Abstract

We present the design and performance of the Texas Petawatt Laser, which produces a 186J 167fs pulse based on the combination of optical parametric chirped pulse amplification (OPCPA) and mixed Nd:glass amplification. OPCPA provides the majority of the gain and is used to broaden and shape the seed spectrum, while amplification in Nd:glass accounts for >99% of the final pulse energy. Compression is achieved with highly efficient multilayer dielectric gratings.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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2009 (1)

A. J. Bayramian, J. P. Armstrong, G. Beer, R. Campbell, R. Cross, A. Erlandson, B. Freitas, J. Menapace, W. Molander, L. J. Perkins, K. Schaffers, C. Siders, S. Sutton, J. Tassano, S. Telford, C. A. Ebbers, J. Caird, and C. P. J. Barty, “High average power petawatt laser pumped by the mercury laser for fusion materials engineering,” Fusion Sci. Technol. 56, 295-300 (2009).

2008 (3)

H. Schwoerer, “Particle acceleration with lasers,” S. Afr. J. Sci. 104, 299-304 (2008).

T. Ditmire and A. D. Edens, “Laboratory simulations of astrophysical blast waves with high energy lasers,” Laser Photonics Rev. 2, 400-416 (2008).

V. Malka, J. Faure, Y. A. Gauduel, E. Lefebvre, A. Rousse, and K. T. Phuoc, “Principles and applications of compact laser-plasma accelerators,” Nat. Phys. 4, 447-453 (2008).

2007 (3)

2006 (4)

W. Leemans, E. Esarey, C. Geddes, C. Schroeder, and C. Toth, “Laser guiding for GeV laser-plasma accelerators,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. A 364, 585-600 (2006).

Z. M. Liao, I. Jovanovic, C. A. Ebbers, Y. T. Fei, and B. Chai, “Energy and average power scalable optical parametric chirped-pulse amplification in yttrium calcium oxyborate,” Opt. Lett. 31, 1277-1279 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Dubietis, R. Butkus, and A. P. Piskarskas, “Trends in chirped pulse optical parametric amplification,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 163-172 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. P. Leemans, B. Nagler, A. J. Gonsalves, C. Toth, K. Nakamura, C. G. R. Geddes, E. Esarey, C. B. Schroeder, and S. M. Hooker, “GeV electron beams from a centimetre-scale accelerator,” Nat. Phys. 2, 696-699 (2006).

2005 (3)

C. N. Danson, P. A. Brummitt, R. J. Clarke, I. Collier, B. Fell, A. J. Frackiewicz, S. Hawkes, C. Hernandez-Gomez, P. Holligan, M. H. R. Hutchinson, A. Kidd, W. J. Lester, I. O. Musgrave, D. Neely, D. R. Neville, P. A. Norreys, D. A. Pepler, C. Reason, W. Shaikh, T. B. Winstone, R. W. W. Wyatt, and B. E. Wyborn, “Vulcan petawatt: design, operation and interactions at 5×1020 W cm−2,” Laser Part. Beams 23, 87-93 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Evans, E. L. Clark, R. T. Eagleton, A. M. Dunne, R. D. Edwards, W. J. Garbett, T. J. Goldsack, S. James, C. C. Smith, B. R. Thomas, R. Clarke, D. J. Neely, and S. J. Rose, “Rapid heating of solid density material by a petawatt laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 191505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. Fleurot, C. Cavailler, and J. L. Bourgade, “The Laser Megajoule (LMJ) Project dedicated to inertial confinement fusion: development and construction status,” Fusion Eng. Des. 74, 147-154 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

Y. Kitagawa, H. Fujita, R. Kodama, H. Yoshida, S. Matsuo, T. Jitsuno, T. Kawasaki, H. Kitamura, T. Kanabe, S. Sakabe, K. Shigemori, N. Miyanaga, and Y. Izawa, “Prepulse-free petawatt laser for a fast ignitor,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 281-293 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

2002 (1)

2000 (2)

P. S. Banks, M. D. Perry, V. Yanovsky, S. N. Fochs, B. C. Stuart, and J. Zweiback, “Novel all-reflective stretcher for chirped-pulse amplification of ultrashort pulses,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 268-274 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Snavely, M. H. Key, S. P. Hatchett, T. E. Cowan, M. Roth, T. W. Phillips, M. A. Stoyer, E. A. Henry, T. C. Sangster, M. S. Singh, S. C. Wilks, A. MacKinnon, A. Offenberger, D. M. Pennington, K. Yasuike, A. B. Langdon, B. F. Lasinski, J. Johnson, M. D. Perry, and E. M. Campbell, “Intense high-energy proton beams from petawatt-laser irradiation of solids,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2945-2948 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (3)

T. Ditmire, J. Zweiback, V. P. Yanovsky, T. E. Cowan, G. Hays, and K. B. Wharton, “Nuclear fusion from explosions of femtosecond laser-heated deuterium clusters,” Nature 398, 489-492 (1999).

B. A. Remington, D. Arnett, R. P. Drake, and H. Takabe, “Experimental astrophysics--Modeling astrophysical phenomena in the laboratory with intense lasers,” Science 284, 1488-1493 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Perry, D. Pennington, B. C. Stuart, G. Tietbohl, J. A. Britten, C. Brown, S. Herman, B. Golick, M. Kartz, J. Miller, H. T. Powell, M. Vergino, and V. Yanovsky, “Petawatt laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 24, 160-162 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1994 (1)

M. D. Perry and G. Mourou, “Terawatt to petawatt subpicosecond lasers,” Science 264, 917-924 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

A. Dubietis, G. Jonusauskas, and A. Piskarskas, “Powerful femtosecond pulse generation by chirped and stretched pulse parametric amplification in BBO crystal,” Opt. Commun. 88, 437-440 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

1988 (1)

P. Maine, D. Strickland, P. Bado, M. Pessot, and G. Mourou, “Generation of ultrahigh peak power pulses by chirped pulse amplification,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 398-403(1988).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

D. Strickland and G. Mourou, “Compression of amplified chirped optical pulses,” Opt. Commun. 56, 219-221 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Akahane, Y.

Aoyama, M.

Armstrong, J. P.

A. J. Bayramian, J. P. Armstrong, G. Beer, R. Campbell, R. Cross, A. Erlandson, B. Freitas, J. Menapace, W. Molander, L. J. Perkins, K. Schaffers, C. Siders, S. Sutton, J. Tassano, S. Telford, C. A. Ebbers, J. Caird, and C. P. J. Barty, “High average power petawatt laser pumped by the mercury laser for fusion materials engineering,” Fusion Sci. Technol. 56, 295-300 (2009).

Arnett, D.

B. A. Remington, D. Arnett, R. P. Drake, and H. Takabe, “Experimental astrophysics--Modeling astrophysical phenomena in the laboratory with intense lasers,” Science 284, 1488-1493 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Auerbach, J. M.

Bado, P.

P. Maine, D. Strickland, P. Bado, M. Pessot, and G. Mourou, “Generation of ultrahigh peak power pulses by chirped pulse amplification,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 398-403(1988).
[CrossRef]

Banks, P. S.

P. S. Banks, M. D. Perry, V. Yanovsky, S. N. Fochs, B. C. Stuart, and J. Zweiback, “Novel all-reflective stretcher for chirped-pulse amplification of ultrashort pulses,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 268-274 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Barty, C. P. J.

A. J. Bayramian, J. P. Armstrong, G. Beer, R. Campbell, R. Cross, A. Erlandson, B. Freitas, J. Menapace, W. Molander, L. J. Perkins, K. Schaffers, C. Siders, S. Sutton, J. Tassano, S. Telford, C. A. Ebbers, J. Caird, and C. P. J. Barty, “High average power petawatt laser pumped by the mercury laser for fusion materials engineering,” Fusion Sci. Technol. 56, 295-300 (2009).

Bayramian, A. J.

A. J. Bayramian, J. P. Armstrong, G. Beer, R. Campbell, R. Cross, A. Erlandson, B. Freitas, J. Menapace, W. Molander, L. J. Perkins, K. Schaffers, C. Siders, S. Sutton, J. Tassano, S. Telford, C. A. Ebbers, J. Caird, and C. P. J. Barty, “High average power petawatt laser pumped by the mercury laser for fusion materials engineering,” Fusion Sci. Technol. 56, 295-300 (2009).

Beer, G.

A. J. Bayramian, J. P. Armstrong, G. Beer, R. Campbell, R. Cross, A. Erlandson, B. Freitas, J. Menapace, W. Molander, L. J. Perkins, K. Schaffers, C. Siders, S. Sutton, J. Tassano, S. Telford, C. A. Ebbers, J. Caird, and C. P. J. Barty, “High average power petawatt laser pumped by the mercury laser for fusion materials engineering,” Fusion Sci. Technol. 56, 295-300 (2009).

Bor, Z.

Bourgade, J. L.

N. Fleurot, C. Cavailler, and J. L. Bourgade, “The Laser Megajoule (LMJ) Project dedicated to inertial confinement fusion: development and construction status,” Fusion Eng. Des. 74, 147-154 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bowers, M. W.

Britten, J. A.

Brown, C.

Brummitt, P. A.

C. N. Danson, P. A. Brummitt, R. J. Clarke, I. Collier, B. Fell, A. J. Frackiewicz, S. Hawkes, C. Hernandez-Gomez, P. Holligan, M. H. R. Hutchinson, A. Kidd, W. J. Lester, I. O. Musgrave, D. Neely, D. R. Neville, P. A. Norreys, D. A. Pepler, C. Reason, W. Shaikh, T. B. Winstone, R. W. W. Wyatt, and B. E. Wyborn, “Vulcan petawatt: design, operation and interactions at 5×1020 W cm−2,” Laser Part. Beams 23, 87-93 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Butkus, R.

A. Dubietis, R. Butkus, and A. P. Piskarskas, “Trends in chirped pulse optical parametric amplification,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 163-172 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Caird, J.

A. J. Bayramian, J. P. Armstrong, G. Beer, R. Campbell, R. Cross, A. Erlandson, B. Freitas, J. Menapace, W. Molander, L. J. Perkins, K. Schaffers, C. Siders, S. Sutton, J. Tassano, S. Telford, C. A. Ebbers, J. Caird, and C. P. J. Barty, “High average power petawatt laser pumped by the mercury laser for fusion materials engineering,” Fusion Sci. Technol. 56, 295-300 (2009).

Campbell, E. M.

R. A. Snavely, M. H. Key, S. P. Hatchett, T. E. Cowan, M. Roth, T. W. Phillips, M. A. Stoyer, E. A. Henry, T. C. Sangster, M. S. Singh, S. C. Wilks, A. MacKinnon, A. Offenberger, D. M. Pennington, K. Yasuike, A. B. Langdon, B. F. Lasinski, J. Johnson, M. D. Perry, and E. M. Campbell, “Intense high-energy proton beams from petawatt-laser irradiation of solids,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2945-2948 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Campbell, R.

A. J. Bayramian, J. P. Armstrong, G. Beer, R. Campbell, R. Cross, A. Erlandson, B. Freitas, J. Menapace, W. Molander, L. J. Perkins, K. Schaffers, C. Siders, S. Sutton, J. Tassano, S. Telford, C. A. Ebbers, J. Caird, and C. P. J. Barty, “High average power petawatt laser pumped by the mercury laser for fusion materials engineering,” Fusion Sci. Technol. 56, 295-300 (2009).

Cavailler, C.

N. Fleurot, C. Cavailler, and J. L. Bourgade, “The Laser Megajoule (LMJ) Project dedicated to inertial confinement fusion: development and construction status,” Fusion Eng. Des. 74, 147-154 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chai, B.

Clark, E. L.

R. G. Evans, E. L. Clark, R. T. Eagleton, A. M. Dunne, R. D. Edwards, W. J. Garbett, T. J. Goldsack, S. James, C. C. Smith, B. R. Thomas, R. Clarke, D. J. Neely, and S. J. Rose, “Rapid heating of solid density material by a petawatt laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 191505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Clarke, R.

R. G. Evans, E. L. Clark, R. T. Eagleton, A. M. Dunne, R. D. Edwards, W. J. Garbett, T. J. Goldsack, S. James, C. C. Smith, B. R. Thomas, R. Clarke, D. J. Neely, and S. J. Rose, “Rapid heating of solid density material by a petawatt laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 191505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Clarke, R. J.

C. N. Danson, P. A. Brummitt, R. J. Clarke, I. Collier, B. Fell, A. J. Frackiewicz, S. Hawkes, C. Hernandez-Gomez, P. Holligan, M. H. R. Hutchinson, A. Kidd, W. J. Lester, I. O. Musgrave, D. Neely, D. R. Neville, P. A. Norreys, D. A. Pepler, C. Reason, W. Shaikh, T. B. Winstone, R. W. W. Wyatt, and B. E. Wyborn, “Vulcan petawatt: design, operation and interactions at 5×1020 W cm−2,” Laser Part. Beams 23, 87-93 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Collier, I.

C. N. Danson, P. A. Brummitt, R. J. Clarke, I. Collier, B. Fell, A. J. Frackiewicz, S. Hawkes, C. Hernandez-Gomez, P. Holligan, M. H. R. Hutchinson, A. Kidd, W. J. Lester, I. O. Musgrave, D. Neely, D. R. Neville, P. A. Norreys, D. A. Pepler, C. Reason, W. Shaikh, T. B. Winstone, R. W. W. Wyatt, and B. E. Wyborn, “Vulcan petawatt: design, operation and interactions at 5×1020 W cm−2,” Laser Part. Beams 23, 87-93 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cowan, T. E.

R. A. Snavely, M. H. Key, S. P. Hatchett, T. E. Cowan, M. Roth, T. W. Phillips, M. A. Stoyer, E. A. Henry, T. C. Sangster, M. S. Singh, S. C. Wilks, A. MacKinnon, A. Offenberger, D. M. Pennington, K. Yasuike, A. B. Langdon, B. F. Lasinski, J. Johnson, M. D. Perry, and E. M. Campbell, “Intense high-energy proton beams from petawatt-laser irradiation of solids,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2945-2948 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. Ditmire, J. Zweiback, V. P. Yanovsky, T. E. Cowan, G. Hays, and K. B. Wharton, “Nuclear fusion from explosions of femtosecond laser-heated deuterium clusters,” Nature 398, 489-492 (1999).

Cross, R.

A. J. Bayramian, J. P. Armstrong, G. Beer, R. Campbell, R. Cross, A. Erlandson, B. Freitas, J. Menapace, W. Molander, L. J. Perkins, K. Schaffers, C. Siders, S. Sutton, J. Tassano, S. Telford, C. A. Ebbers, J. Caird, and C. P. J. Barty, “High average power petawatt laser pumped by the mercury laser for fusion materials engineering,” Fusion Sci. Technol. 56, 295-300 (2009).

Danson, C. N.

C. N. Danson, P. A. Brummitt, R. J. Clarke, I. Collier, B. Fell, A. J. Frackiewicz, S. Hawkes, C. Hernandez-Gomez, P. Holligan, M. H. R. Hutchinson, A. Kidd, W. J. Lester, I. O. Musgrave, D. Neely, D. R. Neville, P. A. Norreys, D. A. Pepler, C. Reason, W. Shaikh, T. B. Winstone, R. W. W. Wyatt, and B. E. Wyborn, “Vulcan petawatt: design, operation and interactions at 5×1020 W cm−2,” Laser Part. Beams 23, 87-93 (2005).
[CrossRef]

I. N. Ross, M. Trentelman, and C. N. Danson, “Optimization of a chirped-pulse amplification Nd:glass laser,” Appl. Opt. 36, 9348-9358 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ditmire, T.

T. Ditmire and A. D. Edens, “Laboratory simulations of astrophysical blast waves with high energy lasers,” Laser Photonics Rev. 2, 400-416 (2008).

G. R. Hays, E. W. Gaul, M. D. Martinez, and T. Ditmire, “Broad-spectrum neodymium-doped laser glasses for high-energy chirped-pulse amplification,” Appl. Opt. 46, 4813-4819(2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Ditmire, J. Zweiback, V. P. Yanovsky, T. E. Cowan, G. Hays, and K. B. Wharton, “Nuclear fusion from explosions of femtosecond laser-heated deuterium clusters,” Nature 398, 489-492 (1999).

Dixit, S. N.

Drake, R. P.

B. A. Remington, D. Arnett, R. P. Drake, and H. Takabe, “Experimental astrophysics--Modeling astrophysical phenomena in the laboratory with intense lasers,” Science 284, 1488-1493 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Dubietis, A.

A. Dubietis, R. Butkus, and A. P. Piskarskas, “Trends in chirped pulse optical parametric amplification,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 163-172 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Dubietis, G. Jonusauskas, and A. Piskarskas, “Powerful femtosecond pulse generation by chirped and stretched pulse parametric amplification in BBO crystal,” Opt. Commun. 88, 437-440 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Dunne, A. M.

R. G. Evans, E. L. Clark, R. T. Eagleton, A. M. Dunne, R. D. Edwards, W. J. Garbett, T. J. Goldsack, S. James, C. C. Smith, B. R. Thomas, R. Clarke, D. J. Neely, and S. J. Rose, “Rapid heating of solid density material by a petawatt laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 191505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Eagleton, R. T.

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V. V. Lozhkarev, G. I. Freidman, V. N. Ginzburg, E. V. Katin, E. A. Khazanov, A. V. Kirsanov, G. A. Luchinin, A. N. Mal'shakov, M. A. Martyanov, O. V. Palashov, A. K. Poteomkin, A. M. Sergeev, A. A. Shaykin, and I. V. Yakovlev, “Compact 0.56 petawatt laser system based on optical parametric chirped pulse amplification in KD*P crystals,” Laser Phys. Lett. 4, 421-427(2007).
[CrossRef]

Matousek, P.

Matsuo, S.

Y. Kitagawa, H. Fujita, R. Kodama, H. Yoshida, S. Matsuo, T. Jitsuno, T. Kawasaki, H. Kitamura, T. Kanabe, S. Sakabe, K. Shigemori, N. Miyanaga, and Y. Izawa, “Prepulse-free petawatt laser for a fast ignitor,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 281-293 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mehta, N. C.

Menapace, J.

A. J. Bayramian, J. P. Armstrong, G. Beer, R. Campbell, R. Cross, A. Erlandson, B. Freitas, J. Menapace, W. Molander, L. J. Perkins, K. Schaffers, C. Siders, S. Sutton, J. Tassano, S. Telford, C. A. Ebbers, J. Caird, and C. P. J. Barty, “High average power petawatt laser pumped by the mercury laser for fusion materials engineering,” Fusion Sci. Technol. 56, 295-300 (2009).

C. A. Haynam, P. J. Wegner, J. M. Auerbach, M. W. Bowers, S. N. Dixit, G. V. Erbert, G. M. Heestand, M. A. Henesian, M. R. Hermann, K. S. Jancaitis, K. R. Manes, C. D. Marshall, N. C. Mehta, J. Menapace, E. Moses, J. R. Murray, M. C. Nostrand, C. D. Orth, R. Patterson, R. A. Sacks, M. J. Shaw, M. Spaeth, S. B. Sutton, W. H. Williams, C. C. Widmayer, R. K. White, S. T. Yang, and B. M. Van Wonterghem, “National Ignition Facility laser performance status,” Appl. Opt. 46, 3276-3303 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Miller, J.

Miyanaga, N.

Y. Kitagawa, H. Fujita, R. Kodama, H. Yoshida, S. Matsuo, T. Jitsuno, T. Kawasaki, H. Kitamura, T. Kanabe, S. Sakabe, K. Shigemori, N. Miyanaga, and Y. Izawa, “Prepulse-free petawatt laser for a fast ignitor,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 281-293 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Molander, W.

A. J. Bayramian, J. P. Armstrong, G. Beer, R. Campbell, R. Cross, A. Erlandson, B. Freitas, J. Menapace, W. Molander, L. J. Perkins, K. Schaffers, C. Siders, S. Sutton, J. Tassano, S. Telford, C. A. Ebbers, J. Caird, and C. P. J. Barty, “High average power petawatt laser pumped by the mercury laser for fusion materials engineering,” Fusion Sci. Technol. 56, 295-300 (2009).

Moses, E.

Mourou, G.

M. D. Perry and G. Mourou, “Terawatt to petawatt subpicosecond lasers,” Science 264, 917-924 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. Maine, D. Strickland, P. Bado, M. Pessot, and G. Mourou, “Generation of ultrahigh peak power pulses by chirped pulse amplification,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 398-403(1988).
[CrossRef]

D. Strickland and G. Mourou, “Compression of amplified chirped optical pulses,” Opt. Commun. 56, 219-221 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Murray, J. R.

Musgrave, I. O.

C. N. Danson, P. A. Brummitt, R. J. Clarke, I. Collier, B. Fell, A. J. Frackiewicz, S. Hawkes, C. Hernandez-Gomez, P. Holligan, M. H. R. Hutchinson, A. Kidd, W. J. Lester, I. O. Musgrave, D. Neely, D. R. Neville, P. A. Norreys, D. A. Pepler, C. Reason, W. Shaikh, T. B. Winstone, R. W. W. Wyatt, and B. E. Wyborn, “Vulcan petawatt: design, operation and interactions at 5×1020 W cm−2,” Laser Part. Beams 23, 87-93 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nagler, B.

W. P. Leemans, B. Nagler, A. J. Gonsalves, C. Toth, K. Nakamura, C. G. R. Geddes, E. Esarey, C. B. Schroeder, and S. M. Hooker, “GeV electron beams from a centimetre-scale accelerator,” Nat. Phys. 2, 696-699 (2006).

Nakamura, K.

W. P. Leemans, B. Nagler, A. J. Gonsalves, C. Toth, K. Nakamura, C. G. R. Geddes, E. Esarey, C. B. Schroeder, and S. M. Hooker, “GeV electron beams from a centimetre-scale accelerator,” Nat. Phys. 2, 696-699 (2006).

Neely, D.

C. N. Danson, P. A. Brummitt, R. J. Clarke, I. Collier, B. Fell, A. J. Frackiewicz, S. Hawkes, C. Hernandez-Gomez, P. Holligan, M. H. R. Hutchinson, A. Kidd, W. J. Lester, I. O. Musgrave, D. Neely, D. R. Neville, P. A. Norreys, D. A. Pepler, C. Reason, W. Shaikh, T. B. Winstone, R. W. W. Wyatt, and B. E. Wyborn, “Vulcan petawatt: design, operation and interactions at 5×1020 W cm−2,” Laser Part. Beams 23, 87-93 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Neely, D. J.

R. G. Evans, E. L. Clark, R. T. Eagleton, A. M. Dunne, R. D. Edwards, W. J. Garbett, T. J. Goldsack, S. James, C. C. Smith, B. R. Thomas, R. Clarke, D. J. Neely, and S. J. Rose, “Rapid heating of solid density material by a petawatt laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 191505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Neville, D. R.

C. N. Danson, P. A. Brummitt, R. J. Clarke, I. Collier, B. Fell, A. J. Frackiewicz, S. Hawkes, C. Hernandez-Gomez, P. Holligan, M. H. R. Hutchinson, A. Kidd, W. J. Lester, I. O. Musgrave, D. Neely, D. R. Neville, P. A. Norreys, D. A. Pepler, C. Reason, W. Shaikh, T. B. Winstone, R. W. W. Wyatt, and B. E. Wyborn, “Vulcan petawatt: design, operation and interactions at 5×1020 W cm−2,” Laser Part. Beams 23, 87-93 (2005).
[CrossRef]

New, G. H. C.

Norreys, P. A.

C. N. Danson, P. A. Brummitt, R. J. Clarke, I. Collier, B. Fell, A. J. Frackiewicz, S. Hawkes, C. Hernandez-Gomez, P. Holligan, M. H. R. Hutchinson, A. Kidd, W. J. Lester, I. O. Musgrave, D. Neely, D. R. Neville, P. A. Norreys, D. A. Pepler, C. Reason, W. Shaikh, T. B. Winstone, R. W. W. Wyatt, and B. E. Wyborn, “Vulcan petawatt: design, operation and interactions at 5×1020 W cm−2,” Laser Part. Beams 23, 87-93 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nostrand, M. C.

Offenberger, A.

R. A. Snavely, M. H. Key, S. P. Hatchett, T. E. Cowan, M. Roth, T. W. Phillips, M. A. Stoyer, E. A. Henry, T. C. Sangster, M. S. Singh, S. C. Wilks, A. MacKinnon, A. Offenberger, D. M. Pennington, K. Yasuike, A. B. Langdon, B. F. Lasinski, J. Johnson, M. D. Perry, and E. M. Campbell, “Intense high-energy proton beams from petawatt-laser irradiation of solids,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2945-2948 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Orth, C. D.

Osvay, K.

Palashov, O. V.

V. V. Lozhkarev, G. I. Freidman, V. N. Ginzburg, E. V. Katin, E. A. Khazanov, A. V. Kirsanov, G. A. Luchinin, A. N. Mal'shakov, M. A. Martyanov, O. V. Palashov, A. K. Poteomkin, A. M. Sergeev, A. A. Shaykin, and I. V. Yakovlev, “Compact 0.56 petawatt laser system based on optical parametric chirped pulse amplification in KD*P crystals,” Laser Phys. Lett. 4, 421-427(2007).
[CrossRef]

Patterson, R.

Pennington, D.

Pennington, D. M.

R. A. Snavely, M. H. Key, S. P. Hatchett, T. E. Cowan, M. Roth, T. W. Phillips, M. A. Stoyer, E. A. Henry, T. C. Sangster, M. S. Singh, S. C. Wilks, A. MacKinnon, A. Offenberger, D. M. Pennington, K. Yasuike, A. B. Langdon, B. F. Lasinski, J. Johnson, M. D. Perry, and E. M. Campbell, “Intense high-energy proton beams from petawatt-laser irradiation of solids,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2945-2948 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Pepler, D. A.

C. N. Danson, P. A. Brummitt, R. J. Clarke, I. Collier, B. Fell, A. J. Frackiewicz, S. Hawkes, C. Hernandez-Gomez, P. Holligan, M. H. R. Hutchinson, A. Kidd, W. J. Lester, I. O. Musgrave, D. Neely, D. R. Neville, P. A. Norreys, D. A. Pepler, C. Reason, W. Shaikh, T. B. Winstone, R. W. W. Wyatt, and B. E. Wyborn, “Vulcan petawatt: design, operation and interactions at 5×1020 W cm−2,” Laser Part. Beams 23, 87-93 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Perkins, L. J.

A. J. Bayramian, J. P. Armstrong, G. Beer, R. Campbell, R. Cross, A. Erlandson, B. Freitas, J. Menapace, W. Molander, L. J. Perkins, K. Schaffers, C. Siders, S. Sutton, J. Tassano, S. Telford, C. A. Ebbers, J. Caird, and C. P. J. Barty, “High average power petawatt laser pumped by the mercury laser for fusion materials engineering,” Fusion Sci. Technol. 56, 295-300 (2009).

Perry, M. D.

R. A. Snavely, M. H. Key, S. P. Hatchett, T. E. Cowan, M. Roth, T. W. Phillips, M. A. Stoyer, E. A. Henry, T. C. Sangster, M. S. Singh, S. C. Wilks, A. MacKinnon, A. Offenberger, D. M. Pennington, K. Yasuike, A. B. Langdon, B. F. Lasinski, J. Johnson, M. D. Perry, and E. M. Campbell, “Intense high-energy proton beams from petawatt-laser irradiation of solids,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2945-2948 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. S. Banks, M. D. Perry, V. Yanovsky, S. N. Fochs, B. C. Stuart, and J. Zweiback, “Novel all-reflective stretcher for chirped-pulse amplification of ultrashort pulses,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 268-274 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Perry, D. Pennington, B. C. Stuart, G. Tietbohl, J. A. Britten, C. Brown, S. Herman, B. Golick, M. Kartz, J. Miller, H. T. Powell, M. Vergino, and V. Yanovsky, “Petawatt laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 24, 160-162 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Perry and G. Mourou, “Terawatt to petawatt subpicosecond lasers,” Science 264, 917-924 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Pessot, M.

P. Maine, D. Strickland, P. Bado, M. Pessot, and G. Mourou, “Generation of ultrahigh peak power pulses by chirped pulse amplification,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 398-403(1988).
[CrossRef]

Phillips, T. W.

R. A. Snavely, M. H. Key, S. P. Hatchett, T. E. Cowan, M. Roth, T. W. Phillips, M. A. Stoyer, E. A. Henry, T. C. Sangster, M. S. Singh, S. C. Wilks, A. MacKinnon, A. Offenberger, D. M. Pennington, K. Yasuike, A. B. Langdon, B. F. Lasinski, J. Johnson, M. D. Perry, and E. M. Campbell, “Intense high-energy proton beams from petawatt-laser irradiation of solids,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2945-2948 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Phuoc, K. T.

V. Malka, J. Faure, Y. A. Gauduel, E. Lefebvre, A. Rousse, and K. T. Phuoc, “Principles and applications of compact laser-plasma accelerators,” Nat. Phys. 4, 447-453 (2008).

Piskarskas, A.

A. Dubietis, G. Jonusauskas, and A. Piskarskas, “Powerful femtosecond pulse generation by chirped and stretched pulse parametric amplification in BBO crystal,” Opt. Commun. 88, 437-440 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Piskarskas, A. P.

A. Dubietis, R. Butkus, and A. P. Piskarskas, “Trends in chirped pulse optical parametric amplification,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 163-172 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Poteomkin, A. K.

V. V. Lozhkarev, G. I. Freidman, V. N. Ginzburg, E. V. Katin, E. A. Khazanov, A. V. Kirsanov, G. A. Luchinin, A. N. Mal'shakov, M. A. Martyanov, O. V. Palashov, A. K. Poteomkin, A. M. Sergeev, A. A. Shaykin, and I. V. Yakovlev, “Compact 0.56 petawatt laser system based on optical parametric chirped pulse amplification in KD*P crystals,” Laser Phys. Lett. 4, 421-427(2007).
[CrossRef]

Powell, H. T.

Reason, C.

C. N. Danson, P. A. Brummitt, R. J. Clarke, I. Collier, B. Fell, A. J. Frackiewicz, S. Hawkes, C. Hernandez-Gomez, P. Holligan, M. H. R. Hutchinson, A. Kidd, W. J. Lester, I. O. Musgrave, D. Neely, D. R. Neville, P. A. Norreys, D. A. Pepler, C. Reason, W. Shaikh, T. B. Winstone, R. W. W. Wyatt, and B. E. Wyborn, “Vulcan petawatt: design, operation and interactions at 5×1020 W cm−2,” Laser Part. Beams 23, 87-93 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Remington, B. A.

B. A. Remington, D. Arnett, R. P. Drake, and H. Takabe, “Experimental astrophysics--Modeling astrophysical phenomena in the laboratory with intense lasers,” Science 284, 1488-1493 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rose, S. J.

R. G. Evans, E. L. Clark, R. T. Eagleton, A. M. Dunne, R. D. Edwards, W. J. Garbett, T. J. Goldsack, S. James, C. C. Smith, B. R. Thomas, R. Clarke, D. J. Neely, and S. J. Rose, “Rapid heating of solid density material by a petawatt laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 191505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ross, I. N.

Roth, M.

R. A. Snavely, M. H. Key, S. P. Hatchett, T. E. Cowan, M. Roth, T. W. Phillips, M. A. Stoyer, E. A. Henry, T. C. Sangster, M. S. Singh, S. C. Wilks, A. MacKinnon, A. Offenberger, D. M. Pennington, K. Yasuike, A. B. Langdon, B. F. Lasinski, J. Johnson, M. D. Perry, and E. M. Campbell, “Intense high-energy proton beams from petawatt-laser irradiation of solids,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2945-2948 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rousse, A.

V. Malka, J. Faure, Y. A. Gauduel, E. Lefebvre, A. Rousse, and K. T. Phuoc, “Principles and applications of compact laser-plasma accelerators,” Nat. Phys. 4, 447-453 (2008).

Sacks, R. A.

Sakabe, S.

Y. Kitagawa, H. Fujita, R. Kodama, H. Yoshida, S. Matsuo, T. Jitsuno, T. Kawasaki, H. Kitamura, T. Kanabe, S. Sakabe, K. Shigemori, N. Miyanaga, and Y. Izawa, “Prepulse-free petawatt laser for a fast ignitor,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 281-293 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sangster, T. C.

R. A. Snavely, M. H. Key, S. P. Hatchett, T. E. Cowan, M. Roth, T. W. Phillips, M. A. Stoyer, E. A. Henry, T. C. Sangster, M. S. Singh, S. C. Wilks, A. MacKinnon, A. Offenberger, D. M. Pennington, K. Yasuike, A. B. Langdon, B. F. Lasinski, J. Johnson, M. D. Perry, and E. M. Campbell, “Intense high-energy proton beams from petawatt-laser irradiation of solids,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2945-2948 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Schaffers, K.

A. J. Bayramian, J. P. Armstrong, G. Beer, R. Campbell, R. Cross, A. Erlandson, B. Freitas, J. Menapace, W. Molander, L. J. Perkins, K. Schaffers, C. Siders, S. Sutton, J. Tassano, S. Telford, C. A. Ebbers, J. Caird, and C. P. J. Barty, “High average power petawatt laser pumped by the mercury laser for fusion materials engineering,” Fusion Sci. Technol. 56, 295-300 (2009).

Schroeder, C.

W. Leemans, E. Esarey, C. Geddes, C. Schroeder, and C. Toth, “Laser guiding for GeV laser-plasma accelerators,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. A 364, 585-600 (2006).

Schroeder, C. B.

W. P. Leemans, B. Nagler, A. J. Gonsalves, C. Toth, K. Nakamura, C. G. R. Geddes, E. Esarey, C. B. Schroeder, and S. M. Hooker, “GeV electron beams from a centimetre-scale accelerator,” Nat. Phys. 2, 696-699 (2006).

Schwoerer, H.

H. Schwoerer, “Particle acceleration with lasers,” S. Afr. J. Sci. 104, 299-304 (2008).

Sergeev, A. M.

V. V. Lozhkarev, G. I. Freidman, V. N. Ginzburg, E. V. Katin, E. A. Khazanov, A. V. Kirsanov, G. A. Luchinin, A. N. Mal'shakov, M. A. Martyanov, O. V. Palashov, A. K. Poteomkin, A. M. Sergeev, A. A. Shaykin, and I. V. Yakovlev, “Compact 0.56 petawatt laser system based on optical parametric chirped pulse amplification in KD*P crystals,” Laser Phys. Lett. 4, 421-427(2007).
[CrossRef]

Shaikh, W.

C. N. Danson, P. A. Brummitt, R. J. Clarke, I. Collier, B. Fell, A. J. Frackiewicz, S. Hawkes, C. Hernandez-Gomez, P. Holligan, M. H. R. Hutchinson, A. Kidd, W. J. Lester, I. O. Musgrave, D. Neely, D. R. Neville, P. A. Norreys, D. A. Pepler, C. Reason, W. Shaikh, T. B. Winstone, R. W. W. Wyatt, and B. E. Wyborn, “Vulcan petawatt: design, operation and interactions at 5×1020 W cm−2,” Laser Part. Beams 23, 87-93 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shaw, M. J.

Shaykin, A. A.

V. V. Lozhkarev, G. I. Freidman, V. N. Ginzburg, E. V. Katin, E. A. Khazanov, A. V. Kirsanov, G. A. Luchinin, A. N. Mal'shakov, M. A. Martyanov, O. V. Palashov, A. K. Poteomkin, A. M. Sergeev, A. A. Shaykin, and I. V. Yakovlev, “Compact 0.56 petawatt laser system based on optical parametric chirped pulse amplification in KD*P crystals,” Laser Phys. Lett. 4, 421-427(2007).
[CrossRef]

Shigemori, K.

Y. Kitagawa, H. Fujita, R. Kodama, H. Yoshida, S. Matsuo, T. Jitsuno, T. Kawasaki, H. Kitamura, T. Kanabe, S. Sakabe, K. Shigemori, N. Miyanaga, and Y. Izawa, “Prepulse-free petawatt laser for a fast ignitor,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 281-293 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Siders, C.

A. J. Bayramian, J. P. Armstrong, G. Beer, R. Campbell, R. Cross, A. Erlandson, B. Freitas, J. Menapace, W. Molander, L. J. Perkins, K. Schaffers, C. Siders, S. Sutton, J. Tassano, S. Telford, C. A. Ebbers, J. Caird, and C. P. J. Barty, “High average power petawatt laser pumped by the mercury laser for fusion materials engineering,” Fusion Sci. Technol. 56, 295-300 (2009).

Singh, M. S.

R. A. Snavely, M. H. Key, S. P. Hatchett, T. E. Cowan, M. Roth, T. W. Phillips, M. A. Stoyer, E. A. Henry, T. C. Sangster, M. S. Singh, S. C. Wilks, A. MacKinnon, A. Offenberger, D. M. Pennington, K. Yasuike, A. B. Langdon, B. F. Lasinski, J. Johnson, M. D. Perry, and E. M. Campbell, “Intense high-energy proton beams from petawatt-laser irradiation of solids,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2945-2948 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Smith, C. C.

R. G. Evans, E. L. Clark, R. T. Eagleton, A. M. Dunne, R. D. Edwards, W. J. Garbett, T. J. Goldsack, S. James, C. C. Smith, B. R. Thomas, R. Clarke, D. J. Neely, and S. J. Rose, “Rapid heating of solid density material by a petawatt laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 191505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Snavely, R. A.

R. A. Snavely, M. H. Key, S. P. Hatchett, T. E. Cowan, M. Roth, T. W. Phillips, M. A. Stoyer, E. A. Henry, T. C. Sangster, M. S. Singh, S. C. Wilks, A. MacKinnon, A. Offenberger, D. M. Pennington, K. Yasuike, A. B. Langdon, B. F. Lasinski, J. Johnson, M. D. Perry, and E. M. Campbell, “Intense high-energy proton beams from petawatt-laser irradiation of solids,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2945-2948 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Spaeth, M.

Stoyer, M. A.

R. A. Snavely, M. H. Key, S. P. Hatchett, T. E. Cowan, M. Roth, T. W. Phillips, M. A. Stoyer, E. A. Henry, T. C. Sangster, M. S. Singh, S. C. Wilks, A. MacKinnon, A. Offenberger, D. M. Pennington, K. Yasuike, A. B. Langdon, B. F. Lasinski, J. Johnson, M. D. Perry, and E. M. Campbell, “Intense high-energy proton beams from petawatt-laser irradiation of solids,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2945-2948 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Strickland, D.

P. Maine, D. Strickland, P. Bado, M. Pessot, and G. Mourou, “Generation of ultrahigh peak power pulses by chirped pulse amplification,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 398-403(1988).
[CrossRef]

D. Strickland and G. Mourou, “Compression of amplified chirped optical pulses,” Opt. Commun. 56, 219-221 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Stuart, B. C.

P. S. Banks, M. D. Perry, V. Yanovsky, S. N. Fochs, B. C. Stuart, and J. Zweiback, “Novel all-reflective stretcher for chirped-pulse amplification of ultrashort pulses,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 268-274 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Perry, D. Pennington, B. C. Stuart, G. Tietbohl, J. A. Britten, C. Brown, S. Herman, B. Golick, M. Kartz, J. Miller, H. T. Powell, M. Vergino, and V. Yanovsky, “Petawatt laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 24, 160-162 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sutton, S.

A. J. Bayramian, J. P. Armstrong, G. Beer, R. Campbell, R. Cross, A. Erlandson, B. Freitas, J. Menapace, W. Molander, L. J. Perkins, K. Schaffers, C. Siders, S. Sutton, J. Tassano, S. Telford, C. A. Ebbers, J. Caird, and C. P. J. Barty, “High average power petawatt laser pumped by the mercury laser for fusion materials engineering,” Fusion Sci. Technol. 56, 295-300 (2009).

Sutton, S. B.

Takabe, H.

B. A. Remington, D. Arnett, R. P. Drake, and H. Takabe, “Experimental astrophysics--Modeling astrophysical phenomena in the laboratory with intense lasers,” Science 284, 1488-1493 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tassano, J.

A. J. Bayramian, J. P. Armstrong, G. Beer, R. Campbell, R. Cross, A. Erlandson, B. Freitas, J. Menapace, W. Molander, L. J. Perkins, K. Schaffers, C. Siders, S. Sutton, J. Tassano, S. Telford, C. A. Ebbers, J. Caird, and C. P. J. Barty, “High average power petawatt laser pumped by the mercury laser for fusion materials engineering,” Fusion Sci. Technol. 56, 295-300 (2009).

Telford, S.

A. J. Bayramian, J. P. Armstrong, G. Beer, R. Campbell, R. Cross, A. Erlandson, B. Freitas, J. Menapace, W. Molander, L. J. Perkins, K. Schaffers, C. Siders, S. Sutton, J. Tassano, S. Telford, C. A. Ebbers, J. Caird, and C. P. J. Barty, “High average power petawatt laser pumped by the mercury laser for fusion materials engineering,” Fusion Sci. Technol. 56, 295-300 (2009).

Thomas, B. R.

R. G. Evans, E. L. Clark, R. T. Eagleton, A. M. Dunne, R. D. Edwards, W. J. Garbett, T. J. Goldsack, S. James, C. C. Smith, B. R. Thomas, R. Clarke, D. J. Neely, and S. J. Rose, “Rapid heating of solid density material by a petawatt laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 191505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tietbohl, G.

Toth, C.

W. P. Leemans, B. Nagler, A. J. Gonsalves, C. Toth, K. Nakamura, C. G. R. Geddes, E. Esarey, C. B. Schroeder, and S. M. Hooker, “GeV electron beams from a centimetre-scale accelerator,” Nat. Phys. 2, 696-699 (2006).

W. Leemans, E. Esarey, C. Geddes, C. Schroeder, and C. Toth, “Laser guiding for GeV laser-plasma accelerators,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. A 364, 585-600 (2006).

Trentelman, M.

Ueda, H.

Van Wonterghem, B. M.

Vergino, M.

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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C. N. Danson, P. A. Brummitt, R. J. Clarke, I. Collier, B. Fell, A. J. Frackiewicz, S. Hawkes, C. Hernandez-Gomez, P. Holligan, M. H. R. Hutchinson, A. Kidd, W. J. Lester, I. O. Musgrave, D. Neely, D. R. Neville, P. A. Norreys, D. A. Pepler, C. Reason, W. Shaikh, T. B. Winstone, R. W. W. Wyatt, and B. E. Wyborn, “Vulcan petawatt: design, operation and interactions at 5×1020 W cm−2,” Laser Part. Beams 23, 87-93 (2005).
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[CrossRef]

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R. A. Snavely, M. H. Key, S. P. Hatchett, T. E. Cowan, M. Roth, T. W. Phillips, M. A. Stoyer, E. A. Henry, T. C. Sangster, M. S. Singh, S. C. Wilks, A. MacKinnon, A. Offenberger, D. M. Pennington, K. Yasuike, A. B. Langdon, B. F. Lasinski, J. Johnson, M. D. Perry, and E. M. Campbell, “Intense high-energy proton beams from petawatt-laser irradiation of solids,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2945-2948 (2000).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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T. Ditmire, J. Zweiback, V. P. Yanovsky, T. E. Cowan, G. Hays, and K. B. Wharton, “Nuclear fusion from explosions of femtosecond laser-heated deuterium clusters,” Nature 398, 489-492 (1999).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic layout of the laser chain. 100 fs , 3 nJ pulse (Spectra Tsunami) is backreflection isolated (ISO). The Faraday rotator (FR) couples pulses into and out of the stretcher. The image is spatially inverted (Image Inv.) before the second round trip. The stretcher in the lab is not as shown here, but folded at the Fourier plane (FP), and by a spherical mirror and stripe mirror [26]. A Pockels cell (PC) pulse picks the oscillator pulses at 10 Hz . Two separate lasers provide the pump light for two BBO crystal pairs and one YCOB crystal pair, bringing the laser energy to 1 J . The 64 mm silicate Nd :glass rod amplifier (Rod) is spatially multiplexed for eight passes delivering 18 J , and the 315 mm phosphate Nd :glass disk amplifiers (Disk Amp) brings the energy up to 250 J in four passes. Finally, the pulses are compressed by a pair of multilayer dielectric 1740   grooves / mm gratings to < 170 fs before being focused.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Near field images of OPA (left) and 4 J pump laser (right). The images are typical laser performance profiles. The pump laser is relay imaged and matched in size to the seed beam at the third OPA stage.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Spectral control of the laser system. (a) The output spectrum of stage II can be controlled by adjusting the relative timing between the pump and seed lasers. There is little loss in spectral power over the range of this scan. The saturation and therefore the width of the spectrum can be controlled in a similar fashion by some attenuation of the pump intensity. (b) The measured fluorescence spectrum of silicate and phosphate Nd :glass as well as the calculated mixed gain spectrum for our mixing ratio (55% silicate gain) and a net gain of 400. (c) A Gaussian spectrum out of the oscillator, then the saturated spectrum out of the second OPA stage, and the shaped spectrum out of the third OPA stage, which precompensates some gain narrowing in the glass amplifiers, and finally the output spectrum of the laser chain.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Petawatt laser performance. Output data from the laser at full energy are shown. (a) A single shot autocorrelation trace with a Gaussian fit. By applying a Gaussian deconvolution factor, we obtain 167 fs pulse width. (b) The far field profile of a beam at focus on a linear scale. This beam was focused with an F/40 setup, and the image was slightly saturated in the center to enhance the visibility of any residual energy in the wings. (c) The near field image of the output. The displayed image shows a 24 c m × 24 c m beam and is a CCD false color image of a leakage though a turning mirror. The image of the beam is down collimated and relay imaged at a plane equivalent to the final grating position.

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