Abstract

In a recent publication, Leblanc and McDermid [Appl. Opt. , 47, 5592 (2008)] proposed a hybrid calibration technique for Raman water vapor lidar involving a tungsten lamp and radiosondes. Measurements made with the lidar telescope viewing the calibration lamp were used to stabilize the lidar calibration determined by comparison with radiosonde. The technique provided a significantly more stable calibration constant than radiosondes used alone. The technique involves the use of a calib ration lamp in a fixed position in front of the lidar receiver aperture. We examine this configuration and find that such a configuration likely does not properly sample the full lidar system optical efficiency. While the technique is a useful addition to the use of radiosondes alone for lidar calibration, it is important to understand the scenarios under which it will not provide an accurate quantification of system optical efficiency changes. We offer examples of these scenarios. Scanning of the full telescope aperture with the calibration lamp can circumvent most of these limitations. Based on the work done to date, it seems likely that the use of multiple calibration lamps in different fixed positions in front of the telescope may provide sufficient redundancy for long-term calibration needs. Further full-aperture scanning experiments, performed over an extended period of time, are needed to determine a “best practice” for the use of multiple calibration lamps in the hybrid technique.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  21. D. N. Whiteman, F. Russo, L. Miloshevich, B. Demoz, Z. Wang, I. Veselovskii, H. Voemel, S. Hannon, B. Lesht, F. Schmidlin, A. Gambacorta, and C. Barnet, “Analysis of Raman lidar and radiosonde measurements from the AWEX-G field campaign and its relation to Aqua validation,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, D09S09 (2006).
    [CrossRef]

2010

D. N. Whiteman, K. Rush, S. Rabenhorst, W. Welch, M. Cadirola, G. McIntire, F. Russo, M. Adam, D. Venable, R. Connell, I. Veselovskii, R. Forno, B. Mielke, B. Stein, T. Leblanc, S. McDermid, and H. Vömel, “Airborne and ground-based measurements using a high-performance Raman lidar,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 27, 1781–1801 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

R. Boers and E. Meijgaard, What are the demands on an observational program to detect trends in upper tropospheric water vapor anticipated in the 21st century, Geophys. Res. Lett. 36, L19806 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Landulfo, R. F. Da Costa, A. S. Torres, F. J. S. Lopes, D. N. Whiteman, D. D. Venable, “Raman water vapor lidar calibration,” Proc. SPIE 7479, 74790J (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Seidel, F. H. Berger, H. J. Diamond, J. Dykema, D. Goodrich, F. Immler, W. Murray, T. Peterson, D. Siststerson, M. Sommer, P. Thorne, H. Vömel, and J. Wang, “Reference upper-air observations for climate: rationale, progress, and plans,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 90, 361–369 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

T. Leblanc, I. S. McDermid, and R. A. Aspey, “First-year operation of a new water vapor Raman lidar at the JPL Table Mountain Facility, California,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 25, 1454–1462 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Leblanc and I. S. McDermid, “Accuracy of Raman lidar water vapor calibration and its applicability to long-term measurements,” Appl. Opt. , 47, 5592–5603 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

H. Vömel, J. E. Barnes, R. N. Forno, M. Fujiwara, F. Hasebe, S. Iwasaki, “Validation of aura microwave limb sounder water vapor by balloonborne cryogenic frost point hygrometer measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. D 112, D24S37 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

D. N. Whiteman, B. Demoz, P. Di Girolamo, J. Comer, I. Veselovskii, K. Evans, Z. Wang, D. Sabatino, G. Schwemmer, B. Gentry, R.-F. Lin, A. Behrendt, V. Wulfmeyer, E. Browell, R. Ferrare, and S. Ismail, J. Wang, “Raman water vapor lidar measurements during the International H2O Project. II. Case studies,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 23, 170–183 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. N. Whiteman, F. Russo, L. Miloshevich, B. Demoz, Z. Wang, I. Veselovskii, H. Voemel, S. Hannon, B. Lesht, F. Schmidlin, A. Gambacorta, and C. Barnet, “Analysis of Raman lidar and radiosonde measurements from the AWEX-G field campaign and its relation to Aqua validation,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, D09S09 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2003

2002

D. D. Turner, R. A. Ferrare, L. A. H. Brasseur, W. F. Feltz, “Automated retrievals of water vapor and aerosol profiles from an operational Raman lidar,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 19, 37–50 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

D. N. Whiteman, K. D. Evans, B. Demoz, D. O’C. Starr, E. Eloranta, D. Tobin, W. Feltz, G. J. Jedlovec, S. I. Gutman, G. K. Schwemmer, M. Cadirola, S. H. Melfi, and F. J. Schmidlin, “Raman lidar measurements of water vapor and cirrus clouds during the passage of hurricane Bonnie,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 5211–5225 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999

1998

E. C. Weatherhead, G. C. Reinsel, G. C. Tiao, X.-L. Meng, D. Hoi, W.-K. Cheang, T. Keller, J. DeLuisi, D. J. Wuebbles, J. B. Kerr, A. J. Miller, S. J. Oltmans, and J. E. Frederick, “Factors affecting the detection of trends: statistical considerations and applications to environmental data,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 17,149–17,161 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

E. C. Weatherhead, G. C. Tiao, G. C. Reinsel, J. E. Frederick, J. J. DeLuisi, D. Choi, and W.-K. Tam, “Analysis of long-term behavior of ultraviolet radiation measured by Robertson-Berger meters at 14 sites in the United States,” J. Geophys Res. 102, 8737–8754 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Adam, M.

D. N. Whiteman, K. Rush, S. Rabenhorst, W. Welch, M. Cadirola, G. McIntire, F. Russo, M. Adam, D. Venable, R. Connell, I. Veselovskii, R. Forno, B. Mielke, B. Stein, T. Leblanc, S. McDermid, and H. Vömel, “Airborne and ground-based measurements using a high-performance Raman lidar,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 27, 1781–1801 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Aspey, R. A.

T. Leblanc, I. S. McDermid, and R. A. Aspey, “First-year operation of a new water vapor Raman lidar at the JPL Table Mountain Facility, California,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 25, 1454–1462 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, J. E.

H. Vömel, J. E. Barnes, R. N. Forno, M. Fujiwara, F. Hasebe, S. Iwasaki, “Validation of aura microwave limb sounder water vapor by balloonborne cryogenic frost point hygrometer measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. D 112, D24S37 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Barnet, C.

D. N. Whiteman, F. Russo, L. Miloshevich, B. Demoz, Z. Wang, I. Veselovskii, H. Voemel, S. Hannon, B. Lesht, F. Schmidlin, A. Gambacorta, and C. Barnet, “Analysis of Raman lidar and radiosonde measurements from the AWEX-G field campaign and its relation to Aqua validation,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, D09S09 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Behrendt, A.

D. N. Whiteman, B. Demoz, P. Di Girolamo, J. Comer, I. Veselovskii, K. Evans, Z. Wang, D. Sabatino, G. Schwemmer, B. Gentry, R.-F. Lin, A. Behrendt, V. Wulfmeyer, E. Browell, R. Ferrare, and S. Ismail, J. Wang, “Raman water vapor lidar measurements during the International H2O Project. II. Case studies,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 23, 170–183 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Berger, F. H.

D. J. Seidel, F. H. Berger, H. J. Diamond, J. Dykema, D. Goodrich, F. Immler, W. Murray, T. Peterson, D. Siststerson, M. Sommer, P. Thorne, H. Vömel, and J. Wang, “Reference upper-air observations for climate: rationale, progress, and plans,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 90, 361–369 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Boers, R.

R. Boers and E. Meijgaard, What are the demands on an observational program to detect trends in upper tropospheric water vapor anticipated in the 21st century, Geophys. Res. Lett. 36, L19806 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Brasseur, L. A. H.

D. D. Turner, R. A. Ferrare, L. A. H. Brasseur, W. F. Feltz, “Automated retrievals of water vapor and aerosol profiles from an operational Raman lidar,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 19, 37–50 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Browell, E.

D. N. Whiteman, B. Demoz, P. Di Girolamo, J. Comer, I. Veselovskii, K. Evans, Z. Wang, D. Sabatino, G. Schwemmer, B. Gentry, R.-F. Lin, A. Behrendt, V. Wulfmeyer, E. Browell, R. Ferrare, and S. Ismail, J. Wang, “Raman water vapor lidar measurements during the International H2O Project. II. Case studies,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 23, 170–183 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cadirola, M.

D. N. Whiteman, K. Rush, S. Rabenhorst, W. Welch, M. Cadirola, G. McIntire, F. Russo, M. Adam, D. Venable, R. Connell, I. Veselovskii, R. Forno, B. Mielke, B. Stein, T. Leblanc, S. McDermid, and H. Vömel, “Airborne and ground-based measurements using a high-performance Raman lidar,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 27, 1781–1801 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. N. Whiteman, K. D. Evans, B. Demoz, D. O’C. Starr, E. Eloranta, D. Tobin, W. Feltz, G. J. Jedlovec, S. I. Gutman, G. K. Schwemmer, M. Cadirola, S. H. Melfi, and F. J. Schmidlin, “Raman lidar measurements of water vapor and cirrus clouds during the passage of hurricane Bonnie,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 5211–5225 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Calhoun, M. N.

D. D. Venable, D. N. Whiteman, M. N. Calhoun, A. O. Dirisu, R. N. Connell, and E. Landulfo are preparing a manuscript to be called “A lamp mapping technique for independent determination of the water vapor mixing ratio calibration factor for a Raman lidar system.”

Calpini, B.

Cheang, W.-K.

E. C. Weatherhead, G. C. Reinsel, G. C. Tiao, X.-L. Meng, D. Hoi, W.-K. Cheang, T. Keller, J. DeLuisi, D. J. Wuebbles, J. B. Kerr, A. J. Miller, S. J. Oltmans, and J. E. Frederick, “Factors affecting the detection of trends: statistical considerations and applications to environmental data,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 17,149–17,161 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Choi, D.

E. C. Weatherhead, G. C. Tiao, G. C. Reinsel, J. E. Frederick, J. J. DeLuisi, D. Choi, and W.-K. Tam, “Analysis of long-term behavior of ultraviolet radiation measured by Robertson-Berger meters at 14 sites in the United States,” J. Geophys Res. 102, 8737–8754 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Comer, J.

D. N. Whiteman, B. Demoz, P. Di Girolamo, J. Comer, I. Veselovskii, K. Evans, Z. Wang, D. Sabatino, G. Schwemmer, B. Gentry, R.-F. Lin, A. Behrendt, V. Wulfmeyer, E. Browell, R. Ferrare, and S. Ismail, J. Wang, “Raman water vapor lidar measurements during the International H2O Project. II. Case studies,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 23, 170–183 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Connell, R.

D. N. Whiteman, K. Rush, S. Rabenhorst, W. Welch, M. Cadirola, G. McIntire, F. Russo, M. Adam, D. Venable, R. Connell, I. Veselovskii, R. Forno, B. Mielke, B. Stein, T. Leblanc, S. McDermid, and H. Vömel, “Airborne and ground-based measurements using a high-performance Raman lidar,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 27, 1781–1801 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Connell, R. N.

D. D. Venable, D. N. Whiteman, M. N. Calhoun, A. O. Dirisu, R. N. Connell, and E. Landulfo are preparing a manuscript to be called “A lamp mapping technique for independent determination of the water vapor mixing ratio calibration factor for a Raman lidar system.”

Da Costa, R. F.

E. Landulfo, R. F. Da Costa, A. S. Torres, F. J. S. Lopes, D. N. Whiteman, D. D. Venable, “Raman water vapor lidar calibration,” Proc. SPIE 7479, 74790J (2009).
[CrossRef]

DeLuisi, J.

E. C. Weatherhead, G. C. Reinsel, G. C. Tiao, X.-L. Meng, D. Hoi, W.-K. Cheang, T. Keller, J. DeLuisi, D. J. Wuebbles, J. B. Kerr, A. J. Miller, S. J. Oltmans, and J. E. Frederick, “Factors affecting the detection of trends: statistical considerations and applications to environmental data,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 17,149–17,161 (1998).
[CrossRef]

DeLuisi, J. J.

E. C. Weatherhead, G. C. Tiao, G. C. Reinsel, J. E. Frederick, J. J. DeLuisi, D. Choi, and W.-K. Tam, “Analysis of long-term behavior of ultraviolet radiation measured by Robertson-Berger meters at 14 sites in the United States,” J. Geophys Res. 102, 8737–8754 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Demoz, B.

D. N. Whiteman, F. Russo, L. Miloshevich, B. Demoz, Z. Wang, I. Veselovskii, H. Voemel, S. Hannon, B. Lesht, F. Schmidlin, A. Gambacorta, and C. Barnet, “Analysis of Raman lidar and radiosonde measurements from the AWEX-G field campaign and its relation to Aqua validation,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, D09S09 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. N. Whiteman, B. Demoz, P. Di Girolamo, J. Comer, I. Veselovskii, K. Evans, Z. Wang, D. Sabatino, G. Schwemmer, B. Gentry, R.-F. Lin, A. Behrendt, V. Wulfmeyer, E. Browell, R. Ferrare, and S. Ismail, J. Wang, “Raman water vapor lidar measurements during the International H2O Project. II. Case studies,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 23, 170–183 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. N. Whiteman, K. D. Evans, B. Demoz, D. O’C. Starr, E. Eloranta, D. Tobin, W. Feltz, G. J. Jedlovec, S. I. Gutman, G. K. Schwemmer, M. Cadirola, S. H. Melfi, and F. J. Schmidlin, “Raman lidar measurements of water vapor and cirrus clouds during the passage of hurricane Bonnie,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 5211–5225 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Di Girolamo, P.

D. N. Whiteman, B. Demoz, P. Di Girolamo, J. Comer, I. Veselovskii, K. Evans, Z. Wang, D. Sabatino, G. Schwemmer, B. Gentry, R.-F. Lin, A. Behrendt, V. Wulfmeyer, E. Browell, R. Ferrare, and S. Ismail, J. Wang, “Raman water vapor lidar measurements during the International H2O Project. II. Case studies,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 23, 170–183 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Diamond, H. J.

D. J. Seidel, F. H. Berger, H. J. Diamond, J. Dykema, D. Goodrich, F. Immler, W. Murray, T. Peterson, D. Siststerson, M. Sommer, P. Thorne, H. Vömel, and J. Wang, “Reference upper-air observations for climate: rationale, progress, and plans,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 90, 361–369 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dirisu, A. O.

D. D. Venable, D. N. Whiteman, M. N. Calhoun, A. O. Dirisu, R. N. Connell, and E. Landulfo are preparing a manuscript to be called “A lamp mapping technique for independent determination of the water vapor mixing ratio calibration factor for a Raman lidar system.”

Dykema, J.

D. J. Seidel, F. H. Berger, H. J. Diamond, J. Dykema, D. Goodrich, F. Immler, W. Murray, T. Peterson, D. Siststerson, M. Sommer, P. Thorne, H. Vömel, and J. Wang, “Reference upper-air observations for climate: rationale, progress, and plans,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 90, 361–369 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Eloranta, E.

D. N. Whiteman, K. D. Evans, B. Demoz, D. O’C. Starr, E. Eloranta, D. Tobin, W. Feltz, G. J. Jedlovec, S. I. Gutman, G. K. Schwemmer, M. Cadirola, S. H. Melfi, and F. J. Schmidlin, “Raman lidar measurements of water vapor and cirrus clouds during the passage of hurricane Bonnie,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 5211–5225 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Evans, K.

D. N. Whiteman, B. Demoz, P. Di Girolamo, J. Comer, I. Veselovskii, K. Evans, Z. Wang, D. Sabatino, G. Schwemmer, B. Gentry, R.-F. Lin, A. Behrendt, V. Wulfmeyer, E. Browell, R. Ferrare, and S. Ismail, J. Wang, “Raman water vapor lidar measurements during the International H2O Project. II. Case studies,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 23, 170–183 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Evans, K. D.

D. N. Whiteman, K. D. Evans, B. Demoz, D. O’C. Starr, E. Eloranta, D. Tobin, W. Feltz, G. J. Jedlovec, S. I. Gutman, G. K. Schwemmer, M. Cadirola, S. H. Melfi, and F. J. Schmidlin, “Raman lidar measurements of water vapor and cirrus clouds during the passage of hurricane Bonnie,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 5211–5225 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Feltz, W.

D. N. Whiteman, K. D. Evans, B. Demoz, D. O’C. Starr, E. Eloranta, D. Tobin, W. Feltz, G. J. Jedlovec, S. I. Gutman, G. K. Schwemmer, M. Cadirola, S. H. Melfi, and F. J. Schmidlin, “Raman lidar measurements of water vapor and cirrus clouds during the passage of hurricane Bonnie,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 5211–5225 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Feltz, W. F.

D. D. Turner, R. A. Ferrare, L. A. H. Brasseur, W. F. Feltz, “Automated retrievals of water vapor and aerosol profiles from an operational Raman lidar,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 19, 37–50 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ferrare, R.

D. N. Whiteman, B. Demoz, P. Di Girolamo, J. Comer, I. Veselovskii, K. Evans, Z. Wang, D. Sabatino, G. Schwemmer, B. Gentry, R.-F. Lin, A. Behrendt, V. Wulfmeyer, E. Browell, R. Ferrare, and S. Ismail, J. Wang, “Raman water vapor lidar measurements during the International H2O Project. II. Case studies,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 23, 170–183 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ferrare, R. A.

D. D. Turner, R. A. Ferrare, L. A. H. Brasseur, W. F. Feltz, “Automated retrievals of water vapor and aerosol profiles from an operational Raman lidar,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 19, 37–50 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Forno, R.

D. N. Whiteman, K. Rush, S. Rabenhorst, W. Welch, M. Cadirola, G. McIntire, F. Russo, M. Adam, D. Venable, R. Connell, I. Veselovskii, R. Forno, B. Mielke, B. Stein, T. Leblanc, S. McDermid, and H. Vömel, “Airborne and ground-based measurements using a high-performance Raman lidar,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 27, 1781–1801 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Forno, R. N.

H. Vömel, J. E. Barnes, R. N. Forno, M. Fujiwara, F. Hasebe, S. Iwasaki, “Validation of aura microwave limb sounder water vapor by balloonborne cryogenic frost point hygrometer measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. D 112, D24S37 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Frederick, J. E.

E. C. Weatherhead, G. C. Reinsel, G. C. Tiao, X.-L. Meng, D. Hoi, W.-K. Cheang, T. Keller, J. DeLuisi, D. J. Wuebbles, J. B. Kerr, A. J. Miller, S. J. Oltmans, and J. E. Frederick, “Factors affecting the detection of trends: statistical considerations and applications to environmental data,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 17,149–17,161 (1998).
[CrossRef]

E. C. Weatherhead, G. C. Tiao, G. C. Reinsel, J. E. Frederick, J. J. DeLuisi, D. Choi, and W.-K. Tam, “Analysis of long-term behavior of ultraviolet radiation measured by Robertson-Berger meters at 14 sites in the United States,” J. Geophys Res. 102, 8737–8754 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fujiwara, M.

H. Vömel, J. E. Barnes, R. N. Forno, M. Fujiwara, F. Hasebe, S. Iwasaki, “Validation of aura microwave limb sounder water vapor by balloonborne cryogenic frost point hygrometer measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. D 112, D24S37 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gambacorta, A.

D. N. Whiteman, F. Russo, L. Miloshevich, B. Demoz, Z. Wang, I. Veselovskii, H. Voemel, S. Hannon, B. Lesht, F. Schmidlin, A. Gambacorta, and C. Barnet, “Analysis of Raman lidar and radiosonde measurements from the AWEX-G field campaign and its relation to Aqua validation,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, D09S09 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Garnier, A.

Gentry, B.

D. N. Whiteman, B. Demoz, P. Di Girolamo, J. Comer, I. Veselovskii, K. Evans, Z. Wang, D. Sabatino, G. Schwemmer, B. Gentry, R.-F. Lin, A. Behrendt, V. Wulfmeyer, E. Browell, R. Ferrare, and S. Ismail, J. Wang, “Raman water vapor lidar measurements during the International H2O Project. II. Case studies,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 23, 170–183 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Goodrich, D.

D. J. Seidel, F. H. Berger, H. J. Diamond, J. Dykema, D. Goodrich, F. Immler, W. Murray, T. Peterson, D. Siststerson, M. Sommer, P. Thorne, H. Vömel, and J. Wang, “Reference upper-air observations for climate: rationale, progress, and plans,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 90, 361–369 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gutman, S. I.

D. N. Whiteman, K. D. Evans, B. Demoz, D. O’C. Starr, E. Eloranta, D. Tobin, W. Feltz, G. J. Jedlovec, S. I. Gutman, G. K. Schwemmer, M. Cadirola, S. H. Melfi, and F. J. Schmidlin, “Raman lidar measurements of water vapor and cirrus clouds during the passage of hurricane Bonnie,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 5211–5225 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hannon, S.

D. N. Whiteman, F. Russo, L. Miloshevich, B. Demoz, Z. Wang, I. Veselovskii, H. Voemel, S. Hannon, B. Lesht, F. Schmidlin, A. Gambacorta, and C. Barnet, “Analysis of Raman lidar and radiosonde measurements from the AWEX-G field campaign and its relation to Aqua validation,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, D09S09 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hasebe, F.

H. Vömel, J. E. Barnes, R. N. Forno, M. Fujiwara, F. Hasebe, S. Iwasaki, “Validation of aura microwave limb sounder water vapor by balloonborne cryogenic frost point hygrometer measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. D 112, D24S37 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hauchecorne, A.

Hoi, D.

E. C. Weatherhead, G. C. Reinsel, G. C. Tiao, X.-L. Meng, D. Hoi, W.-K. Cheang, T. Keller, J. DeLuisi, D. J. Wuebbles, J. B. Kerr, A. J. Miller, S. J. Oltmans, and J. E. Frederick, “Factors affecting the detection of trends: statistical considerations and applications to environmental data,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 17,149–17,161 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Immler, F.

D. J. Seidel, F. H. Berger, H. J. Diamond, J. Dykema, D. Goodrich, F. Immler, W. Murray, T. Peterson, D. Siststerson, M. Sommer, P. Thorne, H. Vömel, and J. Wang, “Reference upper-air observations for climate: rationale, progress, and plans,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 90, 361–369 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ismail, S.

D. N. Whiteman, B. Demoz, P. Di Girolamo, J. Comer, I. Veselovskii, K. Evans, Z. Wang, D. Sabatino, G. Schwemmer, B. Gentry, R.-F. Lin, A. Behrendt, V. Wulfmeyer, E. Browell, R. Ferrare, and S. Ismail, J. Wang, “Raman water vapor lidar measurements during the International H2O Project. II. Case studies,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 23, 170–183 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Iwasaki, S.

H. Vömel, J. E. Barnes, R. N. Forno, M. Fujiwara, F. Hasebe, S. Iwasaki, “Validation of aura microwave limb sounder water vapor by balloonborne cryogenic frost point hygrometer measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. D 112, D24S37 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jedlovec, G. J.

D. N. Whiteman, K. D. Evans, B. Demoz, D. O’C. Starr, E. Eloranta, D. Tobin, W. Feltz, G. J. Jedlovec, S. I. Gutman, G. K. Schwemmer, M. Cadirola, S. H. Melfi, and F. J. Schmidlin, “Raman lidar measurements of water vapor and cirrus clouds during the passage of hurricane Bonnie,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 5211–5225 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Keckhut, P.

Keller, T.

E. C. Weatherhead, G. C. Reinsel, G. C. Tiao, X.-L. Meng, D. Hoi, W.-K. Cheang, T. Keller, J. DeLuisi, D. J. Wuebbles, J. B. Kerr, A. J. Miller, S. J. Oltmans, and J. E. Frederick, “Factors affecting the detection of trends: statistical considerations and applications to environmental data,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 17,149–17,161 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kerr, J. B.

E. C. Weatherhead, G. C. Reinsel, G. C. Tiao, X.-L. Meng, D. Hoi, W.-K. Cheang, T. Keller, J. DeLuisi, D. J. Wuebbles, J. B. Kerr, A. J. Miller, S. J. Oltmans, and J. E. Frederick, “Factors affecting the detection of trends: statistical considerations and applications to environmental data,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 17,149–17,161 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Landulfo, E.

E. Landulfo, R. F. Da Costa, A. S. Torres, F. J. S. Lopes, D. N. Whiteman, D. D. Venable, “Raman water vapor lidar calibration,” Proc. SPIE 7479, 74790J (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. D. Venable, D. N. Whiteman, M. N. Calhoun, A. O. Dirisu, R. N. Connell, and E. Landulfo are preparing a manuscript to be called “A lamp mapping technique for independent determination of the water vapor mixing ratio calibration factor for a Raman lidar system.”

A. S. Torres, E. Landulfo, D. N. Whiteman, and D. Venable, “Water vapor raman lidar independent calibration,” presented at the 24th International Laser Radar Conference, Boulder, Colorado, USA, 23–28 June 2008.

Larcheveque, G.

Leblanc, T.

D. N. Whiteman, K. Rush, S. Rabenhorst, W. Welch, M. Cadirola, G. McIntire, F. Russo, M. Adam, D. Venable, R. Connell, I. Veselovskii, R. Forno, B. Mielke, B. Stein, T. Leblanc, S. McDermid, and H. Vömel, “Airborne and ground-based measurements using a high-performance Raman lidar,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 27, 1781–1801 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Leblanc and I. S. McDermid, “Accuracy of Raman lidar water vapor calibration and its applicability to long-term measurements,” Appl. Opt. , 47, 5592–5603 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Leblanc, I. S. McDermid, and R. A. Aspey, “First-year operation of a new water vapor Raman lidar at the JPL Table Mountain Facility, California,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 25, 1454–1462 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lenoble, J.

Lesht, B.

D. N. Whiteman, F. Russo, L. Miloshevich, B. Demoz, Z. Wang, I. Veselovskii, H. Voemel, S. Hannon, B. Lesht, F. Schmidlin, A. Gambacorta, and C. Barnet, “Analysis of Raman lidar and radiosonde measurements from the AWEX-G field campaign and its relation to Aqua validation,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, D09S09 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lin, R.-F.

D. N. Whiteman, B. Demoz, P. Di Girolamo, J. Comer, I. Veselovskii, K. Evans, Z. Wang, D. Sabatino, G. Schwemmer, B. Gentry, R.-F. Lin, A. Behrendt, V. Wulfmeyer, E. Browell, R. Ferrare, and S. Ismail, J. Wang, “Raman water vapor lidar measurements during the International H2O Project. II. Case studies,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 23, 170–183 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lopes, F. J. S.

E. Landulfo, R. F. Da Costa, A. S. Torres, F. J. S. Lopes, D. N. Whiteman, D. D. Venable, “Raman water vapor lidar calibration,” Proc. SPIE 7479, 74790J (2009).
[CrossRef]

McDermid, I. S.

T. Leblanc and I. S. McDermid, “Accuracy of Raman lidar water vapor calibration and its applicability to long-term measurements,” Appl. Opt. , 47, 5592–5603 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Leblanc, I. S. McDermid, and R. A. Aspey, “First-year operation of a new water vapor Raman lidar at the JPL Table Mountain Facility, California,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 25, 1454–1462 (2008).
[CrossRef]

McDermid, S.

D. N. Whiteman, K. Rush, S. Rabenhorst, W. Welch, M. Cadirola, G. McIntire, F. Russo, M. Adam, D. Venable, R. Connell, I. Veselovskii, R. Forno, B. Mielke, B. Stein, T. Leblanc, S. McDermid, and H. Vömel, “Airborne and ground-based measurements using a high-performance Raman lidar,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 27, 1781–1801 (2010).
[CrossRef]

McIntire, G.

D. N. Whiteman, K. Rush, S. Rabenhorst, W. Welch, M. Cadirola, G. McIntire, F. Russo, M. Adam, D. Venable, R. Connell, I. Veselovskii, R. Forno, B. Mielke, B. Stein, T. Leblanc, S. McDermid, and H. Vömel, “Airborne and ground-based measurements using a high-performance Raman lidar,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 27, 1781–1801 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Meijgaard, E.

R. Boers and E. Meijgaard, What are the demands on an observational program to detect trends in upper tropospheric water vapor anticipated in the 21st century, Geophys. Res. Lett. 36, L19806 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Melfi, S. H.

D. N. Whiteman, K. D. Evans, B. Demoz, D. O’C. Starr, E. Eloranta, D. Tobin, W. Feltz, G. J. Jedlovec, S. I. Gutman, G. K. Schwemmer, M. Cadirola, S. H. Melfi, and F. J. Schmidlin, “Raman lidar measurements of water vapor and cirrus clouds during the passage of hurricane Bonnie,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 5211–5225 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Meng, X.-L.

E. C. Weatherhead, G. C. Reinsel, G. C. Tiao, X.-L. Meng, D. Hoi, W.-K. Cheang, T. Keller, J. DeLuisi, D. J. Wuebbles, J. B. Kerr, A. J. Miller, S. J. Oltmans, and J. E. Frederick, “Factors affecting the detection of trends: statistical considerations and applications to environmental data,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 17,149–17,161 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mielke, B.

D. N. Whiteman, K. Rush, S. Rabenhorst, W. Welch, M. Cadirola, G. McIntire, F. Russo, M. Adam, D. Venable, R. Connell, I. Veselovskii, R. Forno, B. Mielke, B. Stein, T. Leblanc, S. McDermid, and H. Vömel, “Airborne and ground-based measurements using a high-performance Raman lidar,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 27, 1781–1801 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Miller, A. J.

E. C. Weatherhead, G. C. Reinsel, G. C. Tiao, X.-L. Meng, D. Hoi, W.-K. Cheang, T. Keller, J. DeLuisi, D. J. Wuebbles, J. B. Kerr, A. J. Miller, S. J. Oltmans, and J. E. Frederick, “Factors affecting the detection of trends: statistical considerations and applications to environmental data,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 17,149–17,161 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Miloshevich, L.

D. N. Whiteman, F. Russo, L. Miloshevich, B. Demoz, Z. Wang, I. Veselovskii, H. Voemel, S. Hannon, B. Lesht, F. Schmidlin, A. Gambacorta, and C. Barnet, “Analysis of Raman lidar and radiosonde measurements from the AWEX-G field campaign and its relation to Aqua validation,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, D09S09 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Murray, W.

D. J. Seidel, F. H. Berger, H. J. Diamond, J. Dykema, D. Goodrich, F. Immler, W. Murray, T. Peterson, D. Siststerson, M. Sommer, P. Thorne, H. Vömel, and J. Wang, “Reference upper-air observations for climate: rationale, progress, and plans,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 90, 361–369 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Oltmans, S. J.

E. C. Weatherhead, G. C. Reinsel, G. C. Tiao, X.-L. Meng, D. Hoi, W.-K. Cheang, T. Keller, J. DeLuisi, D. J. Wuebbles, J. B. Kerr, A. J. Miller, S. J. Oltmans, and J. E. Frederick, “Factors affecting the detection of trends: statistical considerations and applications to environmental data,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 17,149–17,161 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Peterson, T.

D. J. Seidel, F. H. Berger, H. J. Diamond, J. Dykema, D. Goodrich, F. Immler, W. Murray, T. Peterson, D. Siststerson, M. Sommer, P. Thorne, H. Vömel, and J. Wang, “Reference upper-air observations for climate: rationale, progress, and plans,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 90, 361–369 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Quaglia, P.

Rabenhorst, S.

D. N. Whiteman, K. Rush, S. Rabenhorst, W. Welch, M. Cadirola, G. McIntire, F. Russo, M. Adam, D. Venable, R. Connell, I. Veselovskii, R. Forno, B. Mielke, B. Stein, T. Leblanc, S. McDermid, and H. Vömel, “Airborne and ground-based measurements using a high-performance Raman lidar,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 27, 1781–1801 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Reinsel, G. C.

E. C. Weatherhead, G. C. Reinsel, G. C. Tiao, X.-L. Meng, D. Hoi, W.-K. Cheang, T. Keller, J. DeLuisi, D. J. Wuebbles, J. B. Kerr, A. J. Miller, S. J. Oltmans, and J. E. Frederick, “Factors affecting the detection of trends: statistical considerations and applications to environmental data,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 17,149–17,161 (1998).
[CrossRef]

E. C. Weatherhead, G. C. Tiao, G. C. Reinsel, J. E. Frederick, J. J. DeLuisi, D. Choi, and W.-K. Tam, “Analysis of long-term behavior of ultraviolet radiation measured by Robertson-Berger meters at 14 sites in the United States,” J. Geophys Res. 102, 8737–8754 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rush, K.

D. N. Whiteman, K. Rush, S. Rabenhorst, W. Welch, M. Cadirola, G. McIntire, F. Russo, M. Adam, D. Venable, R. Connell, I. Veselovskii, R. Forno, B. Mielke, B. Stein, T. Leblanc, S. McDermid, and H. Vömel, “Airborne and ground-based measurements using a high-performance Raman lidar,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 27, 1781–1801 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Russo, F.

D. N. Whiteman, K. Rush, S. Rabenhorst, W. Welch, M. Cadirola, G. McIntire, F. Russo, M. Adam, D. Venable, R. Connell, I. Veselovskii, R. Forno, B. Mielke, B. Stein, T. Leblanc, S. McDermid, and H. Vömel, “Airborne and ground-based measurements using a high-performance Raman lidar,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 27, 1781–1801 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. N. Whiteman, F. Russo, L. Miloshevich, B. Demoz, Z. Wang, I. Veselovskii, H. Voemel, S. Hannon, B. Lesht, F. Schmidlin, A. Gambacorta, and C. Barnet, “Analysis of Raman lidar and radiosonde measurements from the AWEX-G field campaign and its relation to Aqua validation,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, D09S09 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sabatino, D.

D. N. Whiteman, B. Demoz, P. Di Girolamo, J. Comer, I. Veselovskii, K. Evans, Z. Wang, D. Sabatino, G. Schwemmer, B. Gentry, R.-F. Lin, A. Behrendt, V. Wulfmeyer, E. Browell, R. Ferrare, and S. Ismail, J. Wang, “Raman water vapor lidar measurements during the International H2O Project. II. Case studies,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 23, 170–183 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schmidlin, F.

D. N. Whiteman, F. Russo, L. Miloshevich, B. Demoz, Z. Wang, I. Veselovskii, H. Voemel, S. Hannon, B. Lesht, F. Schmidlin, A. Gambacorta, and C. Barnet, “Analysis of Raman lidar and radiosonde measurements from the AWEX-G field campaign and its relation to Aqua validation,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, D09S09 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schmidlin, F. J.

D. N. Whiteman, K. D. Evans, B. Demoz, D. O’C. Starr, E. Eloranta, D. Tobin, W. Feltz, G. J. Jedlovec, S. I. Gutman, G. K. Schwemmer, M. Cadirola, S. H. Melfi, and F. J. Schmidlin, “Raman lidar measurements of water vapor and cirrus clouds during the passage of hurricane Bonnie,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 5211–5225 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Schwemmer, G.

D. N. Whiteman, B. Demoz, P. Di Girolamo, J. Comer, I. Veselovskii, K. Evans, Z. Wang, D. Sabatino, G. Schwemmer, B. Gentry, R.-F. Lin, A. Behrendt, V. Wulfmeyer, E. Browell, R. Ferrare, and S. Ismail, J. Wang, “Raman water vapor lidar measurements during the International H2O Project. II. Case studies,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 23, 170–183 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schwemmer, G. K.

D. N. Whiteman, K. D. Evans, B. Demoz, D. O’C. Starr, E. Eloranta, D. Tobin, W. Feltz, G. J. Jedlovec, S. I. Gutman, G. K. Schwemmer, M. Cadirola, S. H. Melfi, and F. J. Schmidlin, “Raman lidar measurements of water vapor and cirrus clouds during the passage of hurricane Bonnie,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 5211–5225 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Seidel, D. J.

D. J. Seidel, F. H. Berger, H. J. Diamond, J. Dykema, D. Goodrich, F. Immler, W. Murray, T. Peterson, D. Siststerson, M. Sommer, P. Thorne, H. Vömel, and J. Wang, “Reference upper-air observations for climate: rationale, progress, and plans,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 90, 361–369 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sherlock, V.

Simeonov, V.

Siststerson, D.

D. J. Seidel, F. H. Berger, H. J. Diamond, J. Dykema, D. Goodrich, F. Immler, W. Murray, T. Peterson, D. Siststerson, M. Sommer, P. Thorne, H. Vömel, and J. Wang, “Reference upper-air observations for climate: rationale, progress, and plans,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 90, 361–369 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sommer, M.

D. J. Seidel, F. H. Berger, H. J. Diamond, J. Dykema, D. Goodrich, F. Immler, W. Murray, T. Peterson, D. Siststerson, M. Sommer, P. Thorne, H. Vömel, and J. Wang, “Reference upper-air observations for climate: rationale, progress, and plans,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 90, 361–369 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Starr, D. O’C.

D. N. Whiteman, K. D. Evans, B. Demoz, D. O’C. Starr, E. Eloranta, D. Tobin, W. Feltz, G. J. Jedlovec, S. I. Gutman, G. K. Schwemmer, M. Cadirola, S. H. Melfi, and F. J. Schmidlin, “Raman lidar measurements of water vapor and cirrus clouds during the passage of hurricane Bonnie,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 5211–5225 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Stein, B.

D. N. Whiteman, K. Rush, S. Rabenhorst, W. Welch, M. Cadirola, G. McIntire, F. Russo, M. Adam, D. Venable, R. Connell, I. Veselovskii, R. Forno, B. Mielke, B. Stein, T. Leblanc, S. McDermid, and H. Vömel, “Airborne and ground-based measurements using a high-performance Raman lidar,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 27, 1781–1801 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tam, W.-K.

E. C. Weatherhead, G. C. Tiao, G. C. Reinsel, J. E. Frederick, J. J. DeLuisi, D. Choi, and W.-K. Tam, “Analysis of long-term behavior of ultraviolet radiation measured by Robertson-Berger meters at 14 sites in the United States,” J. Geophys Res. 102, 8737–8754 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Thorne, P.

D. J. Seidel, F. H. Berger, H. J. Diamond, J. Dykema, D. Goodrich, F. Immler, W. Murray, T. Peterson, D. Siststerson, M. Sommer, P. Thorne, H. Vömel, and J. Wang, “Reference upper-air observations for climate: rationale, progress, and plans,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 90, 361–369 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tiao, G. C.

E. C. Weatherhead, G. C. Reinsel, G. C. Tiao, X.-L. Meng, D. Hoi, W.-K. Cheang, T. Keller, J. DeLuisi, D. J. Wuebbles, J. B. Kerr, A. J. Miller, S. J. Oltmans, and J. E. Frederick, “Factors affecting the detection of trends: statistical considerations and applications to environmental data,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 17,149–17,161 (1998).
[CrossRef]

E. C. Weatherhead, G. C. Tiao, G. C. Reinsel, J. E. Frederick, J. J. DeLuisi, D. Choi, and W.-K. Tam, “Analysis of long-term behavior of ultraviolet radiation measured by Robertson-Berger meters at 14 sites in the United States,” J. Geophys Res. 102, 8737–8754 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tobin, D.

D. N. Whiteman, K. D. Evans, B. Demoz, D. O’C. Starr, E. Eloranta, D. Tobin, W. Feltz, G. J. Jedlovec, S. I. Gutman, G. K. Schwemmer, M. Cadirola, S. H. Melfi, and F. J. Schmidlin, “Raman lidar measurements of water vapor and cirrus clouds during the passage of hurricane Bonnie,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 5211–5225 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Torres, A. S.

E. Landulfo, R. F. Da Costa, A. S. Torres, F. J. S. Lopes, D. N. Whiteman, D. D. Venable, “Raman water vapor lidar calibration,” Proc. SPIE 7479, 74790J (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Torres, E. Landulfo, D. N. Whiteman, and D. Venable, “Water vapor raman lidar independent calibration,” presented at the 24th International Laser Radar Conference, Boulder, Colorado, USA, 23–28 June 2008.

Turner, D. D.

D. D. Turner, R. A. Ferrare, L. A. H. Brasseur, W. F. Feltz, “Automated retrievals of water vapor and aerosol profiles from an operational Raman lidar,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 19, 37–50 (2002).
[CrossRef]

van den Bergh, H.

Venable, D.

D. N. Whiteman, K. Rush, S. Rabenhorst, W. Welch, M. Cadirola, G. McIntire, F. Russo, M. Adam, D. Venable, R. Connell, I. Veselovskii, R. Forno, B. Mielke, B. Stein, T. Leblanc, S. McDermid, and H. Vömel, “Airborne and ground-based measurements using a high-performance Raman lidar,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 27, 1781–1801 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Torres, E. Landulfo, D. N. Whiteman, and D. Venable, “Water vapor raman lidar independent calibration,” presented at the 24th International Laser Radar Conference, Boulder, Colorado, USA, 23–28 June 2008.

Venable, D. D.

E. Landulfo, R. F. Da Costa, A. S. Torres, F. J. S. Lopes, D. N. Whiteman, D. D. Venable, “Raman water vapor lidar calibration,” Proc. SPIE 7479, 74790J (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. D. Venable, D. N. Whiteman, M. N. Calhoun, A. O. Dirisu, R. N. Connell, and E. Landulfo are preparing a manuscript to be called “A lamp mapping technique for independent determination of the water vapor mixing ratio calibration factor for a Raman lidar system.”

Veselovskii, I.

D. N. Whiteman, K. Rush, S. Rabenhorst, W. Welch, M. Cadirola, G. McIntire, F. Russo, M. Adam, D. Venable, R. Connell, I. Veselovskii, R. Forno, B. Mielke, B. Stein, T. Leblanc, S. McDermid, and H. Vömel, “Airborne and ground-based measurements using a high-performance Raman lidar,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 27, 1781–1801 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. N. Whiteman, F. Russo, L. Miloshevich, B. Demoz, Z. Wang, I. Veselovskii, H. Voemel, S. Hannon, B. Lesht, F. Schmidlin, A. Gambacorta, and C. Barnet, “Analysis of Raman lidar and radiosonde measurements from the AWEX-G field campaign and its relation to Aqua validation,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, D09S09 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. N. Whiteman, B. Demoz, P. Di Girolamo, J. Comer, I. Veselovskii, K. Evans, Z. Wang, D. Sabatino, G. Schwemmer, B. Gentry, R.-F. Lin, A. Behrendt, V. Wulfmeyer, E. Browell, R. Ferrare, and S. Ismail, J. Wang, “Raman water vapor lidar measurements during the International H2O Project. II. Case studies,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 23, 170–183 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Voemel, H.

D. N. Whiteman, F. Russo, L. Miloshevich, B. Demoz, Z. Wang, I. Veselovskii, H. Voemel, S. Hannon, B. Lesht, F. Schmidlin, A. Gambacorta, and C. Barnet, “Analysis of Raman lidar and radiosonde measurements from the AWEX-G field campaign and its relation to Aqua validation,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, D09S09 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Vömel, H.

D. N. Whiteman, K. Rush, S. Rabenhorst, W. Welch, M. Cadirola, G. McIntire, F. Russo, M. Adam, D. Venable, R. Connell, I. Veselovskii, R. Forno, B. Mielke, B. Stein, T. Leblanc, S. McDermid, and H. Vömel, “Airborne and ground-based measurements using a high-performance Raman lidar,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 27, 1781–1801 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Seidel, F. H. Berger, H. J. Diamond, J. Dykema, D. Goodrich, F. Immler, W. Murray, T. Peterson, D. Siststerson, M. Sommer, P. Thorne, H. Vömel, and J. Wang, “Reference upper-air observations for climate: rationale, progress, and plans,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 90, 361–369 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Vömel, J. E. Barnes, R. N. Forno, M. Fujiwara, F. Hasebe, S. Iwasaki, “Validation of aura microwave limb sounder water vapor by balloonborne cryogenic frost point hygrometer measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. D 112, D24S37 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

D. J. Seidel, F. H. Berger, H. J. Diamond, J. Dykema, D. Goodrich, F. Immler, W. Murray, T. Peterson, D. Siststerson, M. Sommer, P. Thorne, H. Vömel, and J. Wang, “Reference upper-air observations for climate: rationale, progress, and plans,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 90, 361–369 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. N. Whiteman, B. Demoz, P. Di Girolamo, J. Comer, I. Veselovskii, K. Evans, Z. Wang, D. Sabatino, G. Schwemmer, B. Gentry, R.-F. Lin, A. Behrendt, V. Wulfmeyer, E. Browell, R. Ferrare, and S. Ismail, J. Wang, “Raman water vapor lidar measurements during the International H2O Project. II. Case studies,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 23, 170–183 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Z.

D. N. Whiteman, B. Demoz, P. Di Girolamo, J. Comer, I. Veselovskii, K. Evans, Z. Wang, D. Sabatino, G. Schwemmer, B. Gentry, R.-F. Lin, A. Behrendt, V. Wulfmeyer, E. Browell, R. Ferrare, and S. Ismail, J. Wang, “Raman water vapor lidar measurements during the International H2O Project. II. Case studies,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 23, 170–183 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. N. Whiteman, F. Russo, L. Miloshevich, B. Demoz, Z. Wang, I. Veselovskii, H. Voemel, S. Hannon, B. Lesht, F. Schmidlin, A. Gambacorta, and C. Barnet, “Analysis of Raman lidar and radiosonde measurements from the AWEX-G field campaign and its relation to Aqua validation,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, D09S09 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Weatherhead, E. C.

E. C. Weatherhead, G. C. Reinsel, G. C. Tiao, X.-L. Meng, D. Hoi, W.-K. Cheang, T. Keller, J. DeLuisi, D. J. Wuebbles, J. B. Kerr, A. J. Miller, S. J. Oltmans, and J. E. Frederick, “Factors affecting the detection of trends: statistical considerations and applications to environmental data,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 17,149–17,161 (1998).
[CrossRef]

E. C. Weatherhead, G. C. Tiao, G. C. Reinsel, J. E. Frederick, J. J. DeLuisi, D. Choi, and W.-K. Tam, “Analysis of long-term behavior of ultraviolet radiation measured by Robertson-Berger meters at 14 sites in the United States,” J. Geophys Res. 102, 8737–8754 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Welch, W.

D. N. Whiteman, K. Rush, S. Rabenhorst, W. Welch, M. Cadirola, G. McIntire, F. Russo, M. Adam, D. Venable, R. Connell, I. Veselovskii, R. Forno, B. Mielke, B. Stein, T. Leblanc, S. McDermid, and H. Vömel, “Airborne and ground-based measurements using a high-performance Raman lidar,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 27, 1781–1801 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Whiteman, D. N

Whiteman, D. N.

D. N. Whiteman, K. Rush, S. Rabenhorst, W. Welch, M. Cadirola, G. McIntire, F. Russo, M. Adam, D. Venable, R. Connell, I. Veselovskii, R. Forno, B. Mielke, B. Stein, T. Leblanc, S. McDermid, and H. Vömel, “Airborne and ground-based measurements using a high-performance Raman lidar,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 27, 1781–1801 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Landulfo, R. F. Da Costa, A. S. Torres, F. J. S. Lopes, D. N. Whiteman, D. D. Venable, “Raman water vapor lidar calibration,” Proc. SPIE 7479, 74790J (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. N. Whiteman, F. Russo, L. Miloshevich, B. Demoz, Z. Wang, I. Veselovskii, H. Voemel, S. Hannon, B. Lesht, F. Schmidlin, A. Gambacorta, and C. Barnet, “Analysis of Raman lidar and radiosonde measurements from the AWEX-G field campaign and its relation to Aqua validation,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, D09S09 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. N. Whiteman, B. Demoz, P. Di Girolamo, J. Comer, I. Veselovskii, K. Evans, Z. Wang, D. Sabatino, G. Schwemmer, B. Gentry, R.-F. Lin, A. Behrendt, V. Wulfmeyer, E. Browell, R. Ferrare, and S. Ismail, J. Wang, “Raman water vapor lidar measurements during the International H2O Project. II. Case studies,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 23, 170–183 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. N. Whiteman, “Examination of the traditional Raman lidar technique. II. Evaluating the ratios for water vapor and aerosols,” Appl. Opt. 42, 2593–2608 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. N. Whiteman, K. D. Evans, B. Demoz, D. O’C. Starr, E. Eloranta, D. Tobin, W. Feltz, G. J. Jedlovec, S. I. Gutman, G. K. Schwemmer, M. Cadirola, S. H. Melfi, and F. J. Schmidlin, “Raman lidar measurements of water vapor and cirrus clouds during the passage of hurricane Bonnie,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 5211–5225 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. D. Venable, D. N. Whiteman, M. N. Calhoun, A. O. Dirisu, R. N. Connell, and E. Landulfo are preparing a manuscript to be called “A lamp mapping technique for independent determination of the water vapor mixing ratio calibration factor for a Raman lidar system.”

A. S. Torres, E. Landulfo, D. N. Whiteman, and D. Venable, “Water vapor raman lidar independent calibration,” presented at the 24th International Laser Radar Conference, Boulder, Colorado, USA, 23–28 June 2008.

Wuebbles, D. J.

E. C. Weatherhead, G. C. Reinsel, G. C. Tiao, X.-L. Meng, D. Hoi, W.-K. Cheang, T. Keller, J. DeLuisi, D. J. Wuebbles, J. B. Kerr, A. J. Miller, S. J. Oltmans, and J. E. Frederick, “Factors affecting the detection of trends: statistical considerations and applications to environmental data,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 17,149–17,161 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wulfmeyer, V.

D. N. Whiteman, B. Demoz, P. Di Girolamo, J. Comer, I. Veselovskii, K. Evans, Z. Wang, D. Sabatino, G. Schwemmer, B. Gentry, R.-F. Lin, A. Behrendt, V. Wulfmeyer, E. Browell, R. Ferrare, and S. Ismail, J. Wang, “Raman water vapor lidar measurements during the International H2O Project. II. Case studies,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 23, 170–183 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc.

D. J. Seidel, F. H. Berger, H. J. Diamond, J. Dykema, D. Goodrich, F. Immler, W. Murray, T. Peterson, D. Siststerson, M. Sommer, P. Thorne, H. Vömel, and J. Wang, “Reference upper-air observations for climate: rationale, progress, and plans,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 90, 361–369 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Geophys. Res. Lett.

R. Boers and E. Meijgaard, What are the demands on an observational program to detect trends in upper tropospheric water vapor anticipated in the 21st century, Geophys. Res. Lett. 36, L19806 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol.

D. N. Whiteman, K. Rush, S. Rabenhorst, W. Welch, M. Cadirola, G. McIntire, F. Russo, M. Adam, D. Venable, R. Connell, I. Veselovskii, R. Forno, B. Mielke, B. Stein, T. Leblanc, S. McDermid, and H. Vömel, “Airborne and ground-based measurements using a high-performance Raman lidar,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 27, 1781–1801 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. D. Turner, R. A. Ferrare, L. A. H. Brasseur, W. F. Feltz, “Automated retrievals of water vapor and aerosol profiles from an operational Raman lidar,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 19, 37–50 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Leblanc, I. S. McDermid, and R. A. Aspey, “First-year operation of a new water vapor Raman lidar at the JPL Table Mountain Facility, California,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 25, 1454–1462 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol.

D. N. Whiteman, B. Demoz, P. Di Girolamo, J. Comer, I. Veselovskii, K. Evans, Z. Wang, D. Sabatino, G. Schwemmer, B. Gentry, R.-F. Lin, A. Behrendt, V. Wulfmeyer, E. Browell, R. Ferrare, and S. Ismail, J. Wang, “Raman water vapor lidar measurements during the International H2O Project. II. Case studies,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 23, 170–183 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys Res.

E. C. Weatherhead, G. C. Tiao, G. C. Reinsel, J. E. Frederick, J. J. DeLuisi, D. Choi, and W.-K. Tam, “Analysis of long-term behavior of ultraviolet radiation measured by Robertson-Berger meters at 14 sites in the United States,” J. Geophys Res. 102, 8737–8754 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res.

E. C. Weatherhead, G. C. Reinsel, G. C. Tiao, X.-L. Meng, D. Hoi, W.-K. Cheang, T. Keller, J. DeLuisi, D. J. Wuebbles, J. B. Kerr, A. J. Miller, S. J. Oltmans, and J. E. Frederick, “Factors affecting the detection of trends: statistical considerations and applications to environmental data,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 17,149–17,161 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. N. Whiteman, K. D. Evans, B. Demoz, D. O’C. Starr, E. Eloranta, D. Tobin, W. Feltz, G. J. Jedlovec, S. I. Gutman, G. K. Schwemmer, M. Cadirola, S. H. Melfi, and F. J. Schmidlin, “Raman lidar measurements of water vapor and cirrus clouds during the passage of hurricane Bonnie,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 5211–5225 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. N. Whiteman, F. Russo, L. Miloshevich, B. Demoz, Z. Wang, I. Veselovskii, H. Voemel, S. Hannon, B. Lesht, F. Schmidlin, A. Gambacorta, and C. Barnet, “Analysis of Raman lidar and radiosonde measurements from the AWEX-G field campaign and its relation to Aqua validation,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, D09S09 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. D

H. Vömel, J. E. Barnes, R. N. Forno, M. Fujiwara, F. Hasebe, S. Iwasaki, “Validation of aura microwave limb sounder water vapor by balloonborne cryogenic frost point hygrometer measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. D 112, D24S37 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

E. Landulfo, R. F. Da Costa, A. S. Torres, F. J. S. Lopes, D. N. Whiteman, D. D. Venable, “Raman water vapor lidar calibration,” Proc. SPIE 7479, 74790J (2009).
[CrossRef]

Other

D. D. Venable, D. N. Whiteman, M. N. Calhoun, A. O. Dirisu, R. N. Connell, and E. Landulfo are preparing a manuscript to be called “A lamp mapping technique for independent determination of the water vapor mixing ratio calibration factor for a Raman lidar system.”

Optronics Laboratories, 4632 36th Street Orlando, FL 32811 (personal communication, 2009).

A. S. Torres, E. Landulfo, D. N. Whiteman, and D. Venable, “Water vapor raman lidar independent calibration,” presented at the 24th International Laser Radar Conference, Boulder, Colorado, USA, 23–28 June 2008.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Ray trace of a spectral lamp at a fixed position in front of a telescope system. The Cassegrain telescope consists of a primary and secondary. Also, beam handling optics are shown behind the telescope primary. The red rays indicate the lamp output in all directions. The blue rays are those that fall within the angular field of view of the telescope system and are thus permitted to propagate down the lidar optical train. (Right) The large circle indicates the size of the collimated light bundle created by the beam handling optics shown. The blue rays are those that are permitted to pass through the optical system. These are the rays that fall within + / fov / 2 of a line parallel to the optical axis.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Tungsten lamp is placed at varying positions in front of the HURL telescope as shown in the diagram at the top of the figure. The output from a fiber optic placed at the prime focus of the telescope illuminates a screen with the patterns shown in the lower two rows of figures. The first and last images show no indication of a pattern since these positions were outside of the telescope aperture.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Bandpass of a 0.1 nm interference filter used to measure Raman scattering from atmospheric nitrogen. The transmission of the central 1 / 2 in. of the filter is approximately 55% while 1 / 2 in. off-center the transmission increases to 65%.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

System for translating a calibration lamp across the full aperture of a lidar receiver telescope is shown in the upper photo. A map of the ratio of total optical system efficiencies as a function of the position across the telescope input aperture obtained with the translating calibration lamp is shown in the bottom of the figure. Dropouts due to a horizontal periscope, secondary spider veins, and other obstructions are apparent in the mapping.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Histogram of the measured efficiency ratios recorded using a calibration lamp scanned over the full aperture of the HURL. The range of measured values is approximately 7%.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(Left) A series of water vapor mixing ratio profiles taken with the N 2 filter at various tilt angles. The profiles have been individually calibrated. Efficiency ratios using a calibration lamp were quantified at each angle. (Right) The calibration number required for each of the profiles shown on the left along with the measured lamp ratios at each angle. No lamp data were acquired when the filter was tilted at an angle of 3 ° .

Equations (1)

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w = k O N ( r ) O H ( r ) F N ( T ) F H ( T ) P ( λ H , r ) P ( λ N , r ) d σ N ( π ) d Ω d σ H ( π ) d Ω ξ ( λ N ) ξ ( λ H ) Δ τ ( λ N , λ H , r ) ,

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