Abstract

A point diffraction interferometer (PDI) with adjustable fringe contrast is presented for the high- precision testing of spherical surfaces. The polarizing components are employed in the PDI to transform the polarization states of the test and reference beams, and a good fringe contrast can be realized by adjusting the relative intensities of interfering waves. The proposed system is compact and simple in structure, and it provides a feasible way for high-precision testing of spherical surfaces with low reflectivity. The theory of the interferometer is introduced in detail, along with the properties of optical components employed in the system, numerical analysis of systematic error, and the corresponding calibration procedure. Compared with the testing results of the ZYGO interferometer, a high accuracy with RMS value about 0.0025λ is achieved with the proposed interferometer. Finally, the error consideration in the experiment is discussed.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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2010 (2)

L. F. Chen, Y. Q. Ren, and J. Li, “Flat surface measurements on fiber point diffraction interferometer,” Opt. Eng. 49, 050503(2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Matsuura, K. Udaka, Y. Oshikane, H. Inoue, M. Nakano, K. Yamauchi, and T. Kataoka, “Spherical concave mirror measurement by phase-shifting point diffraction interferometer with two optical fibers,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 616, 233–236 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

N. I. Chkhalo, E. B. Kluenkov, A. E. Pestov, D. G. Raskin, N. N. Salashchenko, and M. N. Toropov, “Manufacturing and investigation of objective lens for ultrahigh resolution lithography facilities,” Proc. SPIE 7025, 702505 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

T. Matsuura, S. Okagaki, T. Nakamura, Y. Oshikane, H. Inoue, M. Nakano, and T. Kataoka, “Measurement accuracy in phase-shifting point diffraction interferometer with two optical fibers,” Opt. Rev. 14, 401–405 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. V. Mantravadi and D. Malacara, “Newton, Fizeau, and Haidinger interferometers,” in Optical Shop Testing, 3rd ed., D.Malacara, ed. (Wiley, 2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

2005 (3)

H. Kihm and S. W. Kim, “Oblique fiber optic diffraction interferometer for testing spherical mirrors,” Opt. Eng. 44, 125601 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Q. Gong and W. Eichhorn, “Alignment and testing of piston and aberrations of a segmented mirror,” Proc. SPIE 5869, 586912 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Johnson, D. W. Phillion, G. E. Sommargren, T. A. Decker, J. S. Taylor, Y. Gomei, O. Kakuchi, and S. Takeuchi, “Construction and testing of wavefront reference sources for interferometry of ultra-precise imaging systems,” Proc. SPIE 5869, 58690P (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

J. E. Millerd, S. J. Martinek, N. J. Brock, J. B. Hayes, and J. C. Wyant, “Instantaneous phase-shift, point-diffraction interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 5380, 422–429 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Otaki, Y. Zhu, M. Ishii, S. Nakayama, K. Murakami, and T. Gemma, “Rigorous wavefront analysis of the visible-light point diffraction interferometer for EUVL,” Proc. SPIE 5193, 182–190 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Duan and B. D. Lu, “A comparison of the vectorial nonparaxial approach with Fresnel and Fraunhofer approximations,” Optik (Jena) 115, 218–222 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (3)

K. Ota, T. Yamamoto, Y. Fukuda, K. Otaki, I. Nishiyama, and S. Okazaki, “Aspherical mirror measurement using a point diffraction interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 4688, 690–694 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Otaki, K. Ota, I. Nishiyama, T. Yamamoto, Y. Fukuda, and S. Okazaki, “Development of the point diffraction interferometer for extreme ultraviolet lithography: design, fabrication, and evaluation,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 20, 2449–2458 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Otaki, T. Yamamoto, Y. Fukuda, K. Ota, I. Nishiyama, and S. Okazaki, “Accuracy evaluation of the point diffraction interferometer for extreme ultraviolet lithography aspheric mirror,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 20, 295–300 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

W. Q. Zhang, “New phase shift formulas and stability of waveplate in oblique incident beam,” Opt. Commun. 176, 9–15 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

1996 (1)

Q. Gong and J. M. Geary, “Modeling point diffraction interferometers,” Opt. Eng. 35, 351–356 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

A. K. Wong and A. R. Neureuther, “Rigorous three-dimensional time-domain finite-difference electromagnetic simulation for photolithographic applications,” IEEE Trans. Semicond. Manuf. 8, 419–431 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

1991 (1)

1975 (1)

R. N. Smartt and W. H. Steel, “Theory and application of point-diffraction interferometers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 14, 351–356(1975).

Brock, N. J.

J. E. Millerd, S. J. Martinek, N. J. Brock, J. B. Hayes, and J. C. Wyant, “Instantaneous phase-shift, point-diffraction interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 5380, 422–429 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L. F.

L. F. Chen, Y. Q. Ren, and J. Li, “Flat surface measurements on fiber point diffraction interferometer,” Opt. Eng. 49, 050503(2010).
[CrossRef]

Chkhalo, N. I.

N. I. Chkhalo, E. B. Kluenkov, A. E. Pestov, D. G. Raskin, N. N. Salashchenko, and M. N. Toropov, “Manufacturing and investigation of objective lens for ultrahigh resolution lithography facilities,” Proc. SPIE 7025, 702505 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Decker, T. A.

M. A. Johnson, D. W. Phillion, G. E. Sommargren, T. A. Decker, J. S. Taylor, Y. Gomei, O. Kakuchi, and S. Takeuchi, “Construction and testing of wavefront reference sources for interferometry of ultra-precise imaging systems,” Proc. SPIE 5869, 58690P (2005).
[CrossRef]

Duan, K. L.

K. L. Duan and B. D. Lu, “A comparison of the vectorial nonparaxial approach with Fresnel and Fraunhofer approximations,” Optik (Jena) 115, 218–222 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Eichhorn, W.

Q. Gong and W. Eichhorn, “Alignment and testing of piston and aberrations of a segmented mirror,” Proc. SPIE 5869, 586912 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fukuda, Y.

K. Otaki, T. Yamamoto, Y. Fukuda, K. Ota, I. Nishiyama, and S. Okazaki, “Accuracy evaluation of the point diffraction interferometer for extreme ultraviolet lithography aspheric mirror,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 20, 295–300 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Ota, T. Yamamoto, Y. Fukuda, K. Otaki, I. Nishiyama, and S. Okazaki, “Aspherical mirror measurement using a point diffraction interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 4688, 690–694 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Otaki, K. Ota, I. Nishiyama, T. Yamamoto, Y. Fukuda, and S. Okazaki, “Development of the point diffraction interferometer for extreme ultraviolet lithography: design, fabrication, and evaluation,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 20, 2449–2458 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Geary, J. M.

Q. Gong and J. M. Geary, “Modeling point diffraction interferometers,” Opt. Eng. 35, 351–356 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Gemma, T.

K. Otaki, Y. Zhu, M. Ishii, S. Nakayama, K. Murakami, and T. Gemma, “Rigorous wavefront analysis of the visible-light point diffraction interferometer for EUVL,” Proc. SPIE 5193, 182–190 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gomei, Y.

M. A. Johnson, D. W. Phillion, G. E. Sommargren, T. A. Decker, J. S. Taylor, Y. Gomei, O. Kakuchi, and S. Takeuchi, “Construction and testing of wavefront reference sources for interferometry of ultra-precise imaging systems,” Proc. SPIE 5869, 58690P (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gong, Q.

Q. Gong and W. Eichhorn, “Alignment and testing of piston and aberrations of a segmented mirror,” Proc. SPIE 5869, 586912 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Q. Gong and J. M. Geary, “Modeling point diffraction interferometers,” Opt. Eng. 35, 351–356 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hayes, J. B.

J. E. Millerd, S. J. Martinek, N. J. Brock, J. B. Hayes, and J. C. Wyant, “Instantaneous phase-shift, point-diffraction interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 5380, 422–429 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Inoue, H.

T. Matsuura, K. Udaka, Y. Oshikane, H. Inoue, M. Nakano, K. Yamauchi, and T. Kataoka, “Spherical concave mirror measurement by phase-shifting point diffraction interferometer with two optical fibers,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 616, 233–236 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Matsuura, S. Okagaki, T. Nakamura, Y. Oshikane, H. Inoue, M. Nakano, and T. Kataoka, “Measurement accuracy in phase-shifting point diffraction interferometer with two optical fibers,” Opt. Rev. 14, 401–405 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ishii, M.

K. Otaki, Y. Zhu, M. Ishii, S. Nakayama, K. Murakami, and T. Gemma, “Rigorous wavefront analysis of the visible-light point diffraction interferometer for EUVL,” Proc. SPIE 5193, 182–190 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, M. A.

M. A. Johnson, D. W. Phillion, G. E. Sommargren, T. A. Decker, J. S. Taylor, Y. Gomei, O. Kakuchi, and S. Takeuchi, “Construction and testing of wavefront reference sources for interferometry of ultra-precise imaging systems,” Proc. SPIE 5869, 58690P (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kakuchi, O.

M. A. Johnson, D. W. Phillion, G. E. Sommargren, T. A. Decker, J. S. Taylor, Y. Gomei, O. Kakuchi, and S. Takeuchi, “Construction and testing of wavefront reference sources for interferometry of ultra-precise imaging systems,” Proc. SPIE 5869, 58690P (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kataoka, T.

T. Matsuura, K. Udaka, Y. Oshikane, H. Inoue, M. Nakano, K. Yamauchi, and T. Kataoka, “Spherical concave mirror measurement by phase-shifting point diffraction interferometer with two optical fibers,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 616, 233–236 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Matsuura, S. Okagaki, T. Nakamura, Y. Oshikane, H. Inoue, M. Nakano, and T. Kataoka, “Measurement accuracy in phase-shifting point diffraction interferometer with two optical fibers,” Opt. Rev. 14, 401–405 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kihm, H.

H. Kihm and S. W. Kim, “Oblique fiber optic diffraction interferometer for testing spherical mirrors,” Opt. Eng. 44, 125601 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S. W.

H. Kihm and S. W. Kim, “Oblique fiber optic diffraction interferometer for testing spherical mirrors,” Opt. Eng. 44, 125601 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kluenkov, E. B.

N. I. Chkhalo, E. B. Kluenkov, A. E. Pestov, D. G. Raskin, N. N. Salashchenko, and M. N. Toropov, “Manufacturing and investigation of objective lens for ultrahigh resolution lithography facilities,” Proc. SPIE 7025, 702505 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kowarz, M. W.

Li, J.

L. F. Chen, Y. Q. Ren, and J. Li, “Flat surface measurements on fiber point diffraction interferometer,” Opt. Eng. 49, 050503(2010).
[CrossRef]

Liu, W. C.

Lu, B. D.

K. L. Duan and B. D. Lu, “A comparison of the vectorial nonparaxial approach with Fresnel and Fraunhofer approximations,” Optik (Jena) 115, 218–222 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Malacara, D.

M. V. Mantravadi and D. Malacara, “Newton, Fizeau, and Haidinger interferometers,” in Optical Shop Testing, 3rd ed., D.Malacara, ed. (Wiley, 2007).
[CrossRef]

Mantravadi, M. V.

M. V. Mantravadi and D. Malacara, “Newton, Fizeau, and Haidinger interferometers,” in Optical Shop Testing, 3rd ed., D.Malacara, ed. (Wiley, 2007).
[CrossRef]

Martinek, S. J.

J. E. Millerd, S. J. Martinek, N. J. Brock, J. B. Hayes, and J. C. Wyant, “Instantaneous phase-shift, point-diffraction interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 5380, 422–429 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Matsuura, T.

T. Matsuura, K. Udaka, Y. Oshikane, H. Inoue, M. Nakano, K. Yamauchi, and T. Kataoka, “Spherical concave mirror measurement by phase-shifting point diffraction interferometer with two optical fibers,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 616, 233–236 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Matsuura, S. Okagaki, T. Nakamura, Y. Oshikane, H. Inoue, M. Nakano, and T. Kataoka, “Measurement accuracy in phase-shifting point diffraction interferometer with two optical fibers,” Opt. Rev. 14, 401–405 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Millerd, J. E.

J. E. Millerd, S. J. Martinek, N. J. Brock, J. B. Hayes, and J. C. Wyant, “Instantaneous phase-shift, point-diffraction interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 5380, 422–429 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Murakami, K.

K. Otaki, Y. Zhu, M. Ishii, S. Nakayama, K. Murakami, and T. Gemma, “Rigorous wavefront analysis of the visible-light point diffraction interferometer for EUVL,” Proc. SPIE 5193, 182–190 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, T.

T. Matsuura, S. Okagaki, T. Nakamura, Y. Oshikane, H. Inoue, M. Nakano, and T. Kataoka, “Measurement accuracy in phase-shifting point diffraction interferometer with two optical fibers,” Opt. Rev. 14, 401–405 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nakano, M.

T. Matsuura, K. Udaka, Y. Oshikane, H. Inoue, M. Nakano, K. Yamauchi, and T. Kataoka, “Spherical concave mirror measurement by phase-shifting point diffraction interferometer with two optical fibers,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 616, 233–236 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Matsuura, S. Okagaki, T. Nakamura, Y. Oshikane, H. Inoue, M. Nakano, and T. Kataoka, “Measurement accuracy in phase-shifting point diffraction interferometer with two optical fibers,” Opt. Rev. 14, 401–405 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nakayama, S.

K. Otaki, Y. Zhu, M. Ishii, S. Nakayama, K. Murakami, and T. Gemma, “Rigorous wavefront analysis of the visible-light point diffraction interferometer for EUVL,” Proc. SPIE 5193, 182–190 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Neal, R. M.

Neureuther, A. R.

A. K. Wong and A. R. Neureuther, “Rigorous three-dimensional time-domain finite-difference electromagnetic simulation for photolithographic applications,” IEEE Trans. Semicond. Manuf. 8, 419–431 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Nishiyama, I.

K. Otaki, K. Ota, I. Nishiyama, T. Yamamoto, Y. Fukuda, and S. Okazaki, “Development of the point diffraction interferometer for extreme ultraviolet lithography: design, fabrication, and evaluation,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 20, 2449–2458 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Otaki, T. Yamamoto, Y. Fukuda, K. Ota, I. Nishiyama, and S. Okazaki, “Accuracy evaluation of the point diffraction interferometer for extreme ultraviolet lithography aspheric mirror,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 20, 295–300 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Ota, T. Yamamoto, Y. Fukuda, K. Otaki, I. Nishiyama, and S. Okazaki, “Aspherical mirror measurement using a point diffraction interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 4688, 690–694 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Okagaki, S.

T. Matsuura, S. Okagaki, T. Nakamura, Y. Oshikane, H. Inoue, M. Nakano, and T. Kataoka, “Measurement accuracy in phase-shifting point diffraction interferometer with two optical fibers,” Opt. Rev. 14, 401–405 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Okazaki, S.

K. Ota, T. Yamamoto, Y. Fukuda, K. Otaki, I. Nishiyama, and S. Okazaki, “Aspherical mirror measurement using a point diffraction interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 4688, 690–694 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Otaki, K. Ota, I. Nishiyama, T. Yamamoto, Y. Fukuda, and S. Okazaki, “Development of the point diffraction interferometer for extreme ultraviolet lithography: design, fabrication, and evaluation,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 20, 2449–2458 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Otaki, T. Yamamoto, Y. Fukuda, K. Ota, I. Nishiyama, and S. Okazaki, “Accuracy evaluation of the point diffraction interferometer for extreme ultraviolet lithography aspheric mirror,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 20, 295–300 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Oshikane, Y.

T. Matsuura, K. Udaka, Y. Oshikane, H. Inoue, M. Nakano, K. Yamauchi, and T. Kataoka, “Spherical concave mirror measurement by phase-shifting point diffraction interferometer with two optical fibers,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 616, 233–236 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Matsuura, S. Okagaki, T. Nakamura, Y. Oshikane, H. Inoue, M. Nakano, and T. Kataoka, “Measurement accuracy in phase-shifting point diffraction interferometer with two optical fibers,” Opt. Rev. 14, 401–405 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ota, K.

K. Ota, T. Yamamoto, Y. Fukuda, K. Otaki, I. Nishiyama, and S. Okazaki, “Aspherical mirror measurement using a point diffraction interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 4688, 690–694 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Otaki, T. Yamamoto, Y. Fukuda, K. Ota, I. Nishiyama, and S. Okazaki, “Accuracy evaluation of the point diffraction interferometer for extreme ultraviolet lithography aspheric mirror,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 20, 295–300 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Otaki, K. Ota, I. Nishiyama, T. Yamamoto, Y. Fukuda, and S. Okazaki, “Development of the point diffraction interferometer for extreme ultraviolet lithography: design, fabrication, and evaluation,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 20, 2449–2458 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Otaki, K.

K. Otaki, Y. Zhu, M. Ishii, S. Nakayama, K. Murakami, and T. Gemma, “Rigorous wavefront analysis of the visible-light point diffraction interferometer for EUVL,” Proc. SPIE 5193, 182–190 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Otaki, T. Yamamoto, Y. Fukuda, K. Ota, I. Nishiyama, and S. Okazaki, “Accuracy evaluation of the point diffraction interferometer for extreme ultraviolet lithography aspheric mirror,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 20, 295–300 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Otaki, K. Ota, I. Nishiyama, T. Yamamoto, Y. Fukuda, and S. Okazaki, “Development of the point diffraction interferometer for extreme ultraviolet lithography: design, fabrication, and evaluation,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 20, 2449–2458 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Ota, T. Yamamoto, Y. Fukuda, K. Otaki, I. Nishiyama, and S. Okazaki, “Aspherical mirror measurement using a point diffraction interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 4688, 690–694 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Pestov, A. E.

N. I. Chkhalo, E. B. Kluenkov, A. E. Pestov, D. G. Raskin, N. N. Salashchenko, and M. N. Toropov, “Manufacturing and investigation of objective lens for ultrahigh resolution lithography facilities,” Proc. SPIE 7025, 702505 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Phillion, D. W.

M. A. Johnson, D. W. Phillion, G. E. Sommargren, T. A. Decker, J. S. Taylor, Y. Gomei, O. Kakuchi, and S. Takeuchi, “Construction and testing of wavefront reference sources for interferometry of ultra-precise imaging systems,” Proc. SPIE 5869, 58690P (2005).
[CrossRef]

Raskin, D. G.

N. I. Chkhalo, E. B. Kluenkov, A. E. Pestov, D. G. Raskin, N. N. Salashchenko, and M. N. Toropov, “Manufacturing and investigation of objective lens for ultrahigh resolution lithography facilities,” Proc. SPIE 7025, 702505 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ren, Y. Q.

L. F. Chen, Y. Q. Ren, and J. Li, “Flat surface measurements on fiber point diffraction interferometer,” Opt. Eng. 49, 050503(2010).
[CrossRef]

Salashchenko, N. N.

N. I. Chkhalo, E. B. Kluenkov, A. E. Pestov, D. G. Raskin, N. N. Salashchenko, and M. N. Toropov, “Manufacturing and investigation of objective lens for ultrahigh resolution lithography facilities,” Proc. SPIE 7025, 702505 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Smartt, R. N.

R. N. Smartt and W. H. Steel, “Theory and application of point-diffraction interferometers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 14, 351–356(1975).

Sommargren, G. E.

M. A. Johnson, D. W. Phillion, G. E. Sommargren, T. A. Decker, J. S. Taylor, Y. Gomei, O. Kakuchi, and S. Takeuchi, “Construction and testing of wavefront reference sources for interferometry of ultra-precise imaging systems,” Proc. SPIE 5869, 58690P (2005).
[CrossRef]

Steel, W. H.

R. N. Smartt and W. H. Steel, “Theory and application of point-diffraction interferometers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 14, 351–356(1975).

Sun, A. M.

Takeuchi, S.

M. A. Johnson, D. W. Phillion, G. E. Sommargren, T. A. Decker, J. S. Taylor, Y. Gomei, O. Kakuchi, and S. Takeuchi, “Construction and testing of wavefront reference sources for interferometry of ultra-precise imaging systems,” Proc. SPIE 5869, 58690P (2005).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, J. S.

M. A. Johnson, D. W. Phillion, G. E. Sommargren, T. A. Decker, J. S. Taylor, Y. Gomei, O. Kakuchi, and S. Takeuchi, “Construction and testing of wavefront reference sources for interferometry of ultra-precise imaging systems,” Proc. SPIE 5869, 58690P (2005).
[CrossRef]

Toropov, M. N.

N. I. Chkhalo, E. B. Kluenkov, A. E. Pestov, D. G. Raskin, N. N. Salashchenko, and M. N. Toropov, “Manufacturing and investigation of objective lens for ultrahigh resolution lithography facilities,” Proc. SPIE 7025, 702505 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Udaka, K.

T. Matsuura, K. Udaka, Y. Oshikane, H. Inoue, M. Nakano, K. Yamauchi, and T. Kataoka, “Spherical concave mirror measurement by phase-shifting point diffraction interferometer with two optical fibers,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 616, 233–236 (2010).
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[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, T.

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K. Otaki, T. Yamamoto, Y. Fukuda, K. Ota, I. Nishiyama, and S. Okazaki, “Accuracy evaluation of the point diffraction interferometer for extreme ultraviolet lithography aspheric mirror,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 20, 295–300 (2002).
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Yamauchi, K.

T. Matsuura, K. Udaka, Y. Oshikane, H. Inoue, M. Nakano, K. Yamauchi, and T. Kataoka, “Spherical concave mirror measurement by phase-shifting point diffraction interferometer with two optical fibers,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 616, 233–236 (2010).
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Appl. Opt. (3)

IEEE Trans. Semicond. Manuf. (1)

A. K. Wong and A. R. Neureuther, “Rigorous three-dimensional time-domain finite-difference electromagnetic simulation for photolithographic applications,” IEEE Trans. Semicond. Manuf. 8, 419–431 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (2)

K. Otaki, K. Ota, I. Nishiyama, T. Yamamoto, Y. Fukuda, and S. Okazaki, “Development of the point diffraction interferometer for extreme ultraviolet lithography: design, fabrication, and evaluation,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 20, 2449–2458 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Otaki, T. Yamamoto, Y. Fukuda, K. Ota, I. Nishiyama, and S. Okazaki, “Accuracy evaluation of the point diffraction interferometer for extreme ultraviolet lithography aspheric mirror,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 20, 295–300 (2002).
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Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A (1)

T. Matsuura, K. Udaka, Y. Oshikane, H. Inoue, M. Nakano, K. Yamauchi, and T. Kataoka, “Spherical concave mirror measurement by phase-shifting point diffraction interferometer with two optical fibers,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 616, 233–236 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

W. Q. Zhang, “New phase shift formulas and stability of waveplate in oblique incident beam,” Opt. Commun. 176, 9–15 (2000).
[CrossRef]

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L. F. Chen, Y. Q. Ren, and J. Li, “Flat surface measurements on fiber point diffraction interferometer,” Opt. Eng. 49, 050503(2010).
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[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Opt. Rev. (1)

T. Matsuura, S. Okagaki, T. Nakamura, Y. Oshikane, H. Inoue, M. Nakano, and T. Kataoka, “Measurement accuracy in phase-shifting point diffraction interferometer with two optical fibers,” Opt. Rev. 14, 401–405 (2007).
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K. L. Duan and B. D. Lu, “A comparison of the vectorial nonparaxial approach with Fresnel and Fraunhofer approximations,” Optik (Jena) 115, 218–222 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (6)

K. Otaki, Y. Zhu, M. Ishii, S. Nakayama, K. Murakami, and T. Gemma, “Rigorous wavefront analysis of the visible-light point diffraction interferometer for EUVL,” Proc. SPIE 5193, 182–190 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Ota, T. Yamamoto, Y. Fukuda, K. Otaki, I. Nishiyama, and S. Okazaki, “Aspherical mirror measurement using a point diffraction interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 4688, 690–694 (2002).
[CrossRef]

N. I. Chkhalo, E. B. Kluenkov, A. E. Pestov, D. G. Raskin, N. N. Salashchenko, and M. N. Toropov, “Manufacturing and investigation of objective lens for ultrahigh resolution lithography facilities,” Proc. SPIE 7025, 702505 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Q. Gong and W. Eichhorn, “Alignment and testing of piston and aberrations of a segmented mirror,” Proc. SPIE 5869, 586912 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Millerd, S. J. Martinek, N. J. Brock, J. B. Hayes, and J. C. Wyant, “Instantaneous phase-shift, point-diffraction interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 5380, 422–429 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Johnson, D. W. Phillion, G. E. Sommargren, T. A. Decker, J. S. Taylor, Y. Gomei, O. Kakuchi, and S. Takeuchi, “Construction and testing of wavefront reference sources for interferometry of ultra-precise imaging systems,” Proc. SPIE 5869, 58690P (2005).
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[CrossRef]

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental configuration of the proposed PDI.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Procedure for the spherical quality evaluation in the simulation.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

SEM picture of FIBE-etched pinhole in a chromium film.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Deviation of diffracted wavefront from a true sphere for various pinhole sizes over different NAs.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Structure of quarter-wave plate (QWP2).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Wavefront aberration introduced by the glass substrate of QWP2.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Three-dimensional model for polarization aberration analysis.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Calculated results of polarization aberration introduced by QWP2 (a) phase retardation, (b) the corresponding polarization aberration.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Measured surface error of the test spherical surface. (a) Surface error measured with the proposed PDI and (b) the ZYGO interferometer.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Comparison of Spherical Surface Testing Results

Equations (7)

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{ E T = 1 2 [ 1 i ] , E R = 1 2 [ 1 i ] ,
E T = E Q 2 · E p s · E Δ · E Q 2 · E T = 1 2 [ 1 i i 1 ] E Q 2 · [ e i ω 0 0 e i ω ] E p s · [ r e i Δ 0 0 r e i Δ ] E Δ · 1 2 [ 1 i i 1 ] E Q 2 · 1 2 [ 1 i ] = r e i ( ω + Δ ) 2 [ 1 i ] ,
{ E T = E A · E Q 3 · E T = [ cos 2 ψ sin ψ cos ψ sin ψ cos ψ sin 2 ψ ] · 1 2 [ 1 i i 1 ] · r e i ( ω + Δ ) 2 [ 1 i ] , E R = E A · E Q 3 · E R = [ cos 2 ψ sin ψ cos ψ sin ψ cos ψ sin 2 ψ ] · 1 2 [ 1 i i 1 ] · 1 2 [ 1 i ] ,
δ ( θ , φ ) = 2 π λ | B O ¯ · n e ( θ , φ ) + B E ¯ A O ¯ · n o | ,
E Q 2 = cos δ ( θ , φ ) 2 [ 1 i tan δ ( θ , φ ) 2 i tan δ ( θ , φ ) 2 1 ] .
E T = E Q 2 · E p s · E Δ · E Q 2 · E T = [ cos δ ( θ , φ ) 2 i sin δ ( θ , φ ) 2 i sin δ ( θ , φ ) 2 cos δ ( θ , φ ) 2 ] E Q 2 · [ e i ω 0 0 e i ω ] · [ r e i Δ 0 0 r e i Δ ] · [ cos δ ( θ , φ ) 2 i sin δ ( θ , φ ) 2 i sin δ ( θ , φ ) 2 cos δ ( θ , φ ) 2 ] E Q 2 · 1 2 [ 1 i ] .
W 0 ( 0.65 ) = W W .

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