chen, “Marangoni effect in nanosphere-enhanced laser nanopatterning of silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4143–4145 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Borowiec and H. K. Haugen, “Subwavelength ripple formation on the surfaces of compound semiconductors irradiated with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4462–4464 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Affolter, W. Luthy, and M. Wittmer, “Interference effects on the surface of Nd:Y AG-Iaser-reacted Pd-silicide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 36, 559–561 (1980).
[CrossRef]

M. Y. Shen, C. H. Crouch, J. E. Carey, R. Younkin, E. Mazur, M. Sheehy, and C. M. Friend, “Formation of regular arrays of silicon microspikes by femtosecond laser irradiation through a mask,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1715–1717 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Noriaki, S. Sumio, and M. Yoh, “New experimental evidence of surface ripples on gallium arsenide in laser annealing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 42, 424–426 (1983).
[CrossRef]

T.-H. Her, R. Finlay, C. Wu, S. Deliwala, and E. Mazur, “Microstructuring of silicon with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1673–1675 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Pedraza, J. Fowlkes, and D. Lowndes, “Silicon microcolumn arrays grown by nanosecond pulsed-excimer laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 2322–2324 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Surf. Sci. (2)

B. K. Nayak, M. C. Gupta, and K. W. Kolasinski, “Ultrafast-laser-assisted chemical restructuring of silicon and germanium surfaces,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 253, 6580–6583 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Medvid, Y. Fukuda, A. Michko, P. Onufrievs, and Y. Anma, “2D lattice formation by YAG:Nd laser on the surface of Ge single crystal,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 244, 120–123 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

A. Siegman and P. Fauchet, “Stimulated Wood’s anomalies on laser-illuminated surfaces,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 22, 1384–1403 (1986).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Temple and M. J. Soileau, “Polarization charge model for laser-induced ripple patterns in dielectric materials,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 2067–2072 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer (1)

J. C. Xiej, H. Lin, J. H. Han, X. Q. Dong, W. R. Hu, A. Hirata, and M. Sakurai, “Experimental investigation on Marangoni drop migrations using drop shaft facility,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 41, 2077–2081 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

M. Bolle and S. Lazare, “Characterization of submicrometer periodic structures produced on polymer surfaces with low fluence ultraviolet laser radiation,” J. Appl. Phys. 73, 3516–3524 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Colloid Interface Sci. (1)

M. Meyyappan and R. S. Subramanian, “Thermocapillary migration of a gas bubble in an arbitrary direction with respect to a plane surface,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 115, 206–219 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. Fluid Mech. (1)

N. O. Young, J. S. Goldstein, and M. J. Block, “The motion of bubbles in a vertical temperature gradient,” J. Fluid Mech. 6, 350–356 (1959).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D (1)

L. Longstreth-Spoor, J. Trice, H. Garcia, C. Zhang, and R. Kalyanaraman, “Nanostructure and microstructure of laser-interference-induced dynamic patterning of Co on Si,” J. Phys. D 39, 5149–5159 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (1)

Y. F. Guan, A. J. Pedraza, J. D. Fowlkes, and D. A. Joy, “Nanostructures produced by ultraviolet laser irradiation of silicon. II. Nanoprotrusions and nanoparticles,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 22, 2836–2843 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nanotech. (2)

Y. F. Guan, A. V. Melechko, A. J. Pedraza, M. L. Simpson, and P. D. Rack, “Non-lithographic organization of nickel catalyst for carbon nanofiber synthesis on laser-induced periodic surface structures,” Nanotech. 18, 335306–335307 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. K. Nayak, M. C. Gupta, and K. W. Kolasinski, “Spontaneous formation of nanospiked microstructures in germanium by femtosecond laser irradiation,” Nanotech. 18, 195302(2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lasers Eng. (2)

B. K. Nayak and M. C. Gupta, “Ultrafast laser-induced self-organized conical micro/nano surface structures and their origin,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 48, 966–973 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. K. Nayak and M. C. Gupta, “Self-organized micro/nano structures in metal surfaces by ultrafast laser irradiation,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 48, 940–949 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (3)

J. Young, J. Preston, H. van Driel, and J. Sipe, “Laser-induced periodic surface structure. II. Experiments on Ge, Si, Al, and brass,” Phys. Rev. B 27, 1155–1172 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Z. Guosheng, P. Fauchet, and A. Siegman, “Growth of spontaneous periodic surface structures on solids during laser illumination,” Phys. Rev. B 26, 5366–5381 (1982).
[CrossRef]

F. García-Santamaría, J. F. Galisteo-López, P. V. Braun, and C. López, “Optical diffraction and high-energy features in three-dimensional photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 195112 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

S. Weber, “Fourier Transform Lab—Student Edition,” Software v.1.1.1, 18 March 2009: http://www.jcrystal.com/products/ftlse/index.htm).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) SEM image of a mark generated by exposing the Si surface to 20,000 laser pulses at fluence ~ 3 J / cm 2 . (b) The spot shown in (a) has four characteristic regions indicated by numbers 1–4. Figures (c)–(f) respectively, show the higher magnification images of 1–4 characteristic regions indicated in (b).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Surface profiling across the spot shown in Fig. 1a showing all the four distinct regions. (b) AFM scan of a region toward the edge of the laser spot shown in Fig. 1a.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Schematic diagram showing the 100 laser spots marked on a 2 × 2 cm 2 Si wafer as a matrix of 10 by 10 and their size distribution after marking. (b) 3D plot of the measured diameter of laser spots for the matrix of spots stated in (a). The number of laser pulses for each spot is kept at 20,000 pulses and fluence ~ 3 J / cm 2 . (c) SEM image of one of the spots from the 100 spots in (a), which is near the center of the wafer. (d) Higher magnification image of (c).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Diffraction pattern from the periodic nanostructures shown in Fig. 1f. (b) SEM image of a 2D periodic structure showing different orientations for symmetry. Inset shows the diffraction pattern showing the same symmetry as of the structures. (c) Fourier transform of the nanostructures shown in (b).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

SEM image of (a) nanoprotrusions obtained by 532 nm wavelength laser pulses and (b) nanoprotrusions shown at higher tilt (tilt angle 70 ° ).

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