Abstract

Roughness-induced light scattering critically affects the performance of optical components, in particular at short wavelengths. We present a stand-alone instrument for angle-resolved scattering and reflectance measurements at 13.5nm in the extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) spectral range. The achieved dynamic range allows even the scattering of high-quality EUV mirrors on extremely smooth substrates to be investigated. For Mo/Si multilayers, total scatter losses of several percent have been observed, depending on the substrate qualities as well as on roughening and smoothing effects during coating. Different approximate models for estimating the impact of roughness on scatter losses are discussed and compared with experimental results.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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2008 (1)

2007 (5)

F. Scholze, T. Böttger, H. Enkisch, C. Laubis, L. van Loyen, F. Macco, and S. Schädlich, “Characterization of the measurement uncertainty of a laboratory EUV reflectometer for large optics,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 126-130 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Schröder, T. Feigl, A. Duparré, and A. Tünnermann, “EUV reflectance and scattering of Mo/Si multilayers on differently polished substrates,” Opt. Express 15, 13997-14012(2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Wu and A. Kumar, “Extreme ultraviolet lithography: a review,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 25, 1743-1761 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Wurm, B. Bodermann, and F. Pilarski, “Metrology capabilities and performance of the new DUV scatterometer of the PTB,” Proc. SPIE 6533, 65330H (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Hosoya, N. Sakaya, O. Nozawa, Y. Shiota, S. Shimojima, T. Shoki, T. Watanabe, and H. Kinoshita, “Direct evaluation of surface roughness of substrate and interfacial roughness in molybdenum/silicon multilayers using extreme ultraviolet reflectometer,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, 6128-6134 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

K. Starke, H. Blaschke, L. Jensen, S. Nevas, D. Ristau, R. Lebert, C. Wies, A. Bayer, F. Barkusky, and K. Mann, “Novel compact spectrophotometer for EUV-optics characterization,” Proc. SPIE 6317, 631701 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

S. Schröder, S. Gliech, and A. Duparré, “Sensitive and flexible light scatter techniques from the VUV to IR regions,” Proc. SPIE 5965, 424-432 (2005).

O. Gilbert, C. Deumié, and C. Amra, “Angle-resolved ellipsometry of scattering patterns from arbitrary surfaces and bulks,” Opt. Express 13, 2403-2418 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

R. Lebert, C. Wies, L. Juschkin, B. Jaegle, M. Meisen, L. Aschke, F. Sobel, H. Seitz, F. Scholze, G. Ulm, K. Walter, W. Neff, K. Bergmann, and W. Biel, “High-throughput EUV reflectometer for EUV mask blanks,” Proc. SPIE 5374, 808-817 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Lebert, C. Wies, B. Jägle, L. Juschkin, U. Bieberle, M. Meisen, W. Neff, K. Bergmann, K. Walter, O. Rosier, M. C. Schuermann, and T. Missalla, “Status of the EUV-lamp development and demonstration of applications,” Proc. SPIE 5374, 943-953 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (4)

R. Korde, C. Prince, D. Cunningham, R. E. Vest, and E. Gullikson, “Present status of radiometric quality silicon photodiodes,” Metrologia 40, S145-S149 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F. Scholze, J. Tümmler, and G. Ulm, “High-accuracy radiometry in the EUV range at the PTB soft x-ray radiometry beamline,” Metrologia 40, S224-S228 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Tikhonravov, M. K. Trubetskov, A. A. Tikhonravov, and A. Duparre, “Effects of interface roughness on the spectral properties of thin films and multilayers,” Appl. Opt. 42, 5140-5148 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Tummler, H. Blume, G. Brandt, J. Eden, B. Meyer, H. Scherr, F. Scholz, F. Scholze, and G. Ulm, “Characterization of the PTB EUV reflectometry facility for large EUVL optical components,” Proc. SPIE 5037, 265 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (3)

S. Bajt, J. B. Alameda, J. T. W. Barbee, W. M. Clift, J. A. Folta, B. B. Kaufmann, and E. A. Spiller, “Improved reflectance and stability of Mo/Si multilayers,” Opt. Eng. 41, 1797-1804(2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Feigl, J. Heber, A. Gatto, and N. Kaiser, “Optics developments in the VUV-soft x-ray spectral region,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 483, 351-356 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Duparré, J. Ferré-Borrull, S. Gliech, G. Notni, J. Steinert, and J. M. Bennett, “Surface characterization techniques for determining rms roughness and power spectral densities of optical components,” Appl. Opt. 41, 154-171 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

1999 (3)

E. M. Gullikson, S. Baker, J. E. Bjorkholm, J. Bokor, K. A. Goldberg, J. E. M. Goldsmith, C. Montcalm, P. Naulleau, E. A. Spiller, D. G. Stearns, J. S. Taylor, and J. H. Underwood, “Scattering and flare of 10× projection cameras for EUV lithography,” Proc. SPIE 3676, 717-723 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. A. Germer and C. C. Asmail, “Goniometric optical scatter instrument for out-of-plane ellipsometry measurements,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 3688-3695 (1999).
[CrossRef]

V. E. Asadchikov, A. Duparré, S. Jakobs, A. Y. Karabekov, I. V. Kozhevnikov, and Y. S. Krivonosov, “Comparative study of the roughness of optical surfaces and thin films by use of x-ray scattering and atomic force microscopy,” Appl. Opt. 38, 684-691 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (4)

J. S. Taylor, G. E. Sommargren, E. Gary, D. W. Sweeney, and R. M. Hudyma, “The fabrication and testing of optics for EUV projection lithography,” Proc. SPIE 3331, 580-590 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. Montcalm, S. Bajt, P. B. Mirkarimi, E. Spiller, F. J. Weber, and J. A. Folta, “Multilayer reflective coatings for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” Proc. SPIE 3331, 42-51 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Windt, “IMD--software for modelling the optical properties of multilayer films,” Comput. Phys. 12, 360-370(1998).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Stearns, D. P. Gaines, D. W. Sweeney, and E. M. Gullikson, “Nonspecular x-ray scattering in a multilayer-coated imaging system,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 1003-1028 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

1993 (1)

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, and J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E=50-30000 eV, Z=1-92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181-342 (1993), http://henke.lbl.gov/optical_constants.
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

D. G. Stearns and R. S. Rosen, “Fabrication of high-reflectance Mo-Si multilayer mirrors by planar-magnetron sputtering,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 9, 2662-2669 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

1981 (1)

1980 (1)

L. Névot and P. Croce, “Caracterisation des surface par reflexion rasante de rayons X. Application a l'etude du polissage de quelques verres silicates,” Rev. Phys. Appl. 15, 761-779(1980).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

C. K. Carniglia, “Scalar scattering theory for multiayer optical coatings,” Opt. Eng. 18, 104-115 (1979).

Alameda, J. B.

S. Bajt, J. B. Alameda, J. T. W. Barbee, W. M. Clift, J. A. Folta, B. B. Kaufmann, and E. A. Spiller, “Improved reflectance and stability of Mo/Si multilayers,” Opt. Eng. 41, 1797-1804(2002).
[CrossRef]

Amra, C.

Asadchikov, V. E.

Aschke, L.

R. Lebert, C. Wies, L. Juschkin, B. Jaegle, M. Meisen, L. Aschke, F. Sobel, H. Seitz, F. Scholze, G. Ulm, K. Walter, W. Neff, K. Bergmann, and W. Biel, “High-throughput EUV reflectometer for EUV mask blanks,” Proc. SPIE 5374, 808-817 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Asmail, C. C.

T. A. Germer and C. C. Asmail, “Goniometric optical scatter instrument for out-of-plane ellipsometry measurements,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 3688-3695 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bajt, S.

S. Bajt, J. B. Alameda, J. T. W. Barbee, W. M. Clift, J. A. Folta, B. B. Kaufmann, and E. A. Spiller, “Improved reflectance and stability of Mo/Si multilayers,” Opt. Eng. 41, 1797-1804(2002).
[CrossRef]

C. Montcalm, S. Bajt, P. B. Mirkarimi, E. Spiller, F. J. Weber, and J. A. Folta, “Multilayer reflective coatings for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” Proc. SPIE 3331, 42-51 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Baker, S.

E. M. Gullikson, S. Baker, J. E. Bjorkholm, J. Bokor, K. A. Goldberg, J. E. M. Goldsmith, C. Montcalm, P. Naulleau, E. A. Spiller, D. G. Stearns, J. S. Taylor, and J. H. Underwood, “Scattering and flare of 10× projection cameras for EUV lithography,” Proc. SPIE 3676, 717-723 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Barbee, J. T. W.

S. Bajt, J. B. Alameda, J. T. W. Barbee, W. M. Clift, J. A. Folta, B. B. Kaufmann, and E. A. Spiller, “Improved reflectance and stability of Mo/Si multilayers,” Opt. Eng. 41, 1797-1804(2002).
[CrossRef]

Barkusky, F.

K. Starke, H. Blaschke, L. Jensen, S. Nevas, D. Ristau, R. Lebert, C. Wies, A. Bayer, F. Barkusky, and K. Mann, “Novel compact spectrophotometer for EUV-optics characterization,” Proc. SPIE 6317, 631701 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bayer, A.

K. Starke, H. Blaschke, L. Jensen, S. Nevas, D. Ristau, R. Lebert, C. Wies, A. Bayer, F. Barkusky, and K. Mann, “Novel compact spectrophotometer for EUV-optics characterization,” Proc. SPIE 6317, 631701 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bennett, J. M.

Benoit, N.

N. Benoit, S. Schröder, S. Yulin, T. Feigl, A. Duparré, N. Kaiser, and A. Tünnermann, “EUV-induced oxidation of Mo/Si multilayers,” Appl. Opt. 47, 3455-3462 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Benoit, “Radiation stability of EUV multilayer mirrors,” Ph.D. dissertation (Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena, 2007).

Bergmann, K.

R. Lebert, C. Wies, B. Jägle, L. Juschkin, U. Bieberle, M. Meisen, W. Neff, K. Bergmann, K. Walter, O. Rosier, M. C. Schuermann, and T. Missalla, “Status of the EUV-lamp development and demonstration of applications,” Proc. SPIE 5374, 943-953 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Lebert, C. Wies, L. Juschkin, B. Jaegle, M. Meisen, L. Aschke, F. Sobel, H. Seitz, F. Scholze, G. Ulm, K. Walter, W. Neff, K. Bergmann, and W. Biel, “High-throughput EUV reflectometer for EUV mask blanks,” Proc. SPIE 5374, 808-817 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bieberle, U.

R. Lebert, C. Wies, B. Jägle, L. Juschkin, U. Bieberle, M. Meisen, W. Neff, K. Bergmann, K. Walter, O. Rosier, M. C. Schuermann, and T. Missalla, “Status of the EUV-lamp development and demonstration of applications,” Proc. SPIE 5374, 943-953 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Biel, W.

R. Lebert, C. Wies, L. Juschkin, B. Jaegle, M. Meisen, L. Aschke, F. Sobel, H. Seitz, F. Scholze, G. Ulm, K. Walter, W. Neff, K. Bergmann, and W. Biel, “High-throughput EUV reflectometer for EUV mask blanks,” Proc. SPIE 5374, 808-817 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bjorkholm, J. E.

E. M. Gullikson, S. Baker, J. E. Bjorkholm, J. Bokor, K. A. Goldberg, J. E. M. Goldsmith, C. Montcalm, P. Naulleau, E. A. Spiller, D. G. Stearns, J. S. Taylor, and J. H. Underwood, “Scattering and flare of 10× projection cameras for EUV lithography,” Proc. SPIE 3676, 717-723 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Blaschke, H.

K. Starke, H. Blaschke, L. Jensen, S. Nevas, D. Ristau, R. Lebert, C. Wies, A. Bayer, F. Barkusky, and K. Mann, “Novel compact spectrophotometer for EUV-optics characterization,” Proc. SPIE 6317, 631701 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Blume, H.

J. Tummler, H. Blume, G. Brandt, J. Eden, B. Meyer, H. Scherr, F. Scholz, F. Scholze, and G. Ulm, “Characterization of the PTB EUV reflectometry facility for large EUVL optical components,” Proc. SPIE 5037, 265 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bodermann, B.

M. Wurm, B. Bodermann, and F. Pilarski, “Metrology capabilities and performance of the new DUV scatterometer of the PTB,” Proc. SPIE 6533, 65330H (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bokor, J.

E. M. Gullikson, S. Baker, J. E. Bjorkholm, J. Bokor, K. A. Goldberg, J. E. M. Goldsmith, C. Montcalm, P. Naulleau, E. A. Spiller, D. G. Stearns, J. S. Taylor, and J. H. Underwood, “Scattering and flare of 10× projection cameras for EUV lithography,” Proc. SPIE 3676, 717-723 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Born, M.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 7th ed. (Cambridge U. Press, 1999), Chap. 1.

Böttger, T.

F. Scholze, T. Böttger, H. Enkisch, C. Laubis, L. van Loyen, F. Macco, and S. Schädlich, “Characterization of the measurement uncertainty of a laboratory EUV reflectometer for large optics,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 126-130 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bousquet, P.

Brandt, G.

J. Tummler, H. Blume, G. Brandt, J. Eden, B. Meyer, H. Scherr, F. Scholz, F. Scholze, and G. Ulm, “Characterization of the PTB EUV reflectometry facility for large EUVL optical components,” Proc. SPIE 5037, 265 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Carniglia, C. K.

C. K. Carniglia, “Scalar scattering theory for multiayer optical coatings,” Opt. Eng. 18, 104-115 (1979).

Clift, W. M.

S. Bajt, J. B. Alameda, J. T. W. Barbee, W. M. Clift, J. A. Folta, B. B. Kaufmann, and E. A. Spiller, “Improved reflectance and stability of Mo/Si multilayers,” Opt. Eng. 41, 1797-1804(2002).
[CrossRef]

Croce, P.

L. Névot and P. Croce, “Caracterisation des surface par reflexion rasante de rayons X. Application a l'etude du polissage de quelques verres silicates,” Rev. Phys. Appl. 15, 761-779(1980).
[CrossRef]

Cunningham, D.

R. Korde, C. Prince, D. Cunningham, R. E. Vest, and E. Gullikson, “Present status of radiometric quality silicon photodiodes,” Metrologia 40, S145-S149 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Davis, J. C.

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, and J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E=50-30000 eV, Z=1-92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181-342 (1993), http://henke.lbl.gov/optical_constants.
[CrossRef]

Deumié, C.

Duparre, A.

Duparré, A.

Eden, J.

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K. Starke, H. Blaschke, L. Jensen, S. Nevas, D. Ristau, R. Lebert, C. Wies, A. Bayer, F. Barkusky, and K. Mann, “Novel compact spectrophotometer for EUV-optics characterization,” Proc. SPIE 6317, 631701 (2006).
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R. Lebert, C. Wies, L. Juschkin, B. Jaegle, M. Meisen, L. Aschke, F. Sobel, H. Seitz, F. Scholze, G. Ulm, K. Walter, W. Neff, K. Bergmann, and W. Biel, “High-throughput EUV reflectometer for EUV mask blanks,” Proc. SPIE 5374, 808-817 (2004).
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M. Hosoya, N. Sakaya, O. Nozawa, Y. Shiota, S. Shimojima, T. Shoki, T. Watanabe, and H. Kinoshita, “Direct evaluation of surface roughness of substrate and interfacial roughness in molybdenum/silicon multilayers using extreme ultraviolet reflectometer,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, 6128-6134 (2007).
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D. G. Stearns, D. P. Gaines, D. W. Sweeney, and E. M. Gullikson, “Nonspecular x-ray scattering in a multilayer-coated imaging system,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 1003-1028 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Stearns and R. S. Rosen, “Fabrication of high-reflectance Mo-Si multilayer mirrors by planar-magnetron sputtering,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 9, 2662-2669 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Steinert, J.

Stover, J. C.

J. C. Stover, Optical Scattering: Measurement and Analysis, 2nd ed., Optical and Electro-Optical Engineering Series (McGraw-Hill, 1990).

Sweeney, D. W.

J. S. Taylor, G. E. Sommargren, E. Gary, D. W. Sweeney, and R. M. Hudyma, “The fabrication and testing of optics for EUV projection lithography,” Proc. SPIE 3331, 580-590 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Stearns, D. P. Gaines, D. W. Sweeney, and E. M. Gullikson, “Nonspecular x-ray scattering in a multilayer-coated imaging system,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 1003-1028 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, J. S.

E. M. Gullikson, S. Baker, J. E. Bjorkholm, J. Bokor, K. A. Goldberg, J. E. M. Goldsmith, C. Montcalm, P. Naulleau, E. A. Spiller, D. G. Stearns, J. S. Taylor, and J. H. Underwood, “Scattering and flare of 10× projection cameras for EUV lithography,” Proc. SPIE 3676, 717-723 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Taylor, G. E. Sommargren, E. Gary, D. W. Sweeney, and R. M. Hudyma, “The fabrication and testing of optics for EUV projection lithography,” Proc. SPIE 3331, 580-590 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tikhonravov, A. A.

Tikhonravov, A. V.

Trubetskov, M. K.

Tummler, J.

J. Tummler, H. Blume, G. Brandt, J. Eden, B. Meyer, H. Scherr, F. Scholz, F. Scholze, and G. Ulm, “Characterization of the PTB EUV reflectometry facility for large EUVL optical components,” Proc. SPIE 5037, 265 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tümmler, J.

F. Scholze, J. Tümmler, and G. Ulm, “High-accuracy radiometry in the EUV range at the PTB soft x-ray radiometry beamline,” Metrologia 40, S224-S228 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tünnermann, A.

Ulm, G.

R. Lebert, C. Wies, L. Juschkin, B. Jaegle, M. Meisen, L. Aschke, F. Sobel, H. Seitz, F. Scholze, G. Ulm, K. Walter, W. Neff, K. Bergmann, and W. Biel, “High-throughput EUV reflectometer for EUV mask blanks,” Proc. SPIE 5374, 808-817 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. Scholze, J. Tümmler, and G. Ulm, “High-accuracy radiometry in the EUV range at the PTB soft x-ray radiometry beamline,” Metrologia 40, S224-S228 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Tummler, H. Blume, G. Brandt, J. Eden, B. Meyer, H. Scherr, F. Scholz, F. Scholze, and G. Ulm, “Characterization of the PTB EUV reflectometry facility for large EUVL optical components,” Proc. SPIE 5037, 265 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Underwood, J. H.

E. M. Gullikson, S. Baker, J. E. Bjorkholm, J. Bokor, K. A. Goldberg, J. E. M. Goldsmith, C. Montcalm, P. Naulleau, E. A. Spiller, D. G. Stearns, J. S. Taylor, and J. H. Underwood, “Scattering and flare of 10× projection cameras for EUV lithography,” Proc. SPIE 3676, 717-723 (1999).
[CrossRef]

van Loyen, L.

F. Scholze, T. Böttger, H. Enkisch, C. Laubis, L. van Loyen, F. Macco, and S. Schädlich, “Characterization of the measurement uncertainty of a laboratory EUV reflectometer for large optics,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 126-130 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Vest, R. E.

R. Korde, C. Prince, D. Cunningham, R. E. Vest, and E. Gullikson, “Present status of radiometric quality silicon photodiodes,” Metrologia 40, S145-S149 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Walter, K.

R. Lebert, C. Wies, B. Jägle, L. Juschkin, U. Bieberle, M. Meisen, W. Neff, K. Bergmann, K. Walter, O. Rosier, M. C. Schuermann, and T. Missalla, “Status of the EUV-lamp development and demonstration of applications,” Proc. SPIE 5374, 943-953 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Lebert, C. Wies, L. Juschkin, B. Jaegle, M. Meisen, L. Aschke, F. Sobel, H. Seitz, F. Scholze, G. Ulm, K. Walter, W. Neff, K. Bergmann, and W. Biel, “High-throughput EUV reflectometer for EUV mask blanks,” Proc. SPIE 5374, 808-817 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, T.

M. Hosoya, N. Sakaya, O. Nozawa, Y. Shiota, S. Shimojima, T. Shoki, T. Watanabe, and H. Kinoshita, “Direct evaluation of surface roughness of substrate and interfacial roughness in molybdenum/silicon multilayers using extreme ultraviolet reflectometer,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, 6128-6134 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Weber, F. J.

C. Montcalm, S. Bajt, P. B. Mirkarimi, E. Spiller, F. J. Weber, and J. A. Folta, “Multilayer reflective coatings for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” Proc. SPIE 3331, 42-51 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wies, C.

K. Starke, H. Blaschke, L. Jensen, S. Nevas, D. Ristau, R. Lebert, C. Wies, A. Bayer, F. Barkusky, and K. Mann, “Novel compact spectrophotometer for EUV-optics characterization,” Proc. SPIE 6317, 631701 (2006).
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R. Lebert, C. Wies, L. Juschkin, B. Jaegle, M. Meisen, L. Aschke, F. Sobel, H. Seitz, F. Scholze, G. Ulm, K. Walter, W. Neff, K. Bergmann, and W. Biel, “High-throughput EUV reflectometer for EUV mask blanks,” Proc. SPIE 5374, 808-817 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Lebert, C. Wies, B. Jägle, L. Juschkin, U. Bieberle, M. Meisen, W. Neff, K. Bergmann, K. Walter, O. Rosier, M. C. Schuermann, and T. Missalla, “Status of the EUV-lamp development and demonstration of applications,” Proc. SPIE 5374, 943-953 (2004).
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D. L. Windt, “IMD--software for modelling the optical properties of multilayer films,” Comput. Phys. 12, 360-370(1998).
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M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 7th ed. (Cambridge U. Press, 1999), Chap. 1.

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B. Wu and A. Kumar, “Extreme ultraviolet lithography: a review,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 25, 1743-1761 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wurm, M.

M. Wurm, B. Bodermann, and F. Pilarski, “Metrology capabilities and performance of the new DUV scatterometer of the PTB,” Proc. SPIE 6533, 65330H (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yulin, S.

Appl. Opt. (7)

J. M. Elson, J. P. Rahn, and J. M. Bennett, “Relationship of the total integrated scattering from multilayer-coated optics to angle of incidence, polarization, correlation length, and roughness cross-correlation properties,” Appl. Opt. 22, 3207-3219(1983).
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[CrossRef]

N. Benoit, S. Schröder, S. Yulin, T. Feigl, A. Duparré, N. Kaiser, and A. Tünnermann, “EUV-induced oxidation of Mo/Si multilayers,” Appl. Opt. 47, 3455-3462 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. V. Tikhonravov, M. K. Trubetskov, A. A. Tikhonravov, and A. Duparre, “Effects of interface roughness on the spectral properties of thin films and multilayers,” Appl. Opt. 42, 5140-5148 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Ferré-Borrull, A. Duparré, and E. Quesnel, “Roughness and light scattering of ion-beam-sputtered fluoride coatings for 193 nm,” Appl. Opt. 39, 5854-5864 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Duparré, J. Ferré-Borrull, S. Gliech, G. Notni, J. Steinert, and J. M. Bennett, “Surface characterization techniques for determining rms roughness and power spectral densities of optical components,” Appl. Opt. 41, 154-171 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

At. Data Nucl. Data Tables (1)

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, and J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E=50-30000 eV, Z=1-92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181-342 (1993), http://henke.lbl.gov/optical_constants.
[CrossRef]

Comput. Phys. (1)

D. L. Windt, “IMD--software for modelling the optical properties of multilayer films,” Comput. Phys. 12, 360-370(1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

D. G. Stearns, D. P. Gaines, D. W. Sweeney, and E. M. Gullikson, “Nonspecular x-ray scattering in a multilayer-coated imaging system,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 1003-1028 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. (1)

D. G. Stearns and R. S. Rosen, “Fabrication of high-reflectance Mo-Si multilayer mirrors by planar-magnetron sputtering,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 9, 2662-2669 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (1)

B. Wu and A. Kumar, “Extreme ultraviolet lithography: a review,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 25, 1743-1761 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

M. Hosoya, N. Sakaya, O. Nozawa, Y. Shiota, S. Shimojima, T. Shoki, T. Watanabe, and H. Kinoshita, “Direct evaluation of surface roughness of substrate and interfacial roughness in molybdenum/silicon multilayers using extreme ultraviolet reflectometer,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, 6128-6134 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

F. Scholze, T. Böttger, H. Enkisch, C. Laubis, L. van Loyen, F. Macco, and S. Schädlich, “Characterization of the measurement uncertainty of a laboratory EUV reflectometer for large optics,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 126-130 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Metrologia (2)

R. Korde, C. Prince, D. Cunningham, R. E. Vest, and E. Gullikson, “Present status of radiometric quality silicon photodiodes,” Metrologia 40, S145-S149 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F. Scholze, J. Tümmler, and G. Ulm, “High-accuracy radiometry in the EUV range at the PTB soft x-ray radiometry beamline,” Metrologia 40, S224-S228 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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S. Bajt, J. B. Alameda, J. T. W. Barbee, W. M. Clift, J. A. Folta, B. B. Kaufmann, and E. A. Spiller, “Improved reflectance and stability of Mo/Si multilayers,” Opt. Eng. 41, 1797-1804(2002).
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Opt. Express (2)

Proc. SPIE (9)

M. Wurm, B. Bodermann, and F. Pilarski, “Metrology capabilities and performance of the new DUV scatterometer of the PTB,” Proc. SPIE 6533, 65330H (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Tummler, H. Blume, G. Brandt, J. Eden, B. Meyer, H. Scherr, F. Scholz, F. Scholze, and G. Ulm, “Characterization of the PTB EUV reflectometry facility for large EUVL optical components,” Proc. SPIE 5037, 265 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Schröder, S. Gliech, and A. Duparré, “Sensitive and flexible light scatter techniques from the VUV to IR regions,” Proc. SPIE 5965, 424-432 (2005).

C. Montcalm, S. Bajt, P. B. Mirkarimi, E. Spiller, F. J. Weber, and J. A. Folta, “Multilayer reflective coatings for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” Proc. SPIE 3331, 42-51 (1998).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Gullikson, S. Baker, J. E. Bjorkholm, J. Bokor, K. A. Goldberg, J. E. M. Goldsmith, C. Montcalm, P. Naulleau, E. A. Spiller, D. G. Stearns, J. S. Taylor, and J. H. Underwood, “Scattering and flare of 10× projection cameras for EUV lithography,” Proc. SPIE 3676, 717-723 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Taylor, G. E. Sommargren, E. Gary, D. W. Sweeney, and R. M. Hudyma, “The fabrication and testing of optics for EUV projection lithography,” Proc. SPIE 3331, 580-590 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. Lebert, C. Wies, L. Juschkin, B. Jaegle, M. Meisen, L. Aschke, F. Sobel, H. Seitz, F. Scholze, G. Ulm, K. Walter, W. Neff, K. Bergmann, and W. Biel, “High-throughput EUV reflectometer for EUV mask blanks,” Proc. SPIE 5374, 808-817 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Starke, H. Blaschke, L. Jensen, S. Nevas, D. Ristau, R. Lebert, C. Wies, A. Bayer, F. Barkusky, and K. Mann, “Novel compact spectrophotometer for EUV-optics characterization,” Proc. SPIE 6317, 631701 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Lebert, C. Wies, B. Jägle, L. Juschkin, U. Bieberle, M. Meisen, W. Neff, K. Bergmann, K. Walter, O. Rosier, M. C. Schuermann, and T. Missalla, “Status of the EUV-lamp development and demonstration of applications,” Proc. SPIE 5374, 943-953 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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B. Paprade and R. Starcher, “The development of an improved electron multiplier for mass spectroscopy applications,” technical report (Burle) (2003), http://www.photonis.com.

N. Kandaka, T. Kobayashi, M. Shiraishi, T. Komiya, T. Oshino, and K. Murakami, “Measurement of EUV scattering from Mo/Si multilayer mirrors,” Tech. Rep. Proposal 2003C002 (KEK, Japan, 2003).

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 7th ed. (Cambridge U. Press, 1999), Chap. 1.

H. A. Macleod, Thin-Film Optical Filters, 3rd ed. (Institute of Physics, 2001), Chap. 2.
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N. Benoit, “Radiation stability of EUV multilayer mirrors,” Ph.D. dissertation (Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena, 2007).

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ASTM, “Standard test method for measuring the effective surface roughness of optical components by total integrated scattering,” ASTM F 1048-87 (1987).

A. Duparré, “Scattering from Surfaces and Thin Films,” in Encyclopedia of Modern Optics, B. Guenther and D. Steel, eds. (Elsevier, 2004), pp. 314-321.

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S. Schröder, “Light scattering of optical components at 193 nm and 13.5 nm,” Ph.D. dissertation (Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena, 2008).

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Basic geometry for the definitions of specular quantities and scattering. θ i , angle of incidence; θ r , angle of specular reflection; θ s , scattering angle; P i , incident power; P r , specularly reflected power; Δ P s , scattered power.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Instrument MERLIN. SC, source chamber; BC, beam preparation chamber; MC, measurement chamber; M1,…,M5, mirrors; 1, EUV lamp; 2, hole; 3, Zr filter; 4, pinhole; 5, reference detector; 6, sample; 7, x y positioning unit; 8, channeltron; 9, photodiode.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Calculated spectral filter performance of the beam preparation system.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Instrument signatures for ARS measurements at 13.5 nm measured using a photodiode and a channeltron.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Instrument MERLIN. Photographs showing (a) the vacuum chambers and (b) the double goniometer.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Schematic of scattering of a multilayer coating.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

ARS measurements of Mo/Si coatings on different substrates at 13.5 nm .

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Measurement and simulation results for sample 2. Simulation A takes into account both replicated substrate roughness and intrinsic thin film roughness. Simulations B and C illustrate the hypothetical case of replicated substrate roughness (B) or intrinsic thin film roughness (C) only.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

EUV reflectance of Mo/Si mirror sample 3. Measurement and simulation results.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Uncertainty Budget for Scatter and Reflectance Measurements at 13.5 nm

Tables Icon

Table 2 Measurement Results of Mo/Si Mirrors on Different Substrates: Bandwidth-Limited Root Mean Square Roughness, Total Backscattering, and Reflectance

Equations (8)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ARS ( θ s ) = Δ P s ( θ s ) P i Δ Ω s ,
TS b = P s P i ,
TS b = 2 π 2 ° 85 ° ARS ( θ s ) sin θ s d θ s .
U = V s V ref C amp .
R = P r P i = R 0 exp { ( 4 π σ λ cos θ i ) 2 } ,
r = r 0 exp { 2 k i k t σ 2 } ,
ARS ( θ s ) = 1 λ 4 i = 0 M j = 0 M C i C j * PSD i j ( f ) .
f = | sin θ s sin θ i | λ .

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