Abstract

This paper presents analytical tools developed for estimating the effects of structural vibration on closed-loop adaptive optics system image quality. The general equation for the normalized intensity distribution of an image subject to structural vibration is derived. The resulting two-dimensional theoretical point spread function is computed numerically and compared with empirical data obtained on sky at the Multiple Mirror Telescope Observatory. A simplified analytical expression for the normalized intensity distribution is derived for long exposures and used to quantify the effects on Strehl and spot full width at half-maximum as a function of vibration amplitude, telescope diameter, and observation wavelength.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. E. Gendron and P. Léna, “Astronomical adaptive optics I. Modal control optimization,” Astron. Astrophys. 291, 337–347(1994).
  2. C. Dessenne, P.-Y. Madec, and G. Rousset, “Optimization of a predictive controller for closed-loop adaptive optics,” Appl. Opt. 37, 4623–4633 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  3. K. B. Powell and V. Vaitheeswaran, “Implementation and on-sky results of an optimal wavefront controller for the MMT NGS adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 7736, 773636 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  4. G. Brusa, D. L. Miller, M. A. Kenworthy, D. L. Fisher, and A. Riccardi, “MMT-AO: two years of operation with the first adaptive secondary,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 23–33 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  5. C. Neyman and R. Flicker, Keck Telescope Wavefront Errors: Implications for NGAO (W. M. Keck Observatory, 2007).
  6. F. P. Wildi, G. Brusa, M. Lloyd-Hart, L. M. Close, and A. Riccardi, “First light of the 6.5 m MMT adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 5169, 17–25 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. A. Kenworthy, D. L. Miller, G. Brusa, P. M. Hinz, D. L. Fisher, M. Lloyd-Hart, F. P. Wildi, J. Donald W. McCarthy, D. L. Curley, C. Kulesa, P. A. Young, B. D. Oppenheimer, W. Liu, M. R. Meyer, and J. Greissl, “Scientific results from the MMT Natural Guide Star Adaptive Optics System,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 351–358 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  8. G. Brusa, A. Riccardi, F. P. Wildi, M. Lloyd-Hart, H. M. Martin, R. Allen, D. L. Fisher, D. L. Miller, R. Biasi, D. Gallieni, and F. Zocchi, “MMT adaptive secondary: first AO closed-loop results,” Proc. SPIE 5169, 26–36 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  9. K. Powell is preparing a manuscript to be called “Optimization of an adaptive optics wavefront controller in the presence of structural vibration.”
  10. F. Roddier, Adaptive Optics in Astronomy (Cambridge Univ. Press, 1999).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. W. Hardy, Adaptive Optics for Astronomical Telescopes, Oxford Series in Optical and Imaging Sciences (Oxford Univ. Press, 1998).
  12. R. Dekany, A. Bouchez, M. Britton, V. Velur, M. Troy, J. C. Shelton, and J. Roberts, “PALM-3000: visible light AO on the 5.1-meter telescope,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720G (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. D. W. McCarthy, J. H. Burge, J. R. P. Angel, J. Ge, R. J. Sarlot, B. C. Fitz-Patrick, and J. L. Hinz, “ARIES: Arizona infrared imager and echelle spectrograph,” Proc. SPIE 3354, 750–754 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  14. B. G. Korenev, Bessel Functions and Their Applications, Analytical Methods and Special Functions (Chapman & Hall/CRC, 2002).
  15. H.-H. Kuo, A. N. Sengupta, and P. Sundar, Infinite Dimensional Stochastic Analysis: In Honor of Hui-Hsiung Kuo, QP-PQ, Quantum Probability and White Noise Analysis (World Scientific, 2008).

2010 (1)

K. B. Powell and V. Vaitheeswaran, “Implementation and on-sky results of an optimal wavefront controller for the MMT NGS adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 7736, 773636 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

R. Dekany, A. Bouchez, M. Britton, V. Velur, M. Troy, J. C. Shelton, and J. Roberts, “PALM-3000: visible light AO on the 5.1-meter telescope,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720G (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

G. Brusa, D. L. Miller, M. A. Kenworthy, D. L. Fisher, and A. Riccardi, “MMT-AO: two years of operation with the first adaptive secondary,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 23–33 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Kenworthy, D. L. Miller, G. Brusa, P. M. Hinz, D. L. Fisher, M. Lloyd-Hart, F. P. Wildi, J. Donald W. McCarthy, D. L. Curley, C. Kulesa, P. A. Young, B. D. Oppenheimer, W. Liu, M. R. Meyer, and J. Greissl, “Scientific results from the MMT Natural Guide Star Adaptive Optics System,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 351–358 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

G. Brusa, A. Riccardi, F. P. Wildi, M. Lloyd-Hart, H. M. Martin, R. Allen, D. L. Fisher, D. L. Miller, R. Biasi, D. Gallieni, and F. Zocchi, “MMT adaptive secondary: first AO closed-loop results,” Proc. SPIE 5169, 26–36 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F. P. Wildi, G. Brusa, M. Lloyd-Hart, L. M. Close, and A. Riccardi, “First light of the 6.5 m MMT adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 5169, 17–25 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

J. D. W. McCarthy, J. H. Burge, J. R. P. Angel, J. Ge, R. J. Sarlot, B. C. Fitz-Patrick, and J. L. Hinz, “ARIES: Arizona infrared imager and echelle spectrograph,” Proc. SPIE 3354, 750–754 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. Dessenne, P.-Y. Madec, and G. Rousset, “Optimization of a predictive controller for closed-loop adaptive optics,” Appl. Opt. 37, 4623–4633 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

E. Gendron and P. Léna, “Astronomical adaptive optics I. Modal control optimization,” Astron. Astrophys. 291, 337–347(1994).

Allen, R.

G. Brusa, A. Riccardi, F. P. Wildi, M. Lloyd-Hart, H. M. Martin, R. Allen, D. L. Fisher, D. L. Miller, R. Biasi, D. Gallieni, and F. Zocchi, “MMT adaptive secondary: first AO closed-loop results,” Proc. SPIE 5169, 26–36 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Angel, J. R. P.

J. D. W. McCarthy, J. H. Burge, J. R. P. Angel, J. Ge, R. J. Sarlot, B. C. Fitz-Patrick, and J. L. Hinz, “ARIES: Arizona infrared imager and echelle spectrograph,” Proc. SPIE 3354, 750–754 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Biasi, R.

G. Brusa, A. Riccardi, F. P. Wildi, M. Lloyd-Hart, H. M. Martin, R. Allen, D. L. Fisher, D. L. Miller, R. Biasi, D. Gallieni, and F. Zocchi, “MMT adaptive secondary: first AO closed-loop results,” Proc. SPIE 5169, 26–36 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bouchez, A.

R. Dekany, A. Bouchez, M. Britton, V. Velur, M. Troy, J. C. Shelton, and J. Roberts, “PALM-3000: visible light AO on the 5.1-meter telescope,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720G (2006).
[CrossRef]

Britton, M.

R. Dekany, A. Bouchez, M. Britton, V. Velur, M. Troy, J. C. Shelton, and J. Roberts, “PALM-3000: visible light AO on the 5.1-meter telescope,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720G (2006).
[CrossRef]

Brusa, G.

G. Brusa, D. L. Miller, M. A. Kenworthy, D. L. Fisher, and A. Riccardi, “MMT-AO: two years of operation with the first adaptive secondary,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 23–33 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Kenworthy, D. L. Miller, G. Brusa, P. M. Hinz, D. L. Fisher, M. Lloyd-Hart, F. P. Wildi, J. Donald W. McCarthy, D. L. Curley, C. Kulesa, P. A. Young, B. D. Oppenheimer, W. Liu, M. R. Meyer, and J. Greissl, “Scientific results from the MMT Natural Guide Star Adaptive Optics System,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 351–358 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. P. Wildi, G. Brusa, M. Lloyd-Hart, L. M. Close, and A. Riccardi, “First light of the 6.5 m MMT adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 5169, 17–25 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Brusa, A. Riccardi, F. P. Wildi, M. Lloyd-Hart, H. M. Martin, R. Allen, D. L. Fisher, D. L. Miller, R. Biasi, D. Gallieni, and F. Zocchi, “MMT adaptive secondary: first AO closed-loop results,” Proc. SPIE 5169, 26–36 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Burge, J. H.

J. D. W. McCarthy, J. H. Burge, J. R. P. Angel, J. Ge, R. J. Sarlot, B. C. Fitz-Patrick, and J. L. Hinz, “ARIES: Arizona infrared imager and echelle spectrograph,” Proc. SPIE 3354, 750–754 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Close, L. M.

F. P. Wildi, G. Brusa, M. Lloyd-Hart, L. M. Close, and A. Riccardi, “First light of the 6.5 m MMT adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 5169, 17–25 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Curley, D. L.

M. A. Kenworthy, D. L. Miller, G. Brusa, P. M. Hinz, D. L. Fisher, M. Lloyd-Hart, F. P. Wildi, J. Donald W. McCarthy, D. L. Curley, C. Kulesa, P. A. Young, B. D. Oppenheimer, W. Liu, M. R. Meyer, and J. Greissl, “Scientific results from the MMT Natural Guide Star Adaptive Optics System,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 351–358 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dekany, R.

R. Dekany, A. Bouchez, M. Britton, V. Velur, M. Troy, J. C. Shelton, and J. Roberts, “PALM-3000: visible light AO on the 5.1-meter telescope,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720G (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dessenne, C.

Fisher, D. L.

G. Brusa, D. L. Miller, M. A. Kenworthy, D. L. Fisher, and A. Riccardi, “MMT-AO: two years of operation with the first adaptive secondary,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 23–33 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Kenworthy, D. L. Miller, G. Brusa, P. M. Hinz, D. L. Fisher, M. Lloyd-Hart, F. P. Wildi, J. Donald W. McCarthy, D. L. Curley, C. Kulesa, P. A. Young, B. D. Oppenheimer, W. Liu, M. R. Meyer, and J. Greissl, “Scientific results from the MMT Natural Guide Star Adaptive Optics System,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 351–358 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Brusa, A. Riccardi, F. P. Wildi, M. Lloyd-Hart, H. M. Martin, R. Allen, D. L. Fisher, D. L. Miller, R. Biasi, D. Gallieni, and F. Zocchi, “MMT adaptive secondary: first AO closed-loop results,” Proc. SPIE 5169, 26–36 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fitz-Patrick, B. C.

J. D. W. McCarthy, J. H. Burge, J. R. P. Angel, J. Ge, R. J. Sarlot, B. C. Fitz-Patrick, and J. L. Hinz, “ARIES: Arizona infrared imager and echelle spectrograph,” Proc. SPIE 3354, 750–754 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Flicker, R.

C. Neyman and R. Flicker, Keck Telescope Wavefront Errors: Implications for NGAO (W. M. Keck Observatory, 2007).

Gallieni, D.

G. Brusa, A. Riccardi, F. P. Wildi, M. Lloyd-Hart, H. M. Martin, R. Allen, D. L. Fisher, D. L. Miller, R. Biasi, D. Gallieni, and F. Zocchi, “MMT adaptive secondary: first AO closed-loop results,” Proc. SPIE 5169, 26–36 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ge, J.

J. D. W. McCarthy, J. H. Burge, J. R. P. Angel, J. Ge, R. J. Sarlot, B. C. Fitz-Patrick, and J. L. Hinz, “ARIES: Arizona infrared imager and echelle spectrograph,” Proc. SPIE 3354, 750–754 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gendron, E.

E. Gendron and P. Léna, “Astronomical adaptive optics I. Modal control optimization,” Astron. Astrophys. 291, 337–347(1994).

Greissl, J.

M. A. Kenworthy, D. L. Miller, G. Brusa, P. M. Hinz, D. L. Fisher, M. Lloyd-Hart, F. P. Wildi, J. Donald W. McCarthy, D. L. Curley, C. Kulesa, P. A. Young, B. D. Oppenheimer, W. Liu, M. R. Meyer, and J. Greissl, “Scientific results from the MMT Natural Guide Star Adaptive Optics System,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 351–358 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hardy, J. W.

J. W. Hardy, Adaptive Optics for Astronomical Telescopes, Oxford Series in Optical and Imaging Sciences (Oxford Univ. Press, 1998).

Hinz, J. L.

J. D. W. McCarthy, J. H. Burge, J. R. P. Angel, J. Ge, R. J. Sarlot, B. C. Fitz-Patrick, and J. L. Hinz, “ARIES: Arizona infrared imager and echelle spectrograph,” Proc. SPIE 3354, 750–754 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hinz, P. M.

M. A. Kenworthy, D. L. Miller, G. Brusa, P. M. Hinz, D. L. Fisher, M. Lloyd-Hart, F. P. Wildi, J. Donald W. McCarthy, D. L. Curley, C. Kulesa, P. A. Young, B. D. Oppenheimer, W. Liu, M. R. Meyer, and J. Greissl, “Scientific results from the MMT Natural Guide Star Adaptive Optics System,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 351–358 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kenworthy, M. A.

M. A. Kenworthy, D. L. Miller, G. Brusa, P. M. Hinz, D. L. Fisher, M. Lloyd-Hart, F. P. Wildi, J. Donald W. McCarthy, D. L. Curley, C. Kulesa, P. A. Young, B. D. Oppenheimer, W. Liu, M. R. Meyer, and J. Greissl, “Scientific results from the MMT Natural Guide Star Adaptive Optics System,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 351–358 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Brusa, D. L. Miller, M. A. Kenworthy, D. L. Fisher, and A. Riccardi, “MMT-AO: two years of operation with the first adaptive secondary,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 23–33 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Korenev, B. G.

B. G. Korenev, Bessel Functions and Their Applications, Analytical Methods and Special Functions (Chapman & Hall/CRC, 2002).

Kulesa, C.

M. A. Kenworthy, D. L. Miller, G. Brusa, P. M. Hinz, D. L. Fisher, M. Lloyd-Hart, F. P. Wildi, J. Donald W. McCarthy, D. L. Curley, C. Kulesa, P. A. Young, B. D. Oppenheimer, W. Liu, M. R. Meyer, and J. Greissl, “Scientific results from the MMT Natural Guide Star Adaptive Optics System,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 351–358 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, H.-H.

H.-H. Kuo, A. N. Sengupta, and P. Sundar, Infinite Dimensional Stochastic Analysis: In Honor of Hui-Hsiung Kuo, QP-PQ, Quantum Probability and White Noise Analysis (World Scientific, 2008).

Léna, P.

E. Gendron and P. Léna, “Astronomical adaptive optics I. Modal control optimization,” Astron. Astrophys. 291, 337–347(1994).

Liu, W.

M. A. Kenworthy, D. L. Miller, G. Brusa, P. M. Hinz, D. L. Fisher, M. Lloyd-Hart, F. P. Wildi, J. Donald W. McCarthy, D. L. Curley, C. Kulesa, P. A. Young, B. D. Oppenheimer, W. Liu, M. R. Meyer, and J. Greissl, “Scientific results from the MMT Natural Guide Star Adaptive Optics System,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 351–358 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lloyd-Hart, M.

M. A. Kenworthy, D. L. Miller, G. Brusa, P. M. Hinz, D. L. Fisher, M. Lloyd-Hart, F. P. Wildi, J. Donald W. McCarthy, D. L. Curley, C. Kulesa, P. A. Young, B. D. Oppenheimer, W. Liu, M. R. Meyer, and J. Greissl, “Scientific results from the MMT Natural Guide Star Adaptive Optics System,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 351–358 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. P. Wildi, G. Brusa, M. Lloyd-Hart, L. M. Close, and A. Riccardi, “First light of the 6.5 m MMT adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 5169, 17–25 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Brusa, A. Riccardi, F. P. Wildi, M. Lloyd-Hart, H. M. Martin, R. Allen, D. L. Fisher, D. L. Miller, R. Biasi, D. Gallieni, and F. Zocchi, “MMT adaptive secondary: first AO closed-loop results,” Proc. SPIE 5169, 26–36 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Madec, P.-Y.

Martin, H. M.

G. Brusa, A. Riccardi, F. P. Wildi, M. Lloyd-Hart, H. M. Martin, R. Allen, D. L. Fisher, D. L. Miller, R. Biasi, D. Gallieni, and F. Zocchi, “MMT adaptive secondary: first AO closed-loop results,” Proc. SPIE 5169, 26–36 (2003).
[CrossRef]

McCarthy, J. D. W.

J. D. W. McCarthy, J. H. Burge, J. R. P. Angel, J. Ge, R. J. Sarlot, B. C. Fitz-Patrick, and J. L. Hinz, “ARIES: Arizona infrared imager and echelle spectrograph,” Proc. SPIE 3354, 750–754 (1998).
[CrossRef]

McCarthy, J. Donald W.

M. A. Kenworthy, D. L. Miller, G. Brusa, P. M. Hinz, D. L. Fisher, M. Lloyd-Hart, F. P. Wildi, J. Donald W. McCarthy, D. L. Curley, C. Kulesa, P. A. Young, B. D. Oppenheimer, W. Liu, M. R. Meyer, and J. Greissl, “Scientific results from the MMT Natural Guide Star Adaptive Optics System,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 351–358 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Meyer, M. R.

M. A. Kenworthy, D. L. Miller, G. Brusa, P. M. Hinz, D. L. Fisher, M. Lloyd-Hart, F. P. Wildi, J. Donald W. McCarthy, D. L. Curley, C. Kulesa, P. A. Young, B. D. Oppenheimer, W. Liu, M. R. Meyer, and J. Greissl, “Scientific results from the MMT Natural Guide Star Adaptive Optics System,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 351–358 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Miller, D. L.

M. A. Kenworthy, D. L. Miller, G. Brusa, P. M. Hinz, D. L. Fisher, M. Lloyd-Hart, F. P. Wildi, J. Donald W. McCarthy, D. L. Curley, C. Kulesa, P. A. Young, B. D. Oppenheimer, W. Liu, M. R. Meyer, and J. Greissl, “Scientific results from the MMT Natural Guide Star Adaptive Optics System,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 351–358 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Brusa, D. L. Miller, M. A. Kenworthy, D. L. Fisher, and A. Riccardi, “MMT-AO: two years of operation with the first adaptive secondary,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 23–33 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Brusa, A. Riccardi, F. P. Wildi, M. Lloyd-Hart, H. M. Martin, R. Allen, D. L. Fisher, D. L. Miller, R. Biasi, D. Gallieni, and F. Zocchi, “MMT adaptive secondary: first AO closed-loop results,” Proc. SPIE 5169, 26–36 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Neyman, C.

C. Neyman and R. Flicker, Keck Telescope Wavefront Errors: Implications for NGAO (W. M. Keck Observatory, 2007).

Oppenheimer, B. D.

M. A. Kenworthy, D. L. Miller, G. Brusa, P. M. Hinz, D. L. Fisher, M. Lloyd-Hart, F. P. Wildi, J. Donald W. McCarthy, D. L. Curley, C. Kulesa, P. A. Young, B. D. Oppenheimer, W. Liu, M. R. Meyer, and J. Greissl, “Scientific results from the MMT Natural Guide Star Adaptive Optics System,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 351–358 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Powell, K.

K. Powell is preparing a manuscript to be called “Optimization of an adaptive optics wavefront controller in the presence of structural vibration.”

Powell, K. B.

K. B. Powell and V. Vaitheeswaran, “Implementation and on-sky results of an optimal wavefront controller for the MMT NGS adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 7736, 773636 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Riccardi, A.

G. Brusa, D. L. Miller, M. A. Kenworthy, D. L. Fisher, and A. Riccardi, “MMT-AO: two years of operation with the first adaptive secondary,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 23–33 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Brusa, A. Riccardi, F. P. Wildi, M. Lloyd-Hart, H. M. Martin, R. Allen, D. L. Fisher, D. L. Miller, R. Biasi, D. Gallieni, and F. Zocchi, “MMT adaptive secondary: first AO closed-loop results,” Proc. SPIE 5169, 26–36 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F. P. Wildi, G. Brusa, M. Lloyd-Hart, L. M. Close, and A. Riccardi, “First light of the 6.5 m MMT adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 5169, 17–25 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Roberts, J.

R. Dekany, A. Bouchez, M. Britton, V. Velur, M. Troy, J. C. Shelton, and J. Roberts, “PALM-3000: visible light AO on the 5.1-meter telescope,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720G (2006).
[CrossRef]

Roddier, F.

F. Roddier, Adaptive Optics in Astronomy (Cambridge Univ. Press, 1999).
[CrossRef]

Rousset, G.

Sarlot, R. J.

J. D. W. McCarthy, J. H. Burge, J. R. P. Angel, J. Ge, R. J. Sarlot, B. C. Fitz-Patrick, and J. L. Hinz, “ARIES: Arizona infrared imager and echelle spectrograph,” Proc. SPIE 3354, 750–754 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sengupta, A. N.

H.-H. Kuo, A. N. Sengupta, and P. Sundar, Infinite Dimensional Stochastic Analysis: In Honor of Hui-Hsiung Kuo, QP-PQ, Quantum Probability and White Noise Analysis (World Scientific, 2008).

Shelton, J. C.

R. Dekany, A. Bouchez, M. Britton, V. Velur, M. Troy, J. C. Shelton, and J. Roberts, “PALM-3000: visible light AO on the 5.1-meter telescope,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720G (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sundar, P.

H.-H. Kuo, A. N. Sengupta, and P. Sundar, Infinite Dimensional Stochastic Analysis: In Honor of Hui-Hsiung Kuo, QP-PQ, Quantum Probability and White Noise Analysis (World Scientific, 2008).

Troy, M.

R. Dekany, A. Bouchez, M. Britton, V. Velur, M. Troy, J. C. Shelton, and J. Roberts, “PALM-3000: visible light AO on the 5.1-meter telescope,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720G (2006).
[CrossRef]

Vaitheeswaran, V.

K. B. Powell and V. Vaitheeswaran, “Implementation and on-sky results of an optimal wavefront controller for the MMT NGS adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 7736, 773636 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Velur, V.

R. Dekany, A. Bouchez, M. Britton, V. Velur, M. Troy, J. C. Shelton, and J. Roberts, “PALM-3000: visible light AO on the 5.1-meter telescope,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720G (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wildi, F. P.

M. A. Kenworthy, D. L. Miller, G. Brusa, P. M. Hinz, D. L. Fisher, M. Lloyd-Hart, F. P. Wildi, J. Donald W. McCarthy, D. L. Curley, C. Kulesa, P. A. Young, B. D. Oppenheimer, W. Liu, M. R. Meyer, and J. Greissl, “Scientific results from the MMT Natural Guide Star Adaptive Optics System,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 351–358 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. P. Wildi, G. Brusa, M. Lloyd-Hart, L. M. Close, and A. Riccardi, “First light of the 6.5 m MMT adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 5169, 17–25 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Brusa, A. Riccardi, F. P. Wildi, M. Lloyd-Hart, H. M. Martin, R. Allen, D. L. Fisher, D. L. Miller, R. Biasi, D. Gallieni, and F. Zocchi, “MMT adaptive secondary: first AO closed-loop results,” Proc. SPIE 5169, 26–36 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Young, P. A.

M. A. Kenworthy, D. L. Miller, G. Brusa, P. M. Hinz, D. L. Fisher, M. Lloyd-Hart, F. P. Wildi, J. Donald W. McCarthy, D. L. Curley, C. Kulesa, P. A. Young, B. D. Oppenheimer, W. Liu, M. R. Meyer, and J. Greissl, “Scientific results from the MMT Natural Guide Star Adaptive Optics System,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 351–358 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zocchi, F.

G. Brusa, A. Riccardi, F. P. Wildi, M. Lloyd-Hart, H. M. Martin, R. Allen, D. L. Fisher, D. L. Miller, R. Biasi, D. Gallieni, and F. Zocchi, “MMT adaptive secondary: first AO closed-loop results,” Proc. SPIE 5169, 26–36 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Astron. Astrophys. (1)

E. Gendron and P. Léna, “Astronomical adaptive optics I. Modal control optimization,” Astron. Astrophys. 291, 337–347(1994).

Proc. SPIE (7)

K. B. Powell and V. Vaitheeswaran, “Implementation and on-sky results of an optimal wavefront controller for the MMT NGS adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 7736, 773636 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Brusa, D. L. Miller, M. A. Kenworthy, D. L. Fisher, and A. Riccardi, “MMT-AO: two years of operation with the first adaptive secondary,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 23–33 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. P. Wildi, G. Brusa, M. Lloyd-Hart, L. M. Close, and A. Riccardi, “First light of the 6.5 m MMT adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 5169, 17–25 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Kenworthy, D. L. Miller, G. Brusa, P. M. Hinz, D. L. Fisher, M. Lloyd-Hart, F. P. Wildi, J. Donald W. McCarthy, D. L. Curley, C. Kulesa, P. A. Young, B. D. Oppenheimer, W. Liu, M. R. Meyer, and J. Greissl, “Scientific results from the MMT Natural Guide Star Adaptive Optics System,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 351–358 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Brusa, A. Riccardi, F. P. Wildi, M. Lloyd-Hart, H. M. Martin, R. Allen, D. L. Fisher, D. L. Miller, R. Biasi, D. Gallieni, and F. Zocchi, “MMT adaptive secondary: first AO closed-loop results,” Proc. SPIE 5169, 26–36 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Dekany, A. Bouchez, M. Britton, V. Velur, M. Troy, J. C. Shelton, and J. Roberts, “PALM-3000: visible light AO on the 5.1-meter telescope,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720G (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. D. W. McCarthy, J. H. Burge, J. R. P. Angel, J. Ge, R. J. Sarlot, B. C. Fitz-Patrick, and J. L. Hinz, “ARIES: Arizona infrared imager and echelle spectrograph,” Proc. SPIE 3354, 750–754 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Other (6)

B. G. Korenev, Bessel Functions and Their Applications, Analytical Methods and Special Functions (Chapman & Hall/CRC, 2002).

H.-H. Kuo, A. N. Sengupta, and P. Sundar, Infinite Dimensional Stochastic Analysis: In Honor of Hui-Hsiung Kuo, QP-PQ, Quantum Probability and White Noise Analysis (World Scientific, 2008).

K. Powell is preparing a manuscript to be called “Optimization of an adaptive optics wavefront controller in the presence of structural vibration.”

F. Roddier, Adaptive Optics in Astronomy (Cambridge Univ. Press, 1999).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Hardy, Adaptive Optics for Astronomical Telescopes, Oxford Series in Optical and Imaging Sciences (Oxford Univ. Press, 1998).

C. Neyman and R. Flicker, Keck Telescope Wavefront Errors: Implications for NGAO (W. M. Keck Observatory, 2007).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Power spectral density of residual Zernike tilt obtained during an MMT NGS-AO run in November 2009. The log scale illustrates the dominant residual effect of the 18.75 Hz structural vibration compared with the atmospheric component. Resonances are also seen at 61 and 66 Hz .

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Logarithmically scaled H-band image of a star from the MMT-AO system showing four Airy rings when tip/tilt is removed through postprocessing.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Theoretical disturbance rejection frequency response for the MMT-AO integral wavefront controller. Resonances affecting the MMT NGS-AO system are located at 18.75, 61, and 66 Hz . The 0 dB crossover is at approximately 16.5 Hz , allowing the structural vibration at 18.75 Hz to be slightly amplified.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a)  2 s exposure from the ARIES imaging camera showing the effects of the 18.75 Hz mode on the PSF. Data were obtained at the MMT in November 2009. (b) Theoretical PSF of a 2 s exposure obtained by numerically integrating the time-varying solution and assuming the atmospheric component is completely removed.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Comparison of exact time-varying solution for K-band ( 2.2 μm ), t = 2 s , frequency of 18.75 Hz , and the time-invariant analytical approximation for an amplitude of 0.08 arcsec zero to peak, D = 6.5 m .

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Strehl ratio and FWHM as a function of closed-loop vibration and three representative telescope diameters, D = 6.5 m (dashed curves), D = 10 m (dashed–dotted curves), D = 25 m (solid curves): (a) H-band Strehl ratio, (b) H-band spot FWHM measured along the vibration axis, (c) Strehl at an observational wavelength of 0.7 μm , and (d) FWHM at an observational wavelength of 0.7 μm .

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Comparison of ARIES image intensity profile (solid curve) with the theoretical prediction (dashed curve) using a composite of estimated core and halo. Vibration amplitude was 0.09 arcsec on average over the 2 s exposure.

Equations (14)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

R ( rad ) = 1.22 λ ( m ) D ( m ) = 1.22 [ 206265 ( arcsec ) rad ] ( μm 10 6 m ) = R ( arcsec ) = 0.2516 λ ( μm ) D ( m ) ,
I Norm_Short ( x , y , t ) 0 t final I a ( x , y , t ) d t max | 0 t final I u ( x , y ) d t | ,
I a ( x , y , t ) = P 2 π σ x σ y exp ( { [ x μ x ( t ) ] 2 2 σ x 2 + [ y μ y ( t ) ] 2 2 σ y 2 } ) ,
μ x ( t ) = k = 1 n A x k sin ( ω x k t + ϕ x k ) , μ y ( t ) = k = 1 n A y k sin ( ω y k t + ϕ y k ) .
I u ( x , y ) = P 2 π σ x σ y exp [ ( x 2 2 σ x 2 + y 2 2 σ y 2 ) ] .
I Norm_Short ( x , y , t ) = 1 t final 0 t final 1 2 π σ x σ y exp ( { [ x μ x ( t ) ] 2 2 σ x 2 + [ y μ y ( t ) ] 2 2 σ y 2 } ) d t ,
I Norm_Short ( x , y , t ) = 1 t final 0 t final exp ( { [ ( x A sin ω t ) 2 2 σ x 2 + y 2 2 σ y 2 ] } ) d t ,
I Norm_Long ( x , y , t ) = 1 t final F x , y 1 [ F ξ , η [ lim t final 0 t final I a ( x , y , t ) d t ] ] .
I Norm_Long ( x , y , t ) = 1 t final F x , y 1 [ F ξ , η [ I u ( x , y ) ] × lim t final 0 t final exp { i ξ A sin ω t } d t ] .
I Norm_Long ( x , y ) F x , y 1 [ F ξ , η [ I u ( x , y ) ] ] F x 1 [ J 0 ( A ξ ) ] , δ ( y ) ,
d μ A = { d μ A = 1 | A | π ( 1 x 2 A 2 ) 1 2 χ A ( x ) d x d μ A = δ 0 ( x ) } ,
χ A ( x ) = { 1 if     x A 0 if     x A } ,
I Norm_Long ( x , y ) = I u ( x , y ) d μ A , δ 0 ( y ) .
I Norm_Long ( x , y ) = 1 2 π σ x σ y exp { ( x 2 2 σ x 2 + y 2 2 σ y 2 ) } 1 | A | π ( 1 x 2 A 2 ) 1 2 χ A ( x ) , δ 0 ( y ) .

Metrics