Abstract

We are concerned with the coding of subimage-transformed elemental images to solve the problems of data transmission and storage in three-dimensional (3D) integral imaging in this paper. First, we use the subimage transform for preprocessing of the elemental image array (EIA). Because of the similarity of correlation distributions between the subimage array (SIA) and multiview video, we present a hierarchi cal prediction structure for SIA coding based on the hierarchical B picture (HBP) structure for multiview video coding. Moreover, we design a multithreaded parallel implementation for the proposed structure according to inter-row prediction dependencies. Experiments are performed on both EIAs and SIAs. The results show that employing the same coding strategy, the proposed parallel implemented HBP scheme achieves not only higher image quality and better 3D effect but also lower coding delay at low bit rates compared with the previously reported Hilbert-curve-based scheme.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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2009 (2)

2008 (6)

C. Wu, M. McCormick, A. Aggoun, and S. Y. Kung, “Depth mapping of integral images through viewpoint image extraction with a hybrid disparity analysis algorithm,” J. Display Technol. 4, 101–108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M.-S. Kim, G. Baasantseren, N. Kim, and J.-H. Park, “Hologram generation of 3D objects using multiple orthographic view images,” J. Opt. Soc. Korea 12, 269–274 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H.-H. Kang, D.-H. Shin, and E.-S. Kim, “Compression scheme of sub-images using Karhunen-Loeve transform in three-dimensional integral imaging,” Opt. Commun. 281, 3640–3647 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Aggoun and M. Mazri, “Wavelet-based compression algorithm for still omnidirectional 3D integral images,” Signal Image Video Process. 2, 141–153 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Sgouros, I. Kontaxakis, and M. Sangriotis, “Effect of different traversal schemes in integral image encoding,” Appl. Opt. 47, D28–D37 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Chaikalis, N. Sgouros, D. Maroulis, and P. Papageorgas, “Hardware implementation of a disparity estimation scheme for real-time compression in 3D imaging applications,” J. Vis. Commun. Image Rep. 19, 1–11 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

E. Elharar, A. Stern, O. Hadar, and B. Javidi, “A hybrid compression method for integral images using discrete wavelet transform and discrete cosine transform,” J. Display Technol. 3, 321–325 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Merkle, A. Smolic, K. Muller, and T. Wiegand, “Efficient prediction structures for multiview video coding,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. Video Technol. 17, 1461–1473(2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

J.-S. Jang, S. Yeom, and B. Javidi, “Compression of ray information in three-dimensional integral imaging,” Opt. Eng. 44, 1–10 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

2003 (2)

T. Wiegand, H. Schwarz, A. Joch, F. Kossentini, and G. J. Sullivan, “Rate-constrained coder control and comparison of video coding standards,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. Video Technol. 13, 688–703 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Mazri and A. Aggoun, “Compression of 3D integral images using wavelet decomposition,” Proc. SPIE 5150, 1181–1192(2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (3)

R. Zaharia, A. Aggoun, and M. McCormick, “Adaptive 3D-DCT compression algorithm for continuous parallax 3D integral imaging,” Signal Process. Image Commun. 17, 231–242(2002).
[CrossRef]

J.-H. Park, S. Jung, H. Choi, and B. Lee, “A novel depth extraction algorithm incorporating a lens array and a camera by reassembling pixel columns of elemental images,” Proc. SPIE 4929, 49–58 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. Wu, A. Aggoun, M. McCormick, and S. Y. Kung, “Depth extraction from unidirectional integral image using a modified multi-baseline technique,” Proc. SPIE 4660, 135–143 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Adedoyin, S.

S. Adedoyin, W. A. C. Fernando, A. Aggoun, and W. A. R. Weerakkody, “An ES based efficient motion estimation technique for 3D integral video compression,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Image Processing (IEEE, 2007), Vol. 3, pp. III-393–III-396.

Aggoun, A.

A. Aggoun and M. Mazri, “Wavelet-based compression algorithm for still omnidirectional 3D integral images,” Signal Image Video Process. 2, 141–153 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Wu, M. McCormick, A. Aggoun, and S. Y. Kung, “Depth mapping of integral images through viewpoint image extraction with a hybrid disparity analysis algorithm,” J. Display Technol. 4, 101–108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Mazri and A. Aggoun, “Compression of 3D integral images using wavelet decomposition,” Proc. SPIE 5150, 1181–1192(2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Zaharia, A. Aggoun, and M. McCormick, “Adaptive 3D-DCT compression algorithm for continuous parallax 3D integral imaging,” Signal Process. Image Commun. 17, 231–242(2002).
[CrossRef]

C. Wu, A. Aggoun, M. McCormick, and S. Y. Kung, “Depth extraction from unidirectional integral image using a modified multi-baseline technique,” Proc. SPIE 4660, 135–143 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Forman, A. Aggoun, and M. McCormick, “A novel coding scheme for full parallax 3D-TV pictures,” in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing (IEEE, 1997), Vol.  4, pp. 2945–2947.

M. C. Forman and A. Aggoun, “Quantisation strategies for 3D-DCT-based compression of full parallax 3D images,” in Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Image Processing and Its Application (IEEE, 1997), pp. 32–35.
[CrossRef]

R. Zaharia, A. Aggoun, and M. McCormick, “Compression of full parallax colour integral 3D TV image data based on sub-sampling of chrominance components,” in Proceedings of the Data Compression Conference (IEEE, 2001), p. 527.

A. Aggoun, “A 3D DCT compression algorithm for omnidirectional integral images,” in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing (IEEE, 2006), Vol.  2, pp. II-517–II-520.
[CrossRef]

A. Aggoun and M. Tabit, “Data compression of integral images for 3D TV,” in IEEE Conference on 3D TV (IEEE, 2007), pp. 1–4.

M. C. Forman, A. Aggoun, and M. McCormick, “Compression of integral 3D TV pictures,” in Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Image Processing and Its Application (IEEE, 1995), pp. 584–588.
[CrossRef]

S. Adedoyin, W. A. C. Fernando, A. Aggoun, and W. A. R. Weerakkody, “An ES based efficient motion estimation technique for 3D integral video compression,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Image Processing (IEEE, 2007), Vol. 3, pp. III-393–III-396.

Andreou, A. G.

N. P. Sgouros, A. G. Andreou, M. S. Sangriotis, P. G. Papageorgas, D. M. Maroulis, and N. G. Theofanous, “Compression of IP images for autostereoscopic 3D imaging applications,” in Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Image and Signal Processing and Analysis, S.Loncaric, A.Neri, and H.Babic, eds. (IEEE, 2003), pp. 223–227.
[CrossRef]

Baasantseren, G.

Chaikalis, D.

D. Chaikalis, N. Sgouros, D. Maroulis, and P. Papageorgas, “Hardware implementation of a disparity estimation scheme for real-time compression in 3D imaging applications,” J. Vis. Commun. Image Rep. 19, 1–11 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chaikalis, D. P.

D. P. Chaikalis, N. P. Sgouros, and D. E. Maroulis, “Real-time processing pipeline for 3D imaging applications,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Digital Signal Processing (IEEE, 2009), pp. 1–6.
[CrossRef]

N. P. Sgouros, D. P. Chaikalis, P. G. Papageorgas, and M. S. Sangriotis, “Omnidirectional integral photography images compression using the 3D-DCT,” in Adaptive Optics: Analysis and Methods/Computational Optical Sensing and Imaging/Information Photonics/Signal Recovery and Synthesis Topical Meetings on CD-ROM, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper DTuA2.
[PubMed]

Choi, H.

J.-H. Park, S. Jung, H. Choi, Y. Kim, and B. Lee, “Depth extraction by use of a rectangular lens array and one-dimensional elemental image modification,” Appl. Opt. 43, 4882–4895 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-H. Park, S. Jung, H. Choi, and B. Lee, “A novel depth extraction algorithm incorporating a lens array and a camera by reassembling pixel columns of elemental images,” Proc. SPIE 4929, 49–58 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Elharar, E.

Fernando, W. A. C.

S. Adedoyin, W. A. C. Fernando, A. Aggoun, and W. A. R. Weerakkody, “An ES based efficient motion estimation technique for 3D integral video compression,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Image Processing (IEEE, 2007), Vol. 3, pp. III-393–III-396.

Forman, M. C.

M. C. Forman, “Compression of integral three-dimensional television pictures,” Ph.D. thesis (De Montfort University, 1999).

M. C. Forman, A. Aggoun, and M. McCormick, “Compression of integral 3D TV pictures,” in Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Image Processing and Its Application (IEEE, 1995), pp. 584–588.
[CrossRef]

M. C. Forman, A. Aggoun, and M. McCormick, “A novel coding scheme for full parallax 3D-TV pictures,” in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing (IEEE, 1997), Vol.  4, pp. 2945–2947.

M. C. Forman and A. Aggoun, “Quantisation strategies for 3D-DCT-based compression of full parallax 3D images,” in Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Image Processing and Its Application (IEEE, 1997), pp. 32–35.
[CrossRef]

Hadar, O.

Hong, K.

Jang, J.-S.

J.-S. Jang, S. Yeom, and B. Javidi, “Compression of ray information in three-dimensional integral imaging,” Opt. Eng. 44, 1–10 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Javidi, B.

Joch, A.

T. Wiegand, H. Schwarz, A. Joch, F. Kossentini, and G. J. Sullivan, “Rate-constrained coder control and comparison of video coding standards,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. Video Technol. 13, 688–703 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jung, S.

J.-H. Park, S. Jung, H. Choi, Y. Kim, and B. Lee, “Depth extraction by use of a rectangular lens array and one-dimensional elemental image modification,” Appl. Opt. 43, 4882–4895 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-H. Park, S. Jung, H. Choi, and B. Lee, “A novel depth extraction algorithm incorporating a lens array and a camera by reassembling pixel columns of elemental images,” Proc. SPIE 4929, 49–58 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kang, H.-H.

H.-H. Kang, D.-H. Shin, and E.-S. Kim, “Compression scheme of sub-images using Karhunen-Loeve transform in three-dimensional integral imaging,” Opt. Commun. 281, 3640–3647 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, E.-S.

H.-H. Kang, D.-H. Shin, and E.-S. Kim, “Compression scheme of sub-images using Karhunen-Loeve transform in three-dimensional integral imaging,” Opt. Commun. 281, 3640–3647 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, M.-S.

Kim, N.

Kim, Y.

Kontaxakis, I.

Kossentini, F.

T. Wiegand, H. Schwarz, A. Joch, F. Kossentini, and G. J. Sullivan, “Rate-constrained coder control and comparison of video coding standards,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. Video Technol. 13, 688–703 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kung, S. Y.

C. Wu, M. McCormick, A. Aggoun, and S. Y. Kung, “Depth mapping of integral images through viewpoint image extraction with a hybrid disparity analysis algorithm,” J. Display Technol. 4, 101–108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Wu, A. Aggoun, M. McCormick, and S. Y. Kung, “Depth extraction from unidirectional integral image using a modified multi-baseline technique,” Proc. SPIE 4660, 135–143 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lee, B.

Maroulis, D.

D. Chaikalis, N. Sgouros, D. Maroulis, and P. Papageorgas, “Hardware implementation of a disparity estimation scheme for real-time compression in 3D imaging applications,” J. Vis. Commun. Image Rep. 19, 1–11 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Maroulis, D. E.

D. P. Chaikalis, N. P. Sgouros, and D. E. Maroulis, “Real-time processing pipeline for 3D imaging applications,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Digital Signal Processing (IEEE, 2009), pp. 1–6.
[CrossRef]

Maroulis, D. M.

N. P. Sgouros, A. G. Andreou, M. S. Sangriotis, P. G. Papageorgas, D. M. Maroulis, and N. G. Theofanous, “Compression of IP images for autostereoscopic 3D imaging applications,” in Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Image and Signal Processing and Analysis, S.Loncaric, A.Neri, and H.Babic, eds. (IEEE, 2003), pp. 223–227.
[CrossRef]

Marpe, D.

H. Schwarz, D. Marpe, and T. Wiegand, “Analysis of hierarchical B pictures and MCTF,” in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Multimedia and Expo (IEEE, 2006), pp. 1929–1932.
[CrossRef]

Mazri, M.

A. Aggoun and M. Mazri, “Wavelet-based compression algorithm for still omnidirectional 3D integral images,” Signal Image Video Process. 2, 141–153 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Mazri and A. Aggoun, “Compression of 3D integral images using wavelet decomposition,” Proc. SPIE 5150, 1181–1192(2003).
[CrossRef]

McCormick, M.

C. Wu, M. McCormick, A. Aggoun, and S. Y. Kung, “Depth mapping of integral images through viewpoint image extraction with a hybrid disparity analysis algorithm,” J. Display Technol. 4, 101–108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Wu, A. Aggoun, M. McCormick, and S. Y. Kung, “Depth extraction from unidirectional integral image using a modified multi-baseline technique,” Proc. SPIE 4660, 135–143 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Zaharia, A. Aggoun, and M. McCormick, “Adaptive 3D-DCT compression algorithm for continuous parallax 3D integral imaging,” Signal Process. Image Commun. 17, 231–242(2002).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Forman, A. Aggoun, and M. McCormick, “A novel coding scheme for full parallax 3D-TV pictures,” in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing (IEEE, 1997), Vol.  4, pp. 2945–2947.

R. Zaharia, A. Aggoun, and M. McCormick, “Compression of full parallax colour integral 3D TV image data based on sub-sampling of chrominance components,” in Proceedings of the Data Compression Conference (IEEE, 2001), p. 527.

M. C. Forman, A. Aggoun, and M. McCormick, “Compression of integral 3D TV pictures,” in Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Image Processing and Its Application (IEEE, 1995), pp. 584–588.
[CrossRef]

Merkle, P.

P. Merkle, A. Smolic, K. Muller, and T. Wiegand, “Efficient prediction structures for multiview video coding,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. Video Technol. 17, 1461–1473(2007).
[CrossRef]

Muller, K.

P. Merkle, A. Smolic, K. Muller, and T. Wiegand, “Efficient prediction structures for multiview video coding,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. Video Technol. 17, 1461–1473(2007).
[CrossRef]

Olsson, R.

R. Olsson, M. Sjostrom, and Y. Xu, “A combined pre-processing and H.264-compression scheme for 3D integral images,” in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Image Processing (IEEE, 2006), pp. 513–516.

R. Olsson, “Empirical rate-distortion analysis of JEPG 2000 3D and H.264/AVC coded integral imaging based 3D-images,” in 3DTV Conference: The True Vision—Capture, Transmission and Display of 3D Video (IEEE, 2008), pp. 113–116.
[CrossRef]

Papageorgas, P.

D. Chaikalis, N. Sgouros, D. Maroulis, and P. Papageorgas, “Hardware implementation of a disparity estimation scheme for real-time compression in 3D imaging applications,” J. Vis. Commun. Image Rep. 19, 1–11 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Papageorgas, P. G.

N. P. Sgouros, A. G. Andreou, M. S. Sangriotis, P. G. Papageorgas, D. M. Maroulis, and N. G. Theofanous, “Compression of IP images for autostereoscopic 3D imaging applications,” in Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Image and Signal Processing and Analysis, S.Loncaric, A.Neri, and H.Babic, eds. (IEEE, 2003), pp. 223–227.
[CrossRef]

N. P. Sgouros, D. P. Chaikalis, P. G. Papageorgas, and M. S. Sangriotis, “Omnidirectional integral photography images compression using the 3D-DCT,” in Adaptive Optics: Analysis and Methods/Computational Optical Sensing and Imaging/Information Photonics/Signal Recovery and Synthesis Topical Meetings on CD-ROM, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper DTuA2.
[PubMed]

Park, J.-H.

Sangriotis, M.

Sangriotis, M. S.

N. P. Sgouros, A. G. Andreou, M. S. Sangriotis, P. G. Papageorgas, D. M. Maroulis, and N. G. Theofanous, “Compression of IP images for autostereoscopic 3D imaging applications,” in Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Image and Signal Processing and Analysis, S.Loncaric, A.Neri, and H.Babic, eds. (IEEE, 2003), pp. 223–227.
[CrossRef]

N. P. Sgouros, D. P. Chaikalis, P. G. Papageorgas, and M. S. Sangriotis, “Omnidirectional integral photography images compression using the 3D-DCT,” in Adaptive Optics: Analysis and Methods/Computational Optical Sensing and Imaging/Information Photonics/Signal Recovery and Synthesis Topical Meetings on CD-ROM, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper DTuA2.
[PubMed]

Schwarz, H.

T. Wiegand, H. Schwarz, A. Joch, F. Kossentini, and G. J. Sullivan, “Rate-constrained coder control and comparison of video coding standards,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. Video Technol. 13, 688–703 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Schwarz, D. Marpe, and T. Wiegand, “Analysis of hierarchical B pictures and MCTF,” in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Multimedia and Expo (IEEE, 2006), pp. 1929–1932.
[CrossRef]

Sgouros, N.

N. Sgouros, I. Kontaxakis, and M. Sangriotis, “Effect of different traversal schemes in integral image encoding,” Appl. Opt. 47, D28–D37 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Chaikalis, N. Sgouros, D. Maroulis, and P. Papageorgas, “Hardware implementation of a disparity estimation scheme for real-time compression in 3D imaging applications,” J. Vis. Commun. Image Rep. 19, 1–11 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sgouros, N. P.

D. P. Chaikalis, N. P. Sgouros, and D. E. Maroulis, “Real-time processing pipeline for 3D imaging applications,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Digital Signal Processing (IEEE, 2009), pp. 1–6.
[CrossRef]

N. P. Sgouros, D. P. Chaikalis, P. G. Papageorgas, and M. S. Sangriotis, “Omnidirectional integral photography images compression using the 3D-DCT,” in Adaptive Optics: Analysis and Methods/Computational Optical Sensing and Imaging/Information Photonics/Signal Recovery and Synthesis Topical Meetings on CD-ROM, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper DTuA2.
[PubMed]

N. P. Sgouros, A. G. Andreou, M. S. Sangriotis, P. G. Papageorgas, D. M. Maroulis, and N. G. Theofanous, “Compression of IP images for autostereoscopic 3D imaging applications,” in Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Image and Signal Processing and Analysis, S.Loncaric, A.Neri, and H.Babic, eds. (IEEE, 2003), pp. 223–227.
[CrossRef]

Shin, D.-H.

H.-H. Kang, D.-H. Shin, and E.-S. Kim, “Compression scheme of sub-images using Karhunen-Loeve transform in three-dimensional integral imaging,” Opt. Commun. 281, 3640–3647 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sjostrom, M.

R. Olsson, M. Sjostrom, and Y. Xu, “A combined pre-processing and H.264-compression scheme for 3D integral images,” in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Image Processing (IEEE, 2006), pp. 513–516.

Smolic, A.

P. Merkle, A. Smolic, K. Muller, and T. Wiegand, “Efficient prediction structures for multiview video coding,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. Video Technol. 17, 1461–1473(2007).
[CrossRef]

Stern, A.

Sullivan, G. J.

T. Wiegand, H. Schwarz, A. Joch, F. Kossentini, and G. J. Sullivan, “Rate-constrained coder control and comparison of video coding standards,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. Video Technol. 13, 688–703 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tabit, M.

A. Aggoun and M. Tabit, “Data compression of integral images for 3D TV,” in IEEE Conference on 3D TV (IEEE, 2007), pp. 1–4.

Theofanous, N. G.

N. P. Sgouros, A. G. Andreou, M. S. Sangriotis, P. G. Papageorgas, D. M. Maroulis, and N. G. Theofanous, “Compression of IP images for autostereoscopic 3D imaging applications,” in Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Image and Signal Processing and Analysis, S.Loncaric, A.Neri, and H.Babic, eds. (IEEE, 2003), pp. 223–227.
[CrossRef]

Weerakkody, W. A. R.

S. Adedoyin, W. A. C. Fernando, A. Aggoun, and W. A. R. Weerakkody, “An ES based efficient motion estimation technique for 3D integral video compression,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Image Processing (IEEE, 2007), Vol. 3, pp. III-393–III-396.

Wiegand, T.

P. Merkle, A. Smolic, K. Muller, and T. Wiegand, “Efficient prediction structures for multiview video coding,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. Video Technol. 17, 1461–1473(2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Wiegand, H. Schwarz, A. Joch, F. Kossentini, and G. J. Sullivan, “Rate-constrained coder control and comparison of video coding standards,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. Video Technol. 13, 688–703 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Schwarz, D. Marpe, and T. Wiegand, “Analysis of hierarchical B pictures and MCTF,” in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Multimedia and Expo (IEEE, 2006), pp. 1929–1932.
[CrossRef]

Wu, C.

C. Wu, M. McCormick, A. Aggoun, and S. Y. Kung, “Depth mapping of integral images through viewpoint image extraction with a hybrid disparity analysis algorithm,” J. Display Technol. 4, 101–108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Wu, A. Aggoun, M. McCormick, and S. Y. Kung, “Depth extraction from unidirectional integral image using a modified multi-baseline technique,” Proc. SPIE 4660, 135–143 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Y.

R. Olsson, M. Sjostrom, and Y. Xu, “A combined pre-processing and H.264-compression scheme for 3D integral images,” in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Image Processing (IEEE, 2006), pp. 513–516.

Yeom, S.

J.-S. Jang, S. Yeom, and B. Javidi, “Compression of ray information in three-dimensional integral imaging,” Opt. Eng. 44, 1–10 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Yeom, A. Stern, and B. Javidi, “Compression of 3D color integral images,” Opt. Express 12, 1632–1642 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zaharia, R.

R. Zaharia, A. Aggoun, and M. McCormick, “Adaptive 3D-DCT compression algorithm for continuous parallax 3D integral imaging,” Signal Process. Image Commun. 17, 231–242(2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Zaharia, A. Aggoun, and M. McCormick, “Compression of full parallax colour integral 3D TV image data based on sub-sampling of chrominance components,” in Proceedings of the Data Compression Conference (IEEE, 2001), p. 527.

Appl. Opt. (3)

IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. Video Technol. (2)

T. Wiegand, H. Schwarz, A. Joch, F. Kossentini, and G. J. Sullivan, “Rate-constrained coder control and comparison of video coding standards,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. Video Technol. 13, 688–703 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Merkle, A. Smolic, K. Muller, and T. Wiegand, “Efficient prediction structures for multiview video coding,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. Video Technol. 17, 1461–1473(2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Display Technol. (2)

J. Opt. Soc. Korea (1)

J. Vis. Commun. Image Rep. (1)

D. Chaikalis, N. Sgouros, D. Maroulis, and P. Papageorgas, “Hardware implementation of a disparity estimation scheme for real-time compression in 3D imaging applications,” J. Vis. Commun. Image Rep. 19, 1–11 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

H.-H. Kang, D.-H. Shin, and E.-S. Kim, “Compression scheme of sub-images using Karhunen-Loeve transform in three-dimensional integral imaging,” Opt. Commun. 281, 3640–3647 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

J.-S. Jang, S. Yeom, and B. Javidi, “Compression of ray information in three-dimensional integral imaging,” Opt. Eng. 44, 1–10 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Proc. SPIE (3)

J.-H. Park, S. Jung, H. Choi, and B. Lee, “A novel depth extraction algorithm incorporating a lens array and a camera by reassembling pixel columns of elemental images,” Proc. SPIE 4929, 49–58 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. Wu, A. Aggoun, M. McCormick, and S. Y. Kung, “Depth extraction from unidirectional integral image using a modified multi-baseline technique,” Proc. SPIE 4660, 135–143 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Mazri and A. Aggoun, “Compression of 3D integral images using wavelet decomposition,” Proc. SPIE 5150, 1181–1192(2003).
[CrossRef]

Signal Image Video Process. (1)

A. Aggoun and M. Mazri, “Wavelet-based compression algorithm for still omnidirectional 3D integral images,” Signal Image Video Process. 2, 141–153 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Signal Process. Image Commun. (1)

R. Zaharia, A. Aggoun, and M. McCormick, “Adaptive 3D-DCT compression algorithm for continuous parallax 3D integral imaging,” Signal Process. Image Commun. 17, 231–242(2002).
[CrossRef]

Other (15)

M. C. Forman and A. Aggoun, “Quantisation strategies for 3D-DCT-based compression of full parallax 3D images,” in Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Image Processing and Its Application (IEEE, 1997), pp. 32–35.
[CrossRef]

R. Zaharia, A. Aggoun, and M. McCormick, “Compression of full parallax colour integral 3D TV image data based on sub-sampling of chrominance components,” in Proceedings of the Data Compression Conference (IEEE, 2001), p. 527.

A. Aggoun, “A 3D DCT compression algorithm for omnidirectional integral images,” in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing (IEEE, 2006), Vol.  2, pp. II-517–II-520.
[CrossRef]

N. P. Sgouros, D. P. Chaikalis, P. G. Papageorgas, and M. S. Sangriotis, “Omnidirectional integral photography images compression using the 3D-DCT,” in Adaptive Optics: Analysis and Methods/Computational Optical Sensing and Imaging/Information Photonics/Signal Recovery and Synthesis Topical Meetings on CD-ROM, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper DTuA2.
[PubMed]

A. Aggoun and M. Tabit, “Data compression of integral images for 3D TV,” in IEEE Conference on 3D TV (IEEE, 2007), pp. 1–4.

M. C. Forman, “Compression of integral three-dimensional television pictures,” Ph.D. thesis (De Montfort University, 1999).

M. C. Forman, A. Aggoun, and M. McCormick, “Compression of integral 3D TV pictures,” in Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Image Processing and Its Application (IEEE, 1995), pp. 584–588.
[CrossRef]

M. C. Forman, A. Aggoun, and M. McCormick, “A novel coding scheme for full parallax 3D-TV pictures,” in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing (IEEE, 1997), Vol.  4, pp. 2945–2947.

R. Olsson, M. Sjostrom, and Y. Xu, “A combined pre-processing and H.264-compression scheme for 3D integral images,” in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Image Processing (IEEE, 2006), pp. 513–516.

S. Adedoyin, W. A. C. Fernando, A. Aggoun, and W. A. R. Weerakkody, “An ES based efficient motion estimation technique for 3D integral video compression,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Image Processing (IEEE, 2007), Vol. 3, pp. III-393–III-396.

R. Olsson, “Empirical rate-distortion analysis of JEPG 2000 3D and H.264/AVC coded integral imaging based 3D-images,” in 3DTV Conference: The True Vision—Capture, Transmission and Display of 3D Video (IEEE, 2008), pp. 113–116.
[CrossRef]

D. P. Chaikalis, N. P. Sgouros, and D. E. Maroulis, “Real-time processing pipeline for 3D imaging applications,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Digital Signal Processing (IEEE, 2009), pp. 1–6.
[CrossRef]

N. P. Sgouros, A. G. Andreou, M. S. Sangriotis, P. G. Papageorgas, D. M. Maroulis, and N. G. Theofanous, “Compression of IP images for autostereoscopic 3D imaging applications,” in Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Image and Signal Processing and Analysis, S.Loncaric, A.Neri, and H.Babic, eds. (IEEE, 2003), pp. 223–227.
[CrossRef]

H. Schwarz, D. Marpe, and T. Wiegand, “Analysis of hierarchical B pictures and MCTF,” in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Multimedia and Expo (IEEE, 2006), pp. 1929–1932.
[CrossRef]

“Advanced video coding for generic audiovisual services, version 3,” ITU-T Rec. & ISO/IEC 14496-10 AVC (2005).

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

InIm system: (a) pickup and (b) display parts.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

HBP structure.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

HBP structure for MVC.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

HBP structure for SIA coding.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Picked-up EIAs for three 3D scenes: (a) II-(1), (b) II-(2), (c) II-(3), (d) captured EIA of II-(1), (e) captured EIA of II-(2), and (f) captured EIA of II-(3).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

SIAs transformed from EIAs: (a) SIA of II-(1), (b) SIA of II-(2), and (c) SIA of II-(3).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Rate-distortion comparison among different GOP sizes for both the PI-HBP and Hilbert-HBP schemes: (a) EIA for II-(1), (b) SIA for II-(1), (c) EIA for II-(2), (d) SIA for II-(2), (e) EIA for II-(3), and (f) SIA for II-(3).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Rate-distortion comparison between the PI-HBP and Hilbert-HBP schemes for both the EIAs and SIAs: (a) II-(1), (b) II-(2), and (c) II-(3).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

σ PSNR / PSNR ¯ comparison between the PI-HBP and Hilbert-HBP schemes for both the EIAs and SIAs: (a) II-(1), (b) II-(2), and (c) II-(3).

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Best GOP Sizes Selected in Different Cases

Tables Icon

Table 2 Overall Coding Time Comparison of the Whole SIAs among the PI-HBP, SI-HBP, and Hilbert-HBP Schemes

Equations (9)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

E I k , l ( u , v ) = II ( k U + u , l V + v ) ,
S I u , v ( k , l ) = II ( k U + u , l V + v ) ,
Max T L N = floor ( log 2 G + 0.5 ) .
Max R L N = floor ( log 2 P + 0.5 ) , Max C L N = floor ( log 2 Q + 0.5 ) .
PSNR ( I , I ) = 10 × log 10 [ 255 2 MSE ( I , I ) ] ,
MSE ( I , I ) = 1 X Y x = 0 X 1 y = 0 Y 1 [ I ( x , y ) I ( x , y ) ] 2 ,
PSNR ¯ ( I , I ) = 1 K L k = 0 K 1 l = 0 L 1 PSNR ( E k , l , E k , l ) ,
σ PSNR ( I , I ) = k = 0 K 1 l = 0 L 1 PSNR ( E k , l , E k , l ) 2 K L [ k = 0 K 1 l = 0 L 1 PSNR ( E k , l , E k , l ) K L ] 2 ,
TSR = T r T p T r × 100 % ,

Metrics