Abstract

As a kind of Na-incorporating control method, NaF co-evaporation or soda-lime glass thin films (SLGTFs) are useful to improve the photovoltaic performance of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) cells fabricated on low-Na substrates. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns and scanning electron microscope pictures demonstrate that the grain size of CIGS thin film is reduced with the addition of Na. In addition, a variance of the preferred orientation is found by XRD patterns in terms of SLGTF samples. By a use of 100nm thick SLGTF as a Na source, the best CIGS solar cell with an efficiency of 13.42% has been obtained.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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  1. I. Repins, M. A. Contreras, B. Egaas, C. DeHart, J. Scharf, C. L. Perkins, B. To, and R. Noufi, “19.9%-efficient znO/CdS/CuInGaSe2 solar cell with 81.2% fill factor,” Progr. Photovoltaics 16, 235-239 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. Caballero, C. A. Kaufmann, T. Eisenbarth, M. Cancela, R. Hesse, T. Unold, A. Eicke, R. Klenk, and H. W. Schock, “The influence of Na on low temperature growth of CIGS thin film solar cells on polyimide substrates,” Thin Solid Films 517, 2187-2190 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  3. D. Rudmann, G. Bilger, M. Kaelin, F-J. Haug, H. Zogg, and A. N. Tiwari, “Effect of NaF coevaporation on structural properties of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin films,” Thin Solid Films 431-432, 37-40 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. Ishizuka, K. Matsubara, A. Yamada, P. Fons, K. Sakurai, and S. Niki, “Sodium density control in Cu(In,Ga)Se2 absorber layers and application in high-efficiency flexible solar cells,” in 23rd European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference (2008), pp. 2654-2656.
  5. P. S. Vasekar and N. G. Dhere, “Effect of sodium addition on Cu-deficient CuIn1−xGaxS2 thin film solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mat. Sol. Cells 93, 69-73 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J.-H. Yun, K.-H. Kim, M.-S. Kim, B.-T. Ahn, S.-J. Ahn, J.-C. Lee, and K.-H. Yoon, “Fabrication of CIGS solar cells with a Na-doped Mo layer on a Na-free substrate,” Thin Solid Films 515, 5876-5879 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J.-H. Yun, K.-H. Kim, B.-T. Ahn, and K.-H. Yoon, “Effect of Na-doped Mo/Mo bilayer on CIGS cells and its photovoltaic properties,” in Photovoltaic Energy Conversion, Conference Record of the 2006 IEEE 4th World Conference (2006), pp. 509-511.
    [CrossRef]
  8. T. Nakada, D. Iga, H. Ohbo, and A. Kunioka, “Effects of sodium on Cu(In,Ga)Se2-based thin films and solar cells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, 732-737 (1997).
    [CrossRef]

2009

R. Caballero, C. A. Kaufmann, T. Eisenbarth, M. Cancela, R. Hesse, T. Unold, A. Eicke, R. Klenk, and H. W. Schock, “The influence of Na on low temperature growth of CIGS thin film solar cells on polyimide substrates,” Thin Solid Films 517, 2187-2190 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. S. Vasekar and N. G. Dhere, “Effect of sodium addition on Cu-deficient CuIn1−xGaxS2 thin film solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mat. Sol. Cells 93, 69-73 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

I. Repins, M. A. Contreras, B. Egaas, C. DeHart, J. Scharf, C. L. Perkins, B. To, and R. Noufi, “19.9%-efficient znO/CdS/CuInGaSe2 solar cell with 81.2% fill factor,” Progr. Photovoltaics 16, 235-239 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

J.-H. Yun, K.-H. Kim, M.-S. Kim, B.-T. Ahn, S.-J. Ahn, J.-C. Lee, and K.-H. Yoon, “Fabrication of CIGS solar cells with a Na-doped Mo layer on a Na-free substrate,” Thin Solid Films 515, 5876-5879 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2003

D. Rudmann, G. Bilger, M. Kaelin, F-J. Haug, H. Zogg, and A. N. Tiwari, “Effect of NaF coevaporation on structural properties of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin films,” Thin Solid Films 431-432, 37-40 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1997

T. Nakada, D. Iga, H. Ohbo, and A. Kunioka, “Effects of sodium on Cu(In,Ga)Se2-based thin films and solar cells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, 732-737 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ahn, B.-T.

J.-H. Yun, K.-H. Kim, M.-S. Kim, B.-T. Ahn, S.-J. Ahn, J.-C. Lee, and K.-H. Yoon, “Fabrication of CIGS solar cells with a Na-doped Mo layer on a Na-free substrate,” Thin Solid Films 515, 5876-5879 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J.-H. Yun, K.-H. Kim, B.-T. Ahn, and K.-H. Yoon, “Effect of Na-doped Mo/Mo bilayer on CIGS cells and its photovoltaic properties,” in Photovoltaic Energy Conversion, Conference Record of the 2006 IEEE 4th World Conference (2006), pp. 509-511.
[CrossRef]

Ahn, S.-J.

J.-H. Yun, K.-H. Kim, M.-S. Kim, B.-T. Ahn, S.-J. Ahn, J.-C. Lee, and K.-H. Yoon, “Fabrication of CIGS solar cells with a Na-doped Mo layer on a Na-free substrate,” Thin Solid Films 515, 5876-5879 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bilger, G.

D. Rudmann, G. Bilger, M. Kaelin, F-J. Haug, H. Zogg, and A. N. Tiwari, “Effect of NaF coevaporation on structural properties of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin films,” Thin Solid Films 431-432, 37-40 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Caballero, R.

R. Caballero, C. A. Kaufmann, T. Eisenbarth, M. Cancela, R. Hesse, T. Unold, A. Eicke, R. Klenk, and H. W. Schock, “The influence of Na on low temperature growth of CIGS thin film solar cells on polyimide substrates,” Thin Solid Films 517, 2187-2190 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cancela, M.

R. Caballero, C. A. Kaufmann, T. Eisenbarth, M. Cancela, R. Hesse, T. Unold, A. Eicke, R. Klenk, and H. W. Schock, “The influence of Na on low temperature growth of CIGS thin film solar cells on polyimide substrates,” Thin Solid Films 517, 2187-2190 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Contreras, M. A.

I. Repins, M. A. Contreras, B. Egaas, C. DeHart, J. Scharf, C. L. Perkins, B. To, and R. Noufi, “19.9%-efficient znO/CdS/CuInGaSe2 solar cell with 81.2% fill factor,” Progr. Photovoltaics 16, 235-239 (2008).
[CrossRef]

DeHart, C.

I. Repins, M. A. Contreras, B. Egaas, C. DeHart, J. Scharf, C. L. Perkins, B. To, and R. Noufi, “19.9%-efficient znO/CdS/CuInGaSe2 solar cell with 81.2% fill factor,” Progr. Photovoltaics 16, 235-239 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dhere, N. G.

P. S. Vasekar and N. G. Dhere, “Effect of sodium addition on Cu-deficient CuIn1−xGaxS2 thin film solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mat. Sol. Cells 93, 69-73 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Egaas, B.

I. Repins, M. A. Contreras, B. Egaas, C. DeHart, J. Scharf, C. L. Perkins, B. To, and R. Noufi, “19.9%-efficient znO/CdS/CuInGaSe2 solar cell with 81.2% fill factor,” Progr. Photovoltaics 16, 235-239 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Eicke, A.

R. Caballero, C. A. Kaufmann, T. Eisenbarth, M. Cancela, R. Hesse, T. Unold, A. Eicke, R. Klenk, and H. W. Schock, “The influence of Na on low temperature growth of CIGS thin film solar cells on polyimide substrates,” Thin Solid Films 517, 2187-2190 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Eisenbarth, T.

R. Caballero, C. A. Kaufmann, T. Eisenbarth, M. Cancela, R. Hesse, T. Unold, A. Eicke, R. Klenk, and H. W. Schock, “The influence of Na on low temperature growth of CIGS thin film solar cells on polyimide substrates,” Thin Solid Films 517, 2187-2190 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fons, P.

S. Ishizuka, K. Matsubara, A. Yamada, P. Fons, K. Sakurai, and S. Niki, “Sodium density control in Cu(In,Ga)Se2 absorber layers and application in high-efficiency flexible solar cells,” in 23rd European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference (2008), pp. 2654-2656.

Haug, F-J.

D. Rudmann, G. Bilger, M. Kaelin, F-J. Haug, H. Zogg, and A. N. Tiwari, “Effect of NaF coevaporation on structural properties of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin films,” Thin Solid Films 431-432, 37-40 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hesse, R.

R. Caballero, C. A. Kaufmann, T. Eisenbarth, M. Cancela, R. Hesse, T. Unold, A. Eicke, R. Klenk, and H. W. Schock, “The influence of Na on low temperature growth of CIGS thin film solar cells on polyimide substrates,” Thin Solid Films 517, 2187-2190 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Iga, D.

T. Nakada, D. Iga, H. Ohbo, and A. Kunioka, “Effects of sodium on Cu(In,Ga)Se2-based thin films and solar cells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, 732-737 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ishizuka, S.

S. Ishizuka, K. Matsubara, A. Yamada, P. Fons, K. Sakurai, and S. Niki, “Sodium density control in Cu(In,Ga)Se2 absorber layers and application in high-efficiency flexible solar cells,” in 23rd European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference (2008), pp. 2654-2656.

Kaelin, M.

D. Rudmann, G. Bilger, M. Kaelin, F-J. Haug, H. Zogg, and A. N. Tiwari, “Effect of NaF coevaporation on structural properties of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin films,” Thin Solid Films 431-432, 37-40 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kaufmann, C. A.

R. Caballero, C. A. Kaufmann, T. Eisenbarth, M. Cancela, R. Hesse, T. Unold, A. Eicke, R. Klenk, and H. W. Schock, “The influence of Na on low temperature growth of CIGS thin film solar cells on polyimide substrates,” Thin Solid Films 517, 2187-2190 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kim, K.-H.

J.-H. Yun, K.-H. Kim, M.-S. Kim, B.-T. Ahn, S.-J. Ahn, J.-C. Lee, and K.-H. Yoon, “Fabrication of CIGS solar cells with a Na-doped Mo layer on a Na-free substrate,” Thin Solid Films 515, 5876-5879 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J.-H. Yun, K.-H. Kim, B.-T. Ahn, and K.-H. Yoon, “Effect of Na-doped Mo/Mo bilayer on CIGS cells and its photovoltaic properties,” in Photovoltaic Energy Conversion, Conference Record of the 2006 IEEE 4th World Conference (2006), pp. 509-511.
[CrossRef]

Kim, M.-S.

J.-H. Yun, K.-H. Kim, M.-S. Kim, B.-T. Ahn, S.-J. Ahn, J.-C. Lee, and K.-H. Yoon, “Fabrication of CIGS solar cells with a Na-doped Mo layer on a Na-free substrate,” Thin Solid Films 515, 5876-5879 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Klenk, R.

R. Caballero, C. A. Kaufmann, T. Eisenbarth, M. Cancela, R. Hesse, T. Unold, A. Eicke, R. Klenk, and H. W. Schock, “The influence of Na on low temperature growth of CIGS thin film solar cells on polyimide substrates,” Thin Solid Films 517, 2187-2190 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kunioka, A.

T. Nakada, D. Iga, H. Ohbo, and A. Kunioka, “Effects of sodium on Cu(In,Ga)Se2-based thin films and solar cells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, 732-737 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J.-C.

J.-H. Yun, K.-H. Kim, M.-S. Kim, B.-T. Ahn, S.-J. Ahn, J.-C. Lee, and K.-H. Yoon, “Fabrication of CIGS solar cells with a Na-doped Mo layer on a Na-free substrate,” Thin Solid Films 515, 5876-5879 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Matsubara, K.

S. Ishizuka, K. Matsubara, A. Yamada, P. Fons, K. Sakurai, and S. Niki, “Sodium density control in Cu(In,Ga)Se2 absorber layers and application in high-efficiency flexible solar cells,” in 23rd European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference (2008), pp. 2654-2656.

Nakada, T.

T. Nakada, D. Iga, H. Ohbo, and A. Kunioka, “Effects of sodium on Cu(In,Ga)Se2-based thin films and solar cells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, 732-737 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Niki, S.

S. Ishizuka, K. Matsubara, A. Yamada, P. Fons, K. Sakurai, and S. Niki, “Sodium density control in Cu(In,Ga)Se2 absorber layers and application in high-efficiency flexible solar cells,” in 23rd European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference (2008), pp. 2654-2656.

Noufi, R.

I. Repins, M. A. Contreras, B. Egaas, C. DeHart, J. Scharf, C. L. Perkins, B. To, and R. Noufi, “19.9%-efficient znO/CdS/CuInGaSe2 solar cell with 81.2% fill factor,” Progr. Photovoltaics 16, 235-239 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ohbo, H.

T. Nakada, D. Iga, H. Ohbo, and A. Kunioka, “Effects of sodium on Cu(In,Ga)Se2-based thin films and solar cells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, 732-737 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Perkins, C. L.

I. Repins, M. A. Contreras, B. Egaas, C. DeHart, J. Scharf, C. L. Perkins, B. To, and R. Noufi, “19.9%-efficient znO/CdS/CuInGaSe2 solar cell with 81.2% fill factor,” Progr. Photovoltaics 16, 235-239 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Repins, I.

I. Repins, M. A. Contreras, B. Egaas, C. DeHart, J. Scharf, C. L. Perkins, B. To, and R. Noufi, “19.9%-efficient znO/CdS/CuInGaSe2 solar cell with 81.2% fill factor,” Progr. Photovoltaics 16, 235-239 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rudmann, D.

D. Rudmann, G. Bilger, M. Kaelin, F-J. Haug, H. Zogg, and A. N. Tiwari, “Effect of NaF coevaporation on structural properties of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin films,” Thin Solid Films 431-432, 37-40 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sakurai, K.

S. Ishizuka, K. Matsubara, A. Yamada, P. Fons, K. Sakurai, and S. Niki, “Sodium density control in Cu(In,Ga)Se2 absorber layers and application in high-efficiency flexible solar cells,” in 23rd European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference (2008), pp. 2654-2656.

Scharf, J.

I. Repins, M. A. Contreras, B. Egaas, C. DeHart, J. Scharf, C. L. Perkins, B. To, and R. Noufi, “19.9%-efficient znO/CdS/CuInGaSe2 solar cell with 81.2% fill factor,” Progr. Photovoltaics 16, 235-239 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schock, H. W.

R. Caballero, C. A. Kaufmann, T. Eisenbarth, M. Cancela, R. Hesse, T. Unold, A. Eicke, R. Klenk, and H. W. Schock, “The influence of Na on low temperature growth of CIGS thin film solar cells on polyimide substrates,” Thin Solid Films 517, 2187-2190 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tiwari, A. N.

D. Rudmann, G. Bilger, M. Kaelin, F-J. Haug, H. Zogg, and A. N. Tiwari, “Effect of NaF coevaporation on structural properties of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin films,” Thin Solid Films 431-432, 37-40 (2003).
[CrossRef]

To, B.

I. Repins, M. A. Contreras, B. Egaas, C. DeHart, J. Scharf, C. L. Perkins, B. To, and R. Noufi, “19.9%-efficient znO/CdS/CuInGaSe2 solar cell with 81.2% fill factor,” Progr. Photovoltaics 16, 235-239 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Unold, T.

R. Caballero, C. A. Kaufmann, T. Eisenbarth, M. Cancela, R. Hesse, T. Unold, A. Eicke, R. Klenk, and H. W. Schock, “The influence of Na on low temperature growth of CIGS thin film solar cells on polyimide substrates,” Thin Solid Films 517, 2187-2190 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Vasekar, P. S.

P. S. Vasekar and N. G. Dhere, “Effect of sodium addition on Cu-deficient CuIn1−xGaxS2 thin film solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mat. Sol. Cells 93, 69-73 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, A.

S. Ishizuka, K. Matsubara, A. Yamada, P. Fons, K. Sakurai, and S. Niki, “Sodium density control in Cu(In,Ga)Se2 absorber layers and application in high-efficiency flexible solar cells,” in 23rd European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference (2008), pp. 2654-2656.

Yoon, K.-H.

J.-H. Yun, K.-H. Kim, M.-S. Kim, B.-T. Ahn, S.-J. Ahn, J.-C. Lee, and K.-H. Yoon, “Fabrication of CIGS solar cells with a Na-doped Mo layer on a Na-free substrate,” Thin Solid Films 515, 5876-5879 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J.-H. Yun, K.-H. Kim, B.-T. Ahn, and K.-H. Yoon, “Effect of Na-doped Mo/Mo bilayer on CIGS cells and its photovoltaic properties,” in Photovoltaic Energy Conversion, Conference Record of the 2006 IEEE 4th World Conference (2006), pp. 509-511.
[CrossRef]

Yun, J.-H.

J.-H. Yun, K.-H. Kim, M.-S. Kim, B.-T. Ahn, S.-J. Ahn, J.-C. Lee, and K.-H. Yoon, “Fabrication of CIGS solar cells with a Na-doped Mo layer on a Na-free substrate,” Thin Solid Films 515, 5876-5879 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J.-H. Yun, K.-H. Kim, B.-T. Ahn, and K.-H. Yoon, “Effect of Na-doped Mo/Mo bilayer on CIGS cells and its photovoltaic properties,” in Photovoltaic Energy Conversion, Conference Record of the 2006 IEEE 4th World Conference (2006), pp. 509-511.
[CrossRef]

Zogg, H.

D. Rudmann, G. Bilger, M. Kaelin, F-J. Haug, H. Zogg, and A. N. Tiwari, “Effect of NaF coevaporation on structural properties of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin films,” Thin Solid Films 431-432, 37-40 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

T. Nakada, D. Iga, H. Ohbo, and A. Kunioka, “Effects of sodium on Cu(In,Ga)Se2-based thin films and solar cells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, 732-737 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Progr. Photovoltaics

I. Repins, M. A. Contreras, B. Egaas, C. DeHart, J. Scharf, C. L. Perkins, B. To, and R. Noufi, “19.9%-efficient znO/CdS/CuInGaSe2 solar cell with 81.2% fill factor,” Progr. Photovoltaics 16, 235-239 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sol. Energy Mat. Sol. Cells

P. S. Vasekar and N. G. Dhere, “Effect of sodium addition on Cu-deficient CuIn1−xGaxS2 thin film solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mat. Sol. Cells 93, 69-73 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films

J.-H. Yun, K.-H. Kim, M.-S. Kim, B.-T. Ahn, S.-J. Ahn, J.-C. Lee, and K.-H. Yoon, “Fabrication of CIGS solar cells with a Na-doped Mo layer on a Na-free substrate,” Thin Solid Films 515, 5876-5879 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Caballero, C. A. Kaufmann, T. Eisenbarth, M. Cancela, R. Hesse, T. Unold, A. Eicke, R. Klenk, and H. W. Schock, “The influence of Na on low temperature growth of CIGS thin film solar cells on polyimide substrates,” Thin Solid Films 517, 2187-2190 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Rudmann, G. Bilger, M. Kaelin, F-J. Haug, H. Zogg, and A. N. Tiwari, “Effect of NaF coevaporation on structural properties of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin films,” Thin Solid Films 431-432, 37-40 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Other

S. Ishizuka, K. Matsubara, A. Yamada, P. Fons, K. Sakurai, and S. Niki, “Sodium density control in Cu(In,Ga)Se2 absorber layers and application in high-efficiency flexible solar cells,” in 23rd European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference (2008), pp. 2654-2656.

J.-H. Yun, K.-H. Kim, B.-T. Ahn, and K.-H. Yoon, “Effect of Na-doped Mo/Mo bilayer on CIGS cells and its photovoltaic properties,” in Photovoltaic Energy Conversion, Conference Record of the 2006 IEEE 4th World Conference (2006), pp. 509-511.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

XRD pattern of CIGS thin film with different methods of Na incorporation.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

SEM images of CIGS cross-section with different methods of Na incorporation: (a)  Na 0 , (b) NaF 10 nm , (c) NaF 20 nm , (d) SLGTF 50 nm , (e) SLGTF 100 nm , (f) SLGTF 200 nm .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

SIMS depth profiles of CIGS sample with SLGTF 100 nm .

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Details of Different Na-Incorporating Methods

Tables Icon

Table 2 Crystalline Properties of CIGS Layers

Tables Icon

Table 3 Photovoltaic Device Parameters with Different Na Incorporation Methods

Metrics