Abstract

We observed intense green upconversion emission from Tb3+ centered at 546nm due to transition D45F57 in Tb3+/Yb3+ codoped alumino-germano-silicate optical fibers by direct excitation of Yb3+ ions with a laser diode at 976nm. A two-photon cooperative energy transfer upconversion among a pair of Yb3+ donor ions and a Tb3+ acceptor ion are responsible for the observed green emission. Appropriately increasing the concentration of Tb3+ relative to Yb3+ was found to facilitate the energy transfer upconversion process from Yb3+ to Tb3+, while an excess of Tb3+ ions inversely introduced more of the concentration quenching effect and phonon-assistant backward energy transfer from Tb3+ to Yb3+ and, therefore, damaged the observed green emission. The intensity of the observed green emission was found optimum for a concentration ratio of Tb3+ to Yb3+ of 2:1 in alumino-germano-silicate optical glass fibers.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  35. G. M. Salley, R. Valiente, and H. U. Güdel, “Photon-assistant cooperative sensitization of Tb3+ in SrCl2:Yb, Tb,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 14, 5461-5475 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  36. L. Huang, X. Liu, W. Xu, B. Chen, and J. Lin, “Infrared and visible luminescence properties of Er3+ and Yb3+ ions co-doped Ca3Al2Ge3O12 glass under 978 nm diode laser excitation,” J. Appl. Phys. 90, 5550-5553 (2001).
    [CrossRef]

2009

2008

A. Lin, X. Liu, P. R. Watekar, Y. Chung, and W.-T. Han, “Ag nanocrystal-incorporated germano-silicate optical fiber with high resonant nonlinearity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 021901(2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Lin, P. R. Watekar, G. Sun, Y. Chung, and W.-T. Han, “Pb2+/Al3+ co-doped germano-silicate optical fiber with high non-resonant third-order nonlinearity,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354, 3907-3909 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

K. A. Gavronskaya, S. M. Shilov, and V. N. Pak, “Luminescence of terbium(III) chloride in porous glass,” Russ. J. Appl. Chem. 80,364-367 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Lin, B. H. Kim, D. S. Moon, Y. Chung, and W.-T. Han, “Cu2+-doped germano-silicate glass fiber with high resonant nonlinearity,” Opt. Express 15, 3665-3672(2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Lin and W.-T. Han, “Au-nanoparticle-incorporated germano-silicate glass fiber with high resonant nonlinearity,” J. Nanophoton. 1, 013554 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Song, L. Han, C. Zou, J. Su, K. Zhang, L. Yan, and J. Tian, “Upconversion blue emission dependence on the pump mechanism for Tm3+-heavy-doped NaY(WO4)2 crystal,” Appl. Phys. B 86, 653-660 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. K. Rai, K. Kumar, and S. B. Rai, “Upconversion in Pr3+ doped tellurite glass,” Opt. Mater. 29, 873-878(2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

S. D. Jackson, “The effects of energy transfer upconversion on the performance of Tm3+, Ho3+-doped silica fiber lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1885-1887 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Lin, K. Liu, L. Lin, Y. Hou, D. Yang, T. Ma, E. Y. B. Pun, Q. An, J. Yu, and S. Tanabe, “Optical parameters and upconversion fluorescence in Tm3+/Yb3+-doped alkali-barium-bismuth-tellurite glasses,” Spectrochim. Acta A 65, 702-707(2006).
[CrossRef]

B. M. Walsh, N. P. Barnes, D. J. Reichel, and S. Jiang, “Optical properties of Tm3+ ions in alkali germinate glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352, 5344-5352 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Yang, Z. Dai, J. Li, and Y. Tian, “Energy transfer and frequency upconversion in Pr3+-doped ZBLAN glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352, 5469-5474 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

H. Sun, L. Zhang, J. Zhang, L. Wen, C. Yu, Z. Duan, S. Dai, L. Hu, and Z. Jiang, “Intense upconversion luminescence in ytterbium-sensitized thulium-doped oxychloride germanate glass,” Physica B 358, 50-55 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Q. Y. Zhang, T. Li, Z. H. Jiang, X. H. Ji, and S. Buddhudu, “980 nm laser-diode-excited intense blue upconversion in Tm3+/Yb3+ co-doped gallate-bismuth-lead glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 171911 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

N. Dai, L. Hu, J. Yang, S. Dai, and A. Lin, “Spectroscopic properties of Yb3+-doped silicate glasses,” J. Alloys Compd. 363, 1-5 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

A. Lin, L. Hu, N. Dai, S. Xu, and S. Dai, “Spectroscopic properties of Yb3+-doped germano-silicate glasses,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 20, 1838-1840 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Yang, N. Dai, S. Dai, L. Wen, L. Hu, and Z. Jiang, “Enhancement of upconversion luminescence in Er3+ doped tellurite glasses due to the introduction of PbCl2,” Phys. Chem. Lett. 376, 671-675 (2003).
[CrossRef]

I. R. Martín, J. Méndez-Ramos, V. D. Rodríguez, J. J. Romero, and J. Garcia-Solé, “Increase of the 800 nm excited Tm3+ blue upconversion emission in fluoridate glasses by codoping with Yb3+ ions,” Opt. Mater. 22, 327-333 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. V.D. Vermelho, P. V. dos Santos, M. T. de Araújo, A. S. Gouveia-Neto, F. C. Cassanjes, S. J. L. Ribeiro, and Y. Messaddeq, “Thermally enhanced cooperative energy-transfer frequency upconversion in terbium and ytterbium doped tellurite glass,” J. Lumin. 102-103, 762-767(2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

G. M. Salley, R. Valiente, and H. U. Güdel, “Photon-assistant cooperative sensitization of Tb3+ in SrCl2:Yb, Tb,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 14, 5461-5475 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

L. Huang, X. Liu, W. Xu, B. Chen, and J. Lin, “Infrared and visible luminescence properties of Er3+ and Yb3+ ions co-doped Ca3Al2Ge3O12 glass under 978 nm diode laser excitation,” J. Appl. Phys. 90, 5550-5553 (2001).
[CrossRef]

I. R. Mart, A. C. Yanes, J. Méndez-Ramos, M. E. Torres, and V. D. Rodríguez, “Cooperative energy transfer in Yb3+−Tb3+co-doped silica sol-gel glasses,” J. Appl. Phys. 89, 2520-2524(2001).
[CrossRef]

G. M. Salley, R. Valiente, and H. U. Güdel, “Luminescence upconversion mechanisms in Yb3+−Tb3+ systems,” J. Lumin. 94-95, 305-309 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

V. I. Chani, A. Yoshikawa, H. Machida, and T. Fukuda, “(Tb,Yb)3Al5O12 garnet: crystal-chemistry and fiber growth by micro-pulling-down technique,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 75, 53-60 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem and D. Ehrt, “Formation and UV absorption of cerium, europium and terbium ions in different valencies in glasses,” Opt. Mater. 15, 7-25 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998

E. Martins, Cid B. de Araújo, J. R. Delben, A. S.L. Gomes, B. J. da Costa, and Y. Messaddeq, “Cooperative frequency upconversion in Yb3+−Tb3+ co-doped fluoroindate glass,” Opt. Commun. 158, 61-64 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996

R. Scheps, “Upconversion laser processes,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 20, 271-358 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

S. Sanders, R. G. Waarts, D. G. Mehuys, and D. F. Welch, “Laser diode pumped 106 mW blue upconversion fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 1815-1817 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Funk and J. G. Eden, “Glass-fiber lasers in the ultraviolet and visible,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. Electron. 1, 784-791(1995).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Brown, W. S. Brocklesby, W. L. Barnes, and J. E. Townsend, “Cooperative energy transfer in silica fibers doped with ytterbium and terbium,” J. Lumin. 63, 1-7 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993

D. Piehler, D. Craven, N. Kwong, and H. Zarem, “Laser-diode-pumped red and green upconversion fiber laser,” Electron. Lett. 29, 1857-1858 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1987

J. E. Townsend, S. B. Poole, and D. N. Payne, “Solution-doping technique for fabrication of rare-earth-doped optical fibers,” Electron. Lett. 23, 329-331 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1976

F. Auzel, “Multiphonon-assisted anti-Stokes and Stokes fluorescence of triply ionized rare-earth ions,” Phys. Rev. B 13, 2809-2817 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1970

F. W. Ostermayer, Jr., and L. G. Van Uitert, “Cooperative energy transfer from Yb3+ to Tb3+ in YF3,” Phys. Rev. B 1, 4208-4212 (1970).
[CrossRef]

An, Q.

H. Lin, K. Liu, L. Lin, Y. Hou, D. Yang, T. Ma, E. Y. B. Pun, Q. An, J. Yu, and S. Tanabe, “Optical parameters and upconversion fluorescence in Tm3+/Yb3+-doped alkali-barium-bismuth-tellurite glasses,” Spectrochim. Acta A 65, 702-707(2006).
[CrossRef]

Auzel, F.

F. Auzel, “Multiphonon-assisted anti-Stokes and Stokes fluorescence of triply ionized rare-earth ions,” Phys. Rev. B 13, 2809-2817 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, N. P.

B. M. Walsh, N. P. Barnes, D. J. Reichel, and S. Jiang, “Optical properties of Tm3+ ions in alkali germinate glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352, 5344-5352 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, W. L.

R. S. Brown, W. S. Brocklesby, W. L. Barnes, and J. E. Townsend, “Cooperative energy transfer in silica fibers doped with ytterbium and terbium,” J. Lumin. 63, 1-7 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Brocklesby, W. S.

R. S. Brown, W. S. Brocklesby, W. L. Barnes, and J. E. Townsend, “Cooperative energy transfer in silica fibers doped with ytterbium and terbium,” J. Lumin. 63, 1-7 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Brown, R. S.

R. S. Brown, W. S. Brocklesby, W. L. Barnes, and J. E. Townsend, “Cooperative energy transfer in silica fibers doped with ytterbium and terbium,” J. Lumin. 63, 1-7 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Buddhudu, S.

Q. Y. Zhang, T. Li, Z. H. Jiang, X. H. Ji, and S. Buddhudu, “980 nm laser-diode-excited intense blue upconversion in Tm3+/Yb3+ co-doped gallate-bismuth-lead glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 171911 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cassanjes, F. C.

M. V.D. Vermelho, P. V. dos Santos, M. T. de Araújo, A. S. Gouveia-Neto, F. C. Cassanjes, S. J. L. Ribeiro, and Y. Messaddeq, “Thermally enhanced cooperative energy-transfer frequency upconversion in terbium and ytterbium doped tellurite glass,” J. Lumin. 102-103, 762-767(2003).
[CrossRef]

Chani, V. I.

V. I. Chani, A. Yoshikawa, H. Machida, and T. Fukuda, “(Tb,Yb)3Al5O12 garnet: crystal-chemistry and fiber growth by micro-pulling-down technique,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 75, 53-60 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chen, B.

L. Huang, X. Liu, W. Xu, B. Chen, and J. Lin, “Infrared and visible luminescence properties of Er3+ and Yb3+ ions co-doped Ca3Al2Ge3O12 glass under 978 nm diode laser excitation,” J. Appl. Phys. 90, 5550-5553 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chung, Y.

A. Lin, P. R. Watekar, G. Sun, Y. Chung, and W.-T. Han, “Pb2+/Al3+ co-doped germano-silicate optical fiber with high non-resonant third-order nonlinearity,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354, 3907-3909 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Lin, X. Liu, P. R. Watekar, Y. Chung, and W.-T. Han, “Ag nanocrystal-incorporated germano-silicate optical fiber with high resonant nonlinearity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 021901(2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Lin, B. H. Kim, D. S. Moon, Y. Chung, and W.-T. Han, “Cu2+-doped germano-silicate glass fiber with high resonant nonlinearity,” Opt. Express 15, 3665-3672(2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Craven, D.

D. Piehler, D. Craven, N. Kwong, and H. Zarem, “Laser-diode-pumped red and green upconversion fiber laser,” Electron. Lett. 29, 1857-1858 (1993).
[CrossRef]

da Costa, B. J.

E. Martins, Cid B. de Araújo, J. R. Delben, A. S.L. Gomes, B. J. da Costa, and Y. Messaddeq, “Cooperative frequency upconversion in Yb3+−Tb3+ co-doped fluoroindate glass,” Opt. Commun. 158, 61-64 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dai, N.

N. Dai, L. Hu, J. Yang, S. Dai, and A. Lin, “Spectroscopic properties of Yb3+-doped silicate glasses,” J. Alloys Compd. 363, 1-5 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Yang, N. Dai, S. Dai, L. Wen, L. Hu, and Z. Jiang, “Enhancement of upconversion luminescence in Er3+ doped tellurite glasses due to the introduction of PbCl2,” Phys. Chem. Lett. 376, 671-675 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Lin, L. Hu, N. Dai, S. Xu, and S. Dai, “Spectroscopic properties of Yb3+-doped germano-silicate glasses,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 20, 1838-1840 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dai, S.

H. Sun, L. Zhang, J. Zhang, L. Wen, C. Yu, Z. Duan, S. Dai, L. Hu, and Z. Jiang, “Intense upconversion luminescence in ytterbium-sensitized thulium-doped oxychloride germanate glass,” Physica B 358, 50-55 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. Dai, L. Hu, J. Yang, S. Dai, and A. Lin, “Spectroscopic properties of Yb3+-doped silicate glasses,” J. Alloys Compd. 363, 1-5 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Yang, N. Dai, S. Dai, L. Wen, L. Hu, and Z. Jiang, “Enhancement of upconversion luminescence in Er3+ doped tellurite glasses due to the introduction of PbCl2,” Phys. Chem. Lett. 376, 671-675 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Lin, L. Hu, N. Dai, S. Xu, and S. Dai, “Spectroscopic properties of Yb3+-doped germano-silicate glasses,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 20, 1838-1840 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dai, Z.

H. Yang, Z. Dai, J. Li, and Y. Tian, “Energy transfer and frequency upconversion in Pr3+-doped ZBLAN glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352, 5469-5474 (2006).
[CrossRef]

de Araújo, Cid B.

E. Martins, Cid B. de Araújo, J. R. Delben, A. S.L. Gomes, B. J. da Costa, and Y. Messaddeq, “Cooperative frequency upconversion in Yb3+−Tb3+ co-doped fluoroindate glass,” Opt. Commun. 158, 61-64 (1998).
[CrossRef]

de Araújo, M. T.

M. V.D. Vermelho, P. V. dos Santos, M. T. de Araújo, A. S. Gouveia-Neto, F. C. Cassanjes, S. J. L. Ribeiro, and Y. Messaddeq, “Thermally enhanced cooperative energy-transfer frequency upconversion in terbium and ytterbium doped tellurite glass,” J. Lumin. 102-103, 762-767(2003).
[CrossRef]

Delben, J. R.

E. Martins, Cid B. de Araújo, J. R. Delben, A. S.L. Gomes, B. J. da Costa, and Y. Messaddeq, “Cooperative frequency upconversion in Yb3+−Tb3+ co-doped fluoroindate glass,” Opt. Commun. 158, 61-64 (1998).
[CrossRef]

dos Santos, P. V.

M. V.D. Vermelho, P. V. dos Santos, M. T. de Araújo, A. S. Gouveia-Neto, F. C. Cassanjes, S. J. L. Ribeiro, and Y. Messaddeq, “Thermally enhanced cooperative energy-transfer frequency upconversion in terbium and ytterbium doped tellurite glass,” J. Lumin. 102-103, 762-767(2003).
[CrossRef]

Duan, Z.

H. Sun, L. Zhang, J. Zhang, L. Wen, C. Yu, Z. Duan, S. Dai, L. Hu, and Z. Jiang, “Intense upconversion luminescence in ytterbium-sensitized thulium-doped oxychloride germanate glass,” Physica B 358, 50-55 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ebendorff-Heidepriem, H.

H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem and D. Ehrt, “Formation and UV absorption of cerium, europium and terbium ions in different valencies in glasses,” Opt. Mater. 15, 7-25 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Eden, J. G.

D. S. Funk and J. G. Eden, “Glass-fiber lasers in the ultraviolet and visible,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. Electron. 1, 784-791(1995).
[CrossRef]

Ehrt, D.

H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem and D. Ehrt, “Formation and UV absorption of cerium, europium and terbium ions in different valencies in glasses,” Opt. Mater. 15, 7-25 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Fukuda, T.

V. I. Chani, A. Yoshikawa, H. Machida, and T. Fukuda, “(Tb,Yb)3Al5O12 garnet: crystal-chemistry and fiber growth by micro-pulling-down technique,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 75, 53-60 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Funk, D. S.

D. S. Funk and J. G. Eden, “Glass-fiber lasers in the ultraviolet and visible,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. Electron. 1, 784-791(1995).
[CrossRef]

Garcia-Solé, J.

I. R. Martín, J. Méndez-Ramos, V. D. Rodríguez, J. J. Romero, and J. Garcia-Solé, “Increase of the 800 nm excited Tm3+ blue upconversion emission in fluoridate glasses by codoping with Yb3+ ions,” Opt. Mater. 22, 327-333 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gavronskaya, K. A.

K. A. Gavronskaya, S. M. Shilov, and V. N. Pak, “Luminescence of terbium(III) chloride in porous glass,” Russ. J. Appl. Chem. 80,364-367 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gomes, A. S.L.

E. Martins, Cid B. de Araújo, J. R. Delben, A. S.L. Gomes, B. J. da Costa, and Y. Messaddeq, “Cooperative frequency upconversion in Yb3+−Tb3+ co-doped fluoroindate glass,” Opt. Commun. 158, 61-64 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gouveia-Neto, A. S.

M. V.D. Vermelho, P. V. dos Santos, M. T. de Araújo, A. S. Gouveia-Neto, F. C. Cassanjes, S. J. L. Ribeiro, and Y. Messaddeq, “Thermally enhanced cooperative energy-transfer frequency upconversion in terbium and ytterbium doped tellurite glass,” J. Lumin. 102-103, 762-767(2003).
[CrossRef]

Güdel, H. U.

G. M. Salley, R. Valiente, and H. U. Güdel, “Photon-assistant cooperative sensitization of Tb3+ in SrCl2:Yb, Tb,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 14, 5461-5475 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. M. Salley, R. Valiente, and H. U. Güdel, “Luminescence upconversion mechanisms in Yb3+−Tb3+ systems,” J. Lumin. 94-95, 305-309 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Han, L.

F. Song, L. Han, C. Zou, J. Su, K. Zhang, L. Yan, and J. Tian, “Upconversion blue emission dependence on the pump mechanism for Tm3+-heavy-doped NaY(WO4)2 crystal,” Appl. Phys. B 86, 653-660 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Han, W.-T.

A. Lin, X. Liu, P. R. Watekar, W. Zhao, B. Peng, C. Sun, Y. Wang, and W.-T. Han, “All-optical switching application of germano-silicate optical fiber incorporated with Ag nanocrystals,” Opt. Lett. 34, 791-793 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Lin, X. Liu, P. R. Watekar, W. Zhao, B. Peng, M. Lu, W.-T. Han, and J. Toulouse, “Tellurium enhanced non-resonant third-order nonlinearity in a germano-silicate optical fiber,” Appl. Opt. 48, 4922-4925 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Lin, P. R. Watekar, G. Sun, Y. Chung, and W.-T. Han, “Pb2+/Al3+ co-doped germano-silicate optical fiber with high non-resonant third-order nonlinearity,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354, 3907-3909 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Lin, X. Liu, P. R. Watekar, Y. Chung, and W.-T. Han, “Ag nanocrystal-incorporated germano-silicate optical fiber with high resonant nonlinearity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 021901(2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Lin and W.-T. Han, “Au-nanoparticle-incorporated germano-silicate glass fiber with high resonant nonlinearity,” J. Nanophoton. 1, 013554 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Lin, B. H. Kim, D. S. Moon, Y. Chung, and W.-T. Han, “Cu2+-doped germano-silicate glass fiber with high resonant nonlinearity,” Opt. Express 15, 3665-3672(2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hou, Y.

H. Lin, K. Liu, L. Lin, Y. Hou, D. Yang, T. Ma, E. Y. B. Pun, Q. An, J. Yu, and S. Tanabe, “Optical parameters and upconversion fluorescence in Tm3+/Yb3+-doped alkali-barium-bismuth-tellurite glasses,” Spectrochim. Acta A 65, 702-707(2006).
[CrossRef]

Hu, L.

H. Sun, L. Zhang, J. Zhang, L. Wen, C. Yu, Z. Duan, S. Dai, L. Hu, and Z. Jiang, “Intense upconversion luminescence in ytterbium-sensitized thulium-doped oxychloride germanate glass,” Physica B 358, 50-55 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. Dai, L. Hu, J. Yang, S. Dai, and A. Lin, “Spectroscopic properties of Yb3+-doped silicate glasses,” J. Alloys Compd. 363, 1-5 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Yang, N. Dai, S. Dai, L. Wen, L. Hu, and Z. Jiang, “Enhancement of upconversion luminescence in Er3+ doped tellurite glasses due to the introduction of PbCl2,” Phys. Chem. Lett. 376, 671-675 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Lin, L. Hu, N. Dai, S. Xu, and S. Dai, “Spectroscopic properties of Yb3+-doped germano-silicate glasses,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 20, 1838-1840 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Huang, L.

L. Huang, X. Liu, W. Xu, B. Chen, and J. Lin, “Infrared and visible luminescence properties of Er3+ and Yb3+ ions co-doped Ca3Al2Ge3O12 glass under 978 nm diode laser excitation,” J. Appl. Phys. 90, 5550-5553 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jackson, S. D.

S. D. Jackson, “The effects of energy transfer upconversion on the performance of Tm3+, Ho3+-doped silica fiber lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1885-1887 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ji, X. H.

Q. Y. Zhang, T. Li, Z. H. Jiang, X. H. Ji, and S. Buddhudu, “980 nm laser-diode-excited intense blue upconversion in Tm3+/Yb3+ co-doped gallate-bismuth-lead glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 171911 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, S.

B. M. Walsh, N. P. Barnes, D. J. Reichel, and S. Jiang, “Optical properties of Tm3+ ions in alkali germinate glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352, 5344-5352 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, Z.

H. Sun, L. Zhang, J. Zhang, L. Wen, C. Yu, Z. Duan, S. Dai, L. Hu, and Z. Jiang, “Intense upconversion luminescence in ytterbium-sensitized thulium-doped oxychloride germanate glass,” Physica B 358, 50-55 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Yang, N. Dai, S. Dai, L. Wen, L. Hu, and Z. Jiang, “Enhancement of upconversion luminescence in Er3+ doped tellurite glasses due to the introduction of PbCl2,” Phys. Chem. Lett. 376, 671-675 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, Z. H.

Q. Y. Zhang, T. Li, Z. H. Jiang, X. H. Ji, and S. Buddhudu, “980 nm laser-diode-excited intense blue upconversion in Tm3+/Yb3+ co-doped gallate-bismuth-lead glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 171911 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kim, B. H.

Kumar, K.

V. K. Rai, K. Kumar, and S. B. Rai, “Upconversion in Pr3+ doped tellurite glass,” Opt. Mater. 29, 873-878(2007).
[CrossRef]

Kwong, N.

D. Piehler, D. Craven, N. Kwong, and H. Zarem, “Laser-diode-pumped red and green upconversion fiber laser,” Electron. Lett. 29, 1857-1858 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Li, J.

H. Yang, Z. Dai, J. Li, and Y. Tian, “Energy transfer and frequency upconversion in Pr3+-doped ZBLAN glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352, 5469-5474 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Li, T.

Q. Y. Zhang, T. Li, Z. H. Jiang, X. H. Ji, and S. Buddhudu, “980 nm laser-diode-excited intense blue upconversion in Tm3+/Yb3+ co-doped gallate-bismuth-lead glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 171911 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lin, A.

A. Lin, X. Liu, P. R. Watekar, W. Zhao, B. Peng, M. Lu, W.-T. Han, and J. Toulouse, “Tellurium enhanced non-resonant third-order nonlinearity in a germano-silicate optical fiber,” Appl. Opt. 48, 4922-4925 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Lin, X. Liu, P. R. Watekar, W. Zhao, B. Peng, C. Sun, Y. Wang, and W.-T. Han, “All-optical switching application of germano-silicate optical fiber incorporated with Ag nanocrystals,” Opt. Lett. 34, 791-793 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Lin, P. R. Watekar, G. Sun, Y. Chung, and W.-T. Han, “Pb2+/Al3+ co-doped germano-silicate optical fiber with high non-resonant third-order nonlinearity,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354, 3907-3909 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Lin, X. Liu, P. R. Watekar, Y. Chung, and W.-T. Han, “Ag nanocrystal-incorporated germano-silicate optical fiber with high resonant nonlinearity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 021901(2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Lin and W.-T. Han, “Au-nanoparticle-incorporated germano-silicate glass fiber with high resonant nonlinearity,” J. Nanophoton. 1, 013554 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Lin, B. H. Kim, D. S. Moon, Y. Chung, and W.-T. Han, “Cu2+-doped germano-silicate glass fiber with high resonant nonlinearity,” Opt. Express 15, 3665-3672(2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Dai, L. Hu, J. Yang, S. Dai, and A. Lin, “Spectroscopic properties of Yb3+-doped silicate glasses,” J. Alloys Compd. 363, 1-5 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Lin, L. Hu, N. Dai, S. Xu, and S. Dai, “Spectroscopic properties of Yb3+-doped germano-silicate glasses,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 20, 1838-1840 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lin, H.

H. Lin, K. Liu, L. Lin, Y. Hou, D. Yang, T. Ma, E. Y. B. Pun, Q. An, J. Yu, and S. Tanabe, “Optical parameters and upconversion fluorescence in Tm3+/Yb3+-doped alkali-barium-bismuth-tellurite glasses,” Spectrochim. Acta A 65, 702-707(2006).
[CrossRef]

Lin, J.

L. Huang, X. Liu, W. Xu, B. Chen, and J. Lin, “Infrared and visible luminescence properties of Er3+ and Yb3+ ions co-doped Ca3Al2Ge3O12 glass under 978 nm diode laser excitation,” J. Appl. Phys. 90, 5550-5553 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lin, L.

H. Lin, K. Liu, L. Lin, Y. Hou, D. Yang, T. Ma, E. Y. B. Pun, Q. An, J. Yu, and S. Tanabe, “Optical parameters and upconversion fluorescence in Tm3+/Yb3+-doped alkali-barium-bismuth-tellurite glasses,” Spectrochim. Acta A 65, 702-707(2006).
[CrossRef]

Liu, K.

H. Lin, K. Liu, L. Lin, Y. Hou, D. Yang, T. Ma, E. Y. B. Pun, Q. An, J. Yu, and S. Tanabe, “Optical parameters and upconversion fluorescence in Tm3+/Yb3+-doped alkali-barium-bismuth-tellurite glasses,” Spectrochim. Acta A 65, 702-707(2006).
[CrossRef]

Liu, X.

A. Lin, X. Liu, P. R. Watekar, W. Zhao, B. Peng, M. Lu, W.-T. Han, and J. Toulouse, “Tellurium enhanced non-resonant third-order nonlinearity in a germano-silicate optical fiber,” Appl. Opt. 48, 4922-4925 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Lin, X. Liu, P. R. Watekar, W. Zhao, B. Peng, C. Sun, Y. Wang, and W.-T. Han, “All-optical switching application of germano-silicate optical fiber incorporated with Ag nanocrystals,” Opt. Lett. 34, 791-793 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Lin, X. Liu, P. R. Watekar, Y. Chung, and W.-T. Han, “Ag nanocrystal-incorporated germano-silicate optical fiber with high resonant nonlinearity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 021901(2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Huang, X. Liu, W. Xu, B. Chen, and J. Lin, “Infrared and visible luminescence properties of Er3+ and Yb3+ ions co-doped Ca3Al2Ge3O12 glass under 978 nm diode laser excitation,” J. Appl. Phys. 90, 5550-5553 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lu, M.

Ma, T.

H. Lin, K. Liu, L. Lin, Y. Hou, D. Yang, T. Ma, E. Y. B. Pun, Q. An, J. Yu, and S. Tanabe, “Optical parameters and upconversion fluorescence in Tm3+/Yb3+-doped alkali-barium-bismuth-tellurite glasses,” Spectrochim. Acta A 65, 702-707(2006).
[CrossRef]

Machida, H.

V. I. Chani, A. Yoshikawa, H. Machida, and T. Fukuda, “(Tb,Yb)3Al5O12 garnet: crystal-chemistry and fiber growth by micro-pulling-down technique,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 75, 53-60 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mart, I. R.

I. R. Mart, A. C. Yanes, J. Méndez-Ramos, M. E. Torres, and V. D. Rodríguez, “Cooperative energy transfer in Yb3+−Tb3+co-doped silica sol-gel glasses,” J. Appl. Phys. 89, 2520-2524(2001).
[CrossRef]

Martín, I. R.

I. R. Martín, J. Méndez-Ramos, V. D. Rodríguez, J. J. Romero, and J. Garcia-Solé, “Increase of the 800 nm excited Tm3+ blue upconversion emission in fluoridate glasses by codoping with Yb3+ ions,” Opt. Mater. 22, 327-333 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Martins, E.

E. Martins, Cid B. de Araújo, J. R. Delben, A. S.L. Gomes, B. J. da Costa, and Y. Messaddeq, “Cooperative frequency upconversion in Yb3+−Tb3+ co-doped fluoroindate glass,” Opt. Commun. 158, 61-64 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mehuys, D. G.

S. Sanders, R. G. Waarts, D. G. Mehuys, and D. F. Welch, “Laser diode pumped 106 mW blue upconversion fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 1815-1817 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Méndez-Ramos, J.

I. R. Martín, J. Méndez-Ramos, V. D. Rodríguez, J. J. Romero, and J. Garcia-Solé, “Increase of the 800 nm excited Tm3+ blue upconversion emission in fluoridate glasses by codoping with Yb3+ ions,” Opt. Mater. 22, 327-333 (2003).
[CrossRef]

I. R. Mart, A. C. Yanes, J. Méndez-Ramos, M. E. Torres, and V. D. Rodríguez, “Cooperative energy transfer in Yb3+−Tb3+co-doped silica sol-gel glasses,” J. Appl. Phys. 89, 2520-2524(2001).
[CrossRef]

Messaddeq, Y.

M. V.D. Vermelho, P. V. dos Santos, M. T. de Araújo, A. S. Gouveia-Neto, F. C. Cassanjes, S. J. L. Ribeiro, and Y. Messaddeq, “Thermally enhanced cooperative energy-transfer frequency upconversion in terbium and ytterbium doped tellurite glass,” J. Lumin. 102-103, 762-767(2003).
[CrossRef]

E. Martins, Cid B. de Araújo, J. R. Delben, A. S.L. Gomes, B. J. da Costa, and Y. Messaddeq, “Cooperative frequency upconversion in Yb3+−Tb3+ co-doped fluoroindate glass,” Opt. Commun. 158, 61-64 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Miniscalco, W. J.

W. J. Miniscalco, “Optical and electronic properties of rare earth ions in glasses,” in Rare Earth Doped Fiber Lasers and Amplifiers, M.J. F.Digonnet, ed. (Dekker, 2001).
[CrossRef]

Moon, D. S.

Ostermayer, F. W.

F. W. Ostermayer, Jr., and L. G. Van Uitert, “Cooperative energy transfer from Yb3+ to Tb3+ in YF3,” Phys. Rev. B 1, 4208-4212 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Pak, V. N.

K. A. Gavronskaya, S. M. Shilov, and V. N. Pak, “Luminescence of terbium(III) chloride in porous glass,” Russ. J. Appl. Chem. 80,364-367 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Payne, D. N.

J. E. Townsend, S. B. Poole, and D. N. Payne, “Solution-doping technique for fabrication of rare-earth-doped optical fibers,” Electron. Lett. 23, 329-331 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Peng, B.

Piehler, D.

D. Piehler, D. Craven, N. Kwong, and H. Zarem, “Laser-diode-pumped red and green upconversion fiber laser,” Electron. Lett. 29, 1857-1858 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Poole, S. B.

J. E. Townsend, S. B. Poole, and D. N. Payne, “Solution-doping technique for fabrication of rare-earth-doped optical fibers,” Electron. Lett. 23, 329-331 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Pun, E. Y. B.

H. Lin, K. Liu, L. Lin, Y. Hou, D. Yang, T. Ma, E. Y. B. Pun, Q. An, J. Yu, and S. Tanabe, “Optical parameters and upconversion fluorescence in Tm3+/Yb3+-doped alkali-barium-bismuth-tellurite glasses,” Spectrochim. Acta A 65, 702-707(2006).
[CrossRef]

Rai, S. B.

V. K. Rai, K. Kumar, and S. B. Rai, “Upconversion in Pr3+ doped tellurite glass,” Opt. Mater. 29, 873-878(2007).
[CrossRef]

Rai, V. K.

V. K. Rai, K. Kumar, and S. B. Rai, “Upconversion in Pr3+ doped tellurite glass,” Opt. Mater. 29, 873-878(2007).
[CrossRef]

Reichel, D. J.

B. M. Walsh, N. P. Barnes, D. J. Reichel, and S. Jiang, “Optical properties of Tm3+ ions in alkali germinate glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352, 5344-5352 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ribeiro, S. J. L.

M. V.D. Vermelho, P. V. dos Santos, M. T. de Araújo, A. S. Gouveia-Neto, F. C. Cassanjes, S. J. L. Ribeiro, and Y. Messaddeq, “Thermally enhanced cooperative energy-transfer frequency upconversion in terbium and ytterbium doped tellurite glass,” J. Lumin. 102-103, 762-767(2003).
[CrossRef]

Rodríguez, V. D.

I. R. Martín, J. Méndez-Ramos, V. D. Rodríguez, J. J. Romero, and J. Garcia-Solé, “Increase of the 800 nm excited Tm3+ blue upconversion emission in fluoridate glasses by codoping with Yb3+ ions,” Opt. Mater. 22, 327-333 (2003).
[CrossRef]

I. R. Mart, A. C. Yanes, J. Méndez-Ramos, M. E. Torres, and V. D. Rodríguez, “Cooperative energy transfer in Yb3+−Tb3+co-doped silica sol-gel glasses,” J. Appl. Phys. 89, 2520-2524(2001).
[CrossRef]

Romero, J. J.

I. R. Martín, J. Méndez-Ramos, V. D. Rodríguez, J. J. Romero, and J. Garcia-Solé, “Increase of the 800 nm excited Tm3+ blue upconversion emission in fluoridate glasses by codoping with Yb3+ ions,” Opt. Mater. 22, 327-333 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Salley, G. M.

G. M. Salley, R. Valiente, and H. U. Güdel, “Photon-assistant cooperative sensitization of Tb3+ in SrCl2:Yb, Tb,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 14, 5461-5475 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. M. Salley, R. Valiente, and H. U. Güdel, “Luminescence upconversion mechanisms in Yb3+−Tb3+ systems,” J. Lumin. 94-95, 305-309 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sanders, S.

S. Sanders, R. G. Waarts, D. G. Mehuys, and D. F. Welch, “Laser diode pumped 106 mW blue upconversion fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 1815-1817 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Scheps, R.

R. Scheps, “Upconversion laser processes,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 20, 271-358 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Shilov, S. M.

K. A. Gavronskaya, S. M. Shilov, and V. N. Pak, “Luminescence of terbium(III) chloride in porous glass,” Russ. J. Appl. Chem. 80,364-367 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Song, F.

F. Song, L. Han, C. Zou, J. Su, K. Zhang, L. Yan, and J. Tian, “Upconversion blue emission dependence on the pump mechanism for Tm3+-heavy-doped NaY(WO4)2 crystal,” Appl. Phys. B 86, 653-660 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Su, J.

F. Song, L. Han, C. Zou, J. Su, K. Zhang, L. Yan, and J. Tian, “Upconversion blue emission dependence on the pump mechanism for Tm3+-heavy-doped NaY(WO4)2 crystal,” Appl. Phys. B 86, 653-660 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sun, C.

Sun, G.

A. Lin, P. R. Watekar, G. Sun, Y. Chung, and W.-T. Han, “Pb2+/Al3+ co-doped germano-silicate optical fiber with high non-resonant third-order nonlinearity,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354, 3907-3909 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sun, H.

H. Sun, L. Zhang, J. Zhang, L. Wen, C. Yu, Z. Duan, S. Dai, L. Hu, and Z. Jiang, “Intense upconversion luminescence in ytterbium-sensitized thulium-doped oxychloride germanate glass,” Physica B 358, 50-55 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tanabe, S.

H. Lin, K. Liu, L. Lin, Y. Hou, D. Yang, T. Ma, E. Y. B. Pun, Q. An, J. Yu, and S. Tanabe, “Optical parameters and upconversion fluorescence in Tm3+/Yb3+-doped alkali-barium-bismuth-tellurite glasses,” Spectrochim. Acta A 65, 702-707(2006).
[CrossRef]

Tian, J.

F. Song, L. Han, C. Zou, J. Su, K. Zhang, L. Yan, and J. Tian, “Upconversion blue emission dependence on the pump mechanism for Tm3+-heavy-doped NaY(WO4)2 crystal,” Appl. Phys. B 86, 653-660 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tian, Y.

H. Yang, Z. Dai, J. Li, and Y. Tian, “Energy transfer and frequency upconversion in Pr3+-doped ZBLAN glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352, 5469-5474 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Torres, M. E.

I. R. Mart, A. C. Yanes, J. Méndez-Ramos, M. E. Torres, and V. D. Rodríguez, “Cooperative energy transfer in Yb3+−Tb3+co-doped silica sol-gel glasses,” J. Appl. Phys. 89, 2520-2524(2001).
[CrossRef]

Toulouse, J.

Townsend, J. E.

R. S. Brown, W. S. Brocklesby, W. L. Barnes, and J. E. Townsend, “Cooperative energy transfer in silica fibers doped with ytterbium and terbium,” J. Lumin. 63, 1-7 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Townsend, S. B. Poole, and D. N. Payne, “Solution-doping technique for fabrication of rare-earth-doped optical fibers,” Electron. Lett. 23, 329-331 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Valiente, R.

G. M. Salley, R. Valiente, and H. U. Güdel, “Photon-assistant cooperative sensitization of Tb3+ in SrCl2:Yb, Tb,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 14, 5461-5475 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. M. Salley, R. Valiente, and H. U. Güdel, “Luminescence upconversion mechanisms in Yb3+−Tb3+ systems,” J. Lumin. 94-95, 305-309 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Van Uitert, L. G.

F. W. Ostermayer, Jr., and L. G. Van Uitert, “Cooperative energy transfer from Yb3+ to Tb3+ in YF3,” Phys. Rev. B 1, 4208-4212 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Vermelho, M. V.D.

M. V.D. Vermelho, P. V. dos Santos, M. T. de Araújo, A. S. Gouveia-Neto, F. C. Cassanjes, S. J. L. Ribeiro, and Y. Messaddeq, “Thermally enhanced cooperative energy-transfer frequency upconversion in terbium and ytterbium doped tellurite glass,” J. Lumin. 102-103, 762-767(2003).
[CrossRef]

Waarts, R. G.

S. Sanders, R. G. Waarts, D. G. Mehuys, and D. F. Welch, “Laser diode pumped 106 mW blue upconversion fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 1815-1817 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Walsh, B. M.

B. M. Walsh, N. P. Barnes, D. J. Reichel, and S. Jiang, “Optical properties of Tm3+ ions in alkali germinate glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352, 5344-5352 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y.

Watekar, P. R.

A. Lin, X. Liu, P. R. Watekar, W. Zhao, B. Peng, C. Sun, Y. Wang, and W.-T. Han, “All-optical switching application of germano-silicate optical fiber incorporated with Ag nanocrystals,” Opt. Lett. 34, 791-793 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Lin, X. Liu, P. R. Watekar, W. Zhao, B. Peng, M. Lu, W.-T. Han, and J. Toulouse, “Tellurium enhanced non-resonant third-order nonlinearity in a germano-silicate optical fiber,” Appl. Opt. 48, 4922-4925 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Lin, P. R. Watekar, G. Sun, Y. Chung, and W.-T. Han, “Pb2+/Al3+ co-doped germano-silicate optical fiber with high non-resonant third-order nonlinearity,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354, 3907-3909 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Lin, X. Liu, P. R. Watekar, Y. Chung, and W.-T. Han, “Ag nanocrystal-incorporated germano-silicate optical fiber with high resonant nonlinearity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 021901(2008).
[CrossRef]

Welch, D. F.

S. Sanders, R. G. Waarts, D. G. Mehuys, and D. F. Welch, “Laser diode pumped 106 mW blue upconversion fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 1815-1817 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wen, L.

H. Sun, L. Zhang, J. Zhang, L. Wen, C. Yu, Z. Duan, S. Dai, L. Hu, and Z. Jiang, “Intense upconversion luminescence in ytterbium-sensitized thulium-doped oxychloride germanate glass,” Physica B 358, 50-55 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Yang, N. Dai, S. Dai, L. Wen, L. Hu, and Z. Jiang, “Enhancement of upconversion luminescence in Er3+ doped tellurite glasses due to the introduction of PbCl2,” Phys. Chem. Lett. 376, 671-675 (2003).
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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Absorption spectrum of the Tb 3 + / Yb 3 + codoped alumino-germano-silicate fiber with a ratio of Tb : Yb = 2 : 4 .

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Visible emission spectrum of the Tb 3 + / Yb 3 + codoped alumino-germano-silicate fiber ( Tb : Yb = 2 : 4 ) and the energy level transitions responsible for the corresponding fluorescence peaks. (b) Energy level diagrams of Yb 3 + and Tb 3 + ions to explain the two-photon assistant ETU processes.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Green light illumination along the Tb 3 + / Yb 3 + codoped fiber tested during pumping experiments: from top to bottom: “in daylight,” “against dark background,” and “against dark background (enlarged).”

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Effect of Tb 3 + / Yb 3 + concentration ratio on the green photoluminescence intensity at 546 nm .

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Concentration of Dopants in Alumino-Germano-Silicate Fibers

Equations (1)

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2 × Yb 3 + ( F 5 / 2 2 ) : Tb 3 + ( F 6 7 ) 2 × Yb 3 + ( F 7 / 2 2 ) : Tb 3 + ( D 4 5 ) .

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