Abstract

We demonstrate the application of a commercially available widely tunable continuous-wave external cavity quantum cascade laser as a spectroscopic source for the simultaneous detection of multiple gases. We measured broad absorption features of benzene and toluene between 1012 and 1063cm1 (9.88 and 9.41μm) at atmospheric pressure using an astigmatic Herriott multipass cell. Our results show experimental detection limits of 0.26 and 0.41ppm for benzene and toluene, respectively, with a 100m path length for these two gases.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2009

A. Karpf and G. N. Rao, “Absorption and wavelength modulation spectroscopy of NO2 using a tunable, external cavity continuous wave quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Opt. 48, 408-413 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Manne, W. Jager, and J. Tulip, “Sensitive detection of ammonia and ethylene with a pulsed quantum cascade laser using intra and interpulse spectroscopic techniques,” Appl. Phys. B 94, 337-344 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Maulini, I. Dunayevskiy, A. Lyakh, A. Tsekoun, C. K. N. Patel, L. Diehl, C. Pflugl, and F. Capasso, “Widely tunable high-power external cavity quantum cascade laser operating in continuous-wave at room temperature,” Electron. Lett. 45, 107-108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Hancock, J. H. van Helden, R. Peverall, G. A. D. Ritchie, and R. J. Walker, “Direct and wavelength modulation spectroscopy using a cw external cavity quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 201110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Cousin, W. Chen, D. Bigourd, M. Fourmentin, and S. Kassi, “Telecom-grade fiber laser-based difference-frequency generation and ppb-level detection of benzene vapor in air around 3 μm,” Appl. Phys. B 97919-929 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

K. H. Kim, Z. H. Shon, M. Y. Kim, Y. Sunwoo, E. C. Jeon, and J. H. Hong, “Major aromatic VOC in the ambient air in the proximity of an urban landfill facility,” J. Hazard. Mater. 150, 754-764 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Wysocki, R. Lewicki, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, L. Diehl, F. Capasso, M. Troccoli, G. Hofler, D. Bour, S. Corzine, R. Maulini, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, “Widely tunable mode-hop-free external cavity quantum cascade lasers for high resolution spectroscopy and chemical sensing,” Appl. Phys. B 92, 305-311 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Kosterev, G. Wysocki, Y. Bakhirkin, S. So, R. Lewicki, M. Fraser, F. Tittel, and R. F. Curl, “Application of quantum cascade lasers to trace gas analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 90, 165-176 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

M. R. McCurdy, Y. Bakhirkin, G. Wysocki, R. Lewicki, and F. K. Tittel, “Recent advances of laser-spectroscopy-based techniques for applications in breath analysis,” J. Breath Res. 014001 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Mohan, A. Wittmann, A. Hugi, S. Blaser, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, “Room-temperature continuous-wave operation of an external-cavity quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Lett. 32, 2792-2794 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Murena, “Air quality nearby road traffic tunnel portals: BTEX monitoring,” J. Environ. Sci. (China) 19, 578-583 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

R. Maulini, A. Mohan, M. Giovannini, J. Faist, and E. Gini, “External cavity quantum-cascade laser tunable from 8.2 to 10.4 μm using a gain element with a heterogeneous cascade,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 201113 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004

R. Maulini, M. Beck, J. Faist, and E. Gini, “Broadband tuning of external cavity bound-to-continuum quantum-cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1659-1661 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Weidmann, A. A. Kosterev, C. Roller, R. F. Curl, M. P. Fraser, and F. K. Tittel, “Monitoring of ethylene by a pulsed quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Opt. 43, 3329-3334 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Jeffers, C. B. Roller, K. Namjou, M. A. Evans, L. McSpadden, J. Grego, and P. J. McCann, “Real-time diode laser measurements of vapor-phase benzene,” Anal. Chem. 76, 424-432(2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. W. Sharpe, T. J. Johnson, R. L. Sams, P. M. Chu, G. C. Rhoderick, and P. A. Johnson, “Gas-phase databases for quantitative infrared spectroscopy,” Appl. Spectrosc. 58, 1452-1461 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

H. Takekawa, H. Minoura, and S. Yamazaki, “Temperature dependence of secondary organic aerosol formation by photo-oxidation of hydrocarbons,” Atmos. Environ. 37, 3413-3424(2003).
[CrossRef]

Q. Shi, D. D. Nelson, J. B. McManus, M. S. Zahniser, M. E. Parrish, R. E. Baren, K. H. Shafer, and C. N. Harward, “Quantum cascade infrared laser spectroscopy for real-time cigarette smoke analysis,” Anal. Chem. 75, 5180-5190 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

W. H. Weber, J. T. Remillard, R. E. Chase, J. F. Richert, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, and A. Y. Cho, “Using a wavelength-modulated quantum cascade laser to measure NO concentrations in the parts-per-billion range for vehicle emissions certification,” Appl. Spectrosc. 56, 706-714 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Kosterev, F. K. Tittel, R. Kohler, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, S. Wehe, and M. G. Allen, “Thermoelectrically cooled quantum-cascade-laser-based sensor for the continuous monitoring of ambient atmospheric carbon monoxide,” Appl. Opt. 41, 1169-1173 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. A. Kosterev and F. K. Tittel, “Chemical sensors based on quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 582-591 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. Gmachl, D. L. Sivco, R. Colombelli, F. Capasso, and A. Y. Cho, “Ultra-broadband semiconductor laser,” Nature 415, 883-887 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Beck, D. Hofstetter, T. Aellen, J. Faist, U. Oesterle, M. Ilegems, E. Gini, and H. Melchior, “Continuous wave operation of a mid-infrared semiconductor laser at room temperature,” Science 295, 301-305 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Totschnig, F. Winter, V. Pustogov, J. Faist, and A. Muller, “Mid-infrared external-cavity quantum-cascade laser,” Opt. Lett. 27, 1788-1790 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Luo, C. Peng, H. Q. Le, S. S. Pei, H. Lee, W. Y. Hwang, B. Ishaug, and J. Zheng, “Broadly wavelength-tunable external cavity mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 486-494 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

G. P. Luo, C. Peng, H. Q. Le, S. S. Pei, W. Y. Hwang, B. Ishaug, J. Um, J. N. Baillargeon, and C. H. Lin, “Grating-tuned external-cavity quantum-cascade semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2834-2836 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, “Recent progress in quantum cascade lasers and applications,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 64, 1533-1601 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L. Menzel, A. A. Kosterev, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, and W. Urban, “Spectroscopic detection of biological NO with a quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. B 72, 859-863(2001).

2000

1996

J. Waschull, B. Sumpf, Y. Heiner, and H. D. Kronfeldt, “Diode laser spectroscopy in the ν14 band of benzene,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 37, 193-198 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Berger and V. V. Pustogov, “Monitoring of benzene in the 10 μm and 14 μm region,” Infrared Physics & Technology Infrared Phys. Technol. 37, 163-166 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

J. Faist, F. Capasso, C. Sirtori, D. L. Sivco, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Continuous-wave operation of a vertical transition quantum cascade laser above T=80 K,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3057-3059 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade laser,” Science 264, 553-556 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aellen, T.

M. Beck, D. Hofstetter, T. Aellen, J. Faist, U. Oesterle, M. Ilegems, E. Gini, and H. Melchior, “Continuous wave operation of a mid-infrared semiconductor laser at room temperature,” Science 295, 301-305 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Allen, M. G.

Baillargeon, J. N.

W. H. Weber, J. T. Remillard, R. E. Chase, J. F. Richert, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, and A. Y. Cho, “Using a wavelength-modulated quantum cascade laser to measure NO concentrations in the parts-per-billion range for vehicle emissions certification,” Appl. Spectrosc. 56, 706-714 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. Menzel, A. A. Kosterev, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, and W. Urban, “Spectroscopic detection of biological NO with a quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. B 72, 859-863(2001).

G. P. Luo, C. Peng, H. Q. Le, S. S. Pei, W. Y. Hwang, B. Ishaug, J. Um, J. N. Baillargeon, and C. H. Lin, “Grating-tuned external-cavity quantum-cascade semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2834-2836 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bakhirkin, Y.

A. Kosterev, G. Wysocki, Y. Bakhirkin, S. So, R. Lewicki, M. Fraser, F. Tittel, and R. F. Curl, “Application of quantum cascade lasers to trace gas analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 90, 165-176 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. R. McCurdy, Y. Bakhirkin, G. Wysocki, R. Lewicki, and F. K. Tittel, “Recent advances of laser-spectroscopy-based techniques for applications in breath analysis,” J. Breath Res. 014001 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baren, R. E.

Q. Shi, D. D. Nelson, J. B. McManus, M. S. Zahniser, M. E. Parrish, R. E. Baren, K. H. Shafer, and C. N. Harward, “Quantum cascade infrared laser spectroscopy for real-time cigarette smoke analysis,” Anal. Chem. 75, 5180-5190 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Beck, M.

R. Maulini, M. Beck, J. Faist, and E. Gini, “Broadband tuning of external cavity bound-to-continuum quantum-cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1659-1661 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Beck, D. Hofstetter, T. Aellen, J. Faist, U. Oesterle, M. Ilegems, E. Gini, and H. Melchior, “Continuous wave operation of a mid-infrared semiconductor laser at room temperature,” Science 295, 301-305 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berger, J.

J. Berger and V. V. Pustogov, “Monitoring of benzene in the 10 μm and 14 μm region,” Infrared Physics & Technology Infrared Phys. Technol. 37, 163-166 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bigourd, D.

J. Cousin, W. Chen, D. Bigourd, M. Fourmentin, and S. Kassi, “Telecom-grade fiber laser-based difference-frequency generation and ppb-level detection of benzene vapor in air around 3 μm,” Appl. Phys. B 97919-929 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Blaser, S.

Boucher, D.

Bour, D.

G. Wysocki, R. Lewicki, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, L. Diehl, F. Capasso, M. Troccoli, G. Hofler, D. Bour, S. Corzine, R. Maulini, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, “Widely tunable mode-hop-free external cavity quantum cascade lasers for high resolution spectroscopy and chemical sensing,” Appl. Phys. B 92, 305-311 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Capasso, F.

R. Maulini, I. Dunayevskiy, A. Lyakh, A. Tsekoun, C. K. N. Patel, L. Diehl, C. Pflugl, and F. Capasso, “Widely tunable high-power external cavity quantum cascade laser operating in continuous-wave at room temperature,” Electron. Lett. 45, 107-108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Wysocki, R. Lewicki, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, L. Diehl, F. Capasso, M. Troccoli, G. Hofler, D. Bour, S. Corzine, R. Maulini, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, “Widely tunable mode-hop-free external cavity quantum cascade lasers for high resolution spectroscopy and chemical sensing,” Appl. Phys. B 92, 305-311 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Gmachl, D. L. Sivco, R. Colombelli, F. Capasso, and A. Y. Cho, “Ultra-broadband semiconductor laser,” Nature 415, 883-887 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. H. Weber, J. T. Remillard, R. E. Chase, J. F. Richert, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, and A. Y. Cho, “Using a wavelength-modulated quantum cascade laser to measure NO concentrations in the parts-per-billion range for vehicle emissions certification,” Appl. Spectrosc. 56, 706-714 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Kosterev, F. K. Tittel, R. Kohler, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, S. Wehe, and M. G. Allen, “Thermoelectrically cooled quantum-cascade-laser-based sensor for the continuous monitoring of ambient atmospheric carbon monoxide,” Appl. Opt. 41, 1169-1173 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, “Recent progress in quantum cascade lasers and applications,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 64, 1533-1601 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L. Menzel, A. A. Kosterev, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, and W. Urban, “Spectroscopic detection of biological NO with a quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. B 72, 859-863(2001).

J. Faist, F. Capasso, C. Sirtori, D. L. Sivco, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Continuous-wave operation of a vertical transition quantum cascade laser above T=80 K,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3057-3059 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade laser,” Science 264, 553-556 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cazier, F.

Chase, R. E.

Chen, W.

J. Cousin, W. Chen, D. Bigourd, M. Fourmentin, and S. Kassi, “Telecom-grade fiber laser-based difference-frequency generation and ppb-level detection of benzene vapor in air around 3 μm,” Appl. Phys. B 97919-929 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, W. D.

Cho, A. Y.

W. H. Weber, J. T. Remillard, R. E. Chase, J. F. Richert, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, and A. Y. Cho, “Using a wavelength-modulated quantum cascade laser to measure NO concentrations in the parts-per-billion range for vehicle emissions certification,” Appl. Spectrosc. 56, 706-714 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Kosterev, F. K. Tittel, R. Kohler, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, S. Wehe, and M. G. Allen, “Thermoelectrically cooled quantum-cascade-laser-based sensor for the continuous monitoring of ambient atmospheric carbon monoxide,” Appl. Opt. 41, 1169-1173 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Gmachl, D. L. Sivco, R. Colombelli, F. Capasso, and A. Y. Cho, “Ultra-broadband semiconductor laser,” Nature 415, 883-887 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, “Recent progress in quantum cascade lasers and applications,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 64, 1533-1601 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L. Menzel, A. A. Kosterev, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, and W. Urban, “Spectroscopic detection of biological NO with a quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. B 72, 859-863(2001).

J. Faist, F. Capasso, C. Sirtori, D. L. Sivco, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Continuous-wave operation of a vertical transition quantum cascade laser above T=80 K,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3057-3059 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade laser,” Science 264, 553-556 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chu, P. M.

Colombelli, R.

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G. Wysocki, R. Lewicki, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, L. Diehl, F. Capasso, M. Troccoli, G. Hofler, D. Bour, S. Corzine, R. Maulini, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, “Widely tunable mode-hop-free external cavity quantum cascade lasers for high resolution spectroscopy and chemical sensing,” Appl. Phys. B 92, 305-311 (2008).
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Cousin, J.

J. Cousin, W. Chen, D. Bigourd, M. Fourmentin, and S. Kassi, “Telecom-grade fiber laser-based difference-frequency generation and ppb-level detection of benzene vapor in air around 3 μm,” Appl. Phys. B 97919-929 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Curl, R. F.

G. Wysocki, R. Lewicki, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, L. Diehl, F. Capasso, M. Troccoli, G. Hofler, D. Bour, S. Corzine, R. Maulini, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, “Widely tunable mode-hop-free external cavity quantum cascade lasers for high resolution spectroscopy and chemical sensing,” Appl. Phys. B 92, 305-311 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Kosterev, G. Wysocki, Y. Bakhirkin, S. So, R. Lewicki, M. Fraser, F. Tittel, and R. F. Curl, “Application of quantum cascade lasers to trace gas analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 90, 165-176 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Weidmann, A. A. Kosterev, C. Roller, R. F. Curl, M. P. Fraser, and F. K. Tittel, “Monitoring of ethylene by a pulsed quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Opt. 43, 3329-3334 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Menzel, A. A. Kosterev, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, and W. Urban, “Spectroscopic detection of biological NO with a quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. B 72, 859-863(2001).

Diehl, L.

R. Maulini, I. Dunayevskiy, A. Lyakh, A. Tsekoun, C. K. N. Patel, L. Diehl, C. Pflugl, and F. Capasso, “Widely tunable high-power external cavity quantum cascade laser operating in continuous-wave at room temperature,” Electron. Lett. 45, 107-108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Wysocki, R. Lewicki, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, L. Diehl, F. Capasso, M. Troccoli, G. Hofler, D. Bour, S. Corzine, R. Maulini, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, “Widely tunable mode-hop-free external cavity quantum cascade lasers for high resolution spectroscopy and chemical sensing,” Appl. Phys. B 92, 305-311 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dunayevskiy, I.

R. Maulini, I. Dunayevskiy, A. Lyakh, A. Tsekoun, C. K. N. Patel, L. Diehl, C. Pflugl, and F. Capasso, “Widely tunable high-power external cavity quantum cascade laser operating in continuous-wave at room temperature,” Electron. Lett. 45, 107-108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Evans, M. A.

J. D. Jeffers, C. B. Roller, K. Namjou, M. A. Evans, L. McSpadden, J. Grego, and P. J. McCann, “Real-time diode laser measurements of vapor-phase benzene,” Anal. Chem. 76, 424-432(2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Faist, J.

G. Wysocki, R. Lewicki, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, L. Diehl, F. Capasso, M. Troccoli, G. Hofler, D. Bour, S. Corzine, R. Maulini, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, “Widely tunable mode-hop-free external cavity quantum cascade lasers for high resolution spectroscopy and chemical sensing,” Appl. Phys. B 92, 305-311 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Mohan, A. Wittmann, A. Hugi, S. Blaser, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, “Room-temperature continuous-wave operation of an external-cavity quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Lett. 32, 2792-2794 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Maulini, A. Mohan, M. Giovannini, J. Faist, and E. Gini, “External cavity quantum-cascade laser tunable from 8.2 to 10.4 μm using a gain element with a heterogeneous cascade,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 201113 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Maulini, M. Beck, J. Faist, and E. Gini, “Broadband tuning of external cavity bound-to-continuum quantum-cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1659-1661 (2004).
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G. Totschnig, F. Winter, V. Pustogov, J. Faist, and A. Muller, “Mid-infrared external-cavity quantum-cascade laser,” Opt. Lett. 27, 1788-1790 (2002).
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M. Beck, D. Hofstetter, T. Aellen, J. Faist, U. Oesterle, M. Ilegems, E. Gini, and H. Melchior, “Continuous wave operation of a mid-infrared semiconductor laser at room temperature,” Science 295, 301-305 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Faist, F. Capasso, C. Sirtori, D. L. Sivco, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Continuous-wave operation of a vertical transition quantum cascade laser above T=80 K,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3057-3059 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade laser,” Science 264, 553-556 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fourmentin, M.

J. Cousin, W. Chen, D. Bigourd, M. Fourmentin, and S. Kassi, “Telecom-grade fiber laser-based difference-frequency generation and ppb-level detection of benzene vapor in air around 3 μm,” Appl. Phys. B 97919-929 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fraser, M.

A. Kosterev, G. Wysocki, Y. Bakhirkin, S. So, R. Lewicki, M. Fraser, F. Tittel, and R. F. Curl, “Application of quantum cascade lasers to trace gas analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 90, 165-176 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fraser, M. P.

Gini, E.

R. Maulini, A. Mohan, M. Giovannini, J. Faist, and E. Gini, “External cavity quantum-cascade laser tunable from 8.2 to 10.4 μm using a gain element with a heterogeneous cascade,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 201113 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Maulini, M. Beck, J. Faist, and E. Gini, “Broadband tuning of external cavity bound-to-continuum quantum-cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1659-1661 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Beck, D. Hofstetter, T. Aellen, J. Faist, U. Oesterle, M. Ilegems, E. Gini, and H. Melchior, “Continuous wave operation of a mid-infrared semiconductor laser at room temperature,” Science 295, 301-305 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Giovannini, M.

G. Wysocki, R. Lewicki, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, L. Diehl, F. Capasso, M. Troccoli, G. Hofler, D. Bour, S. Corzine, R. Maulini, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, “Widely tunable mode-hop-free external cavity quantum cascade lasers for high resolution spectroscopy and chemical sensing,” Appl. Phys. B 92, 305-311 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Mohan, A. Wittmann, A. Hugi, S. Blaser, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, “Room-temperature continuous-wave operation of an external-cavity quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Lett. 32, 2792-2794 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Maulini, A. Mohan, M. Giovannini, J. Faist, and E. Gini, “External cavity quantum-cascade laser tunable from 8.2 to 10.4 μm using a gain element with a heterogeneous cascade,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 201113 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gmachl, C.

C. Gmachl, D. L. Sivco, R. Colombelli, F. Capasso, and A. Y. Cho, “Ultra-broadband semiconductor laser,” Nature 415, 883-887 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. H. Weber, J. T. Remillard, R. E. Chase, J. F. Richert, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, and A. Y. Cho, “Using a wavelength-modulated quantum cascade laser to measure NO concentrations in the parts-per-billion range for vehicle emissions certification,” Appl. Spectrosc. 56, 706-714 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Kosterev, F. K. Tittel, R. Kohler, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, S. Wehe, and M. G. Allen, “Thermoelectrically cooled quantum-cascade-laser-based sensor for the continuous monitoring of ambient atmospheric carbon monoxide,” Appl. Opt. 41, 1169-1173 (2002).
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C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, “Recent progress in quantum cascade lasers and applications,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 64, 1533-1601 (2001).
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L. Menzel, A. A. Kosterev, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, and W. Urban, “Spectroscopic detection of biological NO with a quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. B 72, 859-863(2001).

Grego, J.

J. D. Jeffers, C. B. Roller, K. Namjou, M. A. Evans, L. McSpadden, J. Grego, and P. J. McCann, “Real-time diode laser measurements of vapor-phase benzene,” Anal. Chem. 76, 424-432(2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hancock, G.

G. Hancock, J. H. van Helden, R. Peverall, G. A. D. Ritchie, and R. J. Walker, “Direct and wavelength modulation spectroscopy using a cw external cavity quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 201110 (2009).
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Harward, C. N.

Q. Shi, D. D. Nelson, J. B. McManus, M. S. Zahniser, M. E. Parrish, R. E. Baren, K. H. Shafer, and C. N. Harward, “Quantum cascade infrared laser spectroscopy for real-time cigarette smoke analysis,” Anal. Chem. 75, 5180-5190 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Heiner, Y.

J. Waschull, B. Sumpf, Y. Heiner, and H. D. Kronfeldt, “Diode laser spectroscopy in the ν14 band of benzene,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 37, 193-198 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hofler, G.

G. Wysocki, R. Lewicki, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, L. Diehl, F. Capasso, M. Troccoli, G. Hofler, D. Bour, S. Corzine, R. Maulini, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, “Widely tunable mode-hop-free external cavity quantum cascade lasers for high resolution spectroscopy and chemical sensing,” Appl. Phys. B 92, 305-311 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hofstetter, D.

M. Beck, D. Hofstetter, T. Aellen, J. Faist, U. Oesterle, M. Ilegems, E. Gini, and H. Melchior, “Continuous wave operation of a mid-infrared semiconductor laser at room temperature,” Science 295, 301-305 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Holler, F. J.

D. A. Skoog, F. J. Holler, and T. A. Nieman, Principles of Instrumental Analysis (Brooks/Cole: Thomson Learning, 1998).

Hong, J. H.

K. H. Kim, Z. H. Shon, M. Y. Kim, Y. Sunwoo, E. C. Jeon, and J. H. Hong, “Major aromatic VOC in the ambient air in the proximity of an urban landfill facility,” J. Hazard. Mater. 150, 754-764 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hugi, A.

Hutchinson, A. L.

W. H. Weber, J. T. Remillard, R. E. Chase, J. F. Richert, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, and A. Y. Cho, “Using a wavelength-modulated quantum cascade laser to measure NO concentrations in the parts-per-billion range for vehicle emissions certification,” Appl. Spectrosc. 56, 706-714 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. Menzel, A. A. Kosterev, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, and W. Urban, “Spectroscopic detection of biological NO with a quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. B 72, 859-863(2001).

J. Faist, F. Capasso, C. Sirtori, D. L. Sivco, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Continuous-wave operation of a vertical transition quantum cascade laser above T=80 K,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3057-3059 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade laser,” Science 264, 553-556 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hwang, W. Y.

G. P. Luo, C. Peng, H. Q. Le, S. S. Pei, H. Lee, W. Y. Hwang, B. Ishaug, and J. Zheng, “Broadly wavelength-tunable external cavity mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 486-494 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Luo, C. Peng, H. Q. Le, S. S. Pei, W. Y. Hwang, B. Ishaug, J. Um, J. N. Baillargeon, and C. H. Lin, “Grating-tuned external-cavity quantum-cascade semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2834-2836 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ilegems, M.

M. Beck, D. Hofstetter, T. Aellen, J. Faist, U. Oesterle, M. Ilegems, E. Gini, and H. Melchior, “Continuous wave operation of a mid-infrared semiconductor laser at room temperature,” Science 295, 301-305 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ishaug, B.

G. P. Luo, C. Peng, H. Q. Le, S. S. Pei, H. Lee, W. Y. Hwang, B. Ishaug, and J. Zheng, “Broadly wavelength-tunable external cavity mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 486-494 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Luo, C. Peng, H. Q. Le, S. S. Pei, W. Y. Hwang, B. Ishaug, J. Um, J. N. Baillargeon, and C. H. Lin, “Grating-tuned external-cavity quantum-cascade semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2834-2836 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jager, W.

J. Manne, W. Jager, and J. Tulip, “Sensitive detection of ammonia and ethylene with a pulsed quantum cascade laser using intra and interpulse spectroscopic techniques,” Appl. Phys. B 94, 337-344 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jeffers, J. D.

J. D. Jeffers, C. B. Roller, K. Namjou, M. A. Evans, L. McSpadden, J. Grego, and P. J. McCann, “Real-time diode laser measurements of vapor-phase benzene,” Anal. Chem. 76, 424-432(2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jeon, E. C.

K. H. Kim, Z. H. Shon, M. Y. Kim, Y. Sunwoo, E. C. Jeon, and J. H. Hong, “Major aromatic VOC in the ambient air in the proximity of an urban landfill facility,” J. Hazard. Mater. 150, 754-764 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, P. A.

Johnson, T. J.

Karpf, A.

Kassi, S.

J. Cousin, W. Chen, D. Bigourd, M. Fourmentin, and S. Kassi, “Telecom-grade fiber laser-based difference-frequency generation and ppb-level detection of benzene vapor in air around 3 μm,” Appl. Phys. B 97919-929 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kim, K. H.

K. H. Kim, Z. H. Shon, M. Y. Kim, Y. Sunwoo, E. C. Jeon, and J. H. Hong, “Major aromatic VOC in the ambient air in the proximity of an urban landfill facility,” J. Hazard. Mater. 150, 754-764 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, M. Y.

K. H. Kim, Z. H. Shon, M. Y. Kim, Y. Sunwoo, E. C. Jeon, and J. H. Hong, “Major aromatic VOC in the ambient air in the proximity of an urban landfill facility,” J. Hazard. Mater. 150, 754-764 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kohler, R.

Kosterev, A.

A. Kosterev, G. Wysocki, Y. Bakhirkin, S. So, R. Lewicki, M. Fraser, F. Tittel, and R. F. Curl, “Application of quantum cascade lasers to trace gas analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 90, 165-176 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kosterev, A. A.

D. Weidmann, A. A. Kosterev, C. Roller, R. F. Curl, M. P. Fraser, and F. K. Tittel, “Monitoring of ethylene by a pulsed quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Opt. 43, 3329-3334 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. A. Kosterev and F. K. Tittel, “Chemical sensors based on quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 582-591 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Kosterev, F. K. Tittel, R. Kohler, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, S. Wehe, and M. G. Allen, “Thermoelectrically cooled quantum-cascade-laser-based sensor for the continuous monitoring of ambient atmospheric carbon monoxide,” Appl. Opt. 41, 1169-1173 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Menzel, A. A. Kosterev, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, and W. Urban, “Spectroscopic detection of biological NO with a quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. B 72, 859-863(2001).

Kronfeldt, H. D.

J. Waschull, B. Sumpf, Y. Heiner, and H. D. Kronfeldt, “Diode laser spectroscopy in the ν14 band of benzene,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 37, 193-198 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Le, H. Q.

G. P. Luo, C. Peng, H. Q. Le, S. S. Pei, H. Lee, W. Y. Hwang, B. Ishaug, and J. Zheng, “Broadly wavelength-tunable external cavity mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 486-494 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Luo, C. Peng, H. Q. Le, S. S. Pei, W. Y. Hwang, B. Ishaug, J. Um, J. N. Baillargeon, and C. H. Lin, “Grating-tuned external-cavity quantum-cascade semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2834-2836 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lee, H.

G. P. Luo, C. Peng, H. Q. Le, S. S. Pei, H. Lee, W. Y. Hwang, B. Ishaug, and J. Zheng, “Broadly wavelength-tunable external cavity mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 486-494 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lewicki, R.

G. Wysocki, R. Lewicki, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, L. Diehl, F. Capasso, M. Troccoli, G. Hofler, D. Bour, S. Corzine, R. Maulini, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, “Widely tunable mode-hop-free external cavity quantum cascade lasers for high resolution spectroscopy and chemical sensing,” Appl. Phys. B 92, 305-311 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Kosterev, G. Wysocki, Y. Bakhirkin, S. So, R. Lewicki, M. Fraser, F. Tittel, and R. F. Curl, “Application of quantum cascade lasers to trace gas analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 90, 165-176 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. R. McCurdy, Y. Bakhirkin, G. Wysocki, R. Lewicki, and F. K. Tittel, “Recent advances of laser-spectroscopy-based techniques for applications in breath analysis,” J. Breath Res. 014001 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, C. H.

G. P. Luo, C. Peng, H. Q. Le, S. S. Pei, W. Y. Hwang, B. Ishaug, J. Um, J. N. Baillargeon, and C. H. Lin, “Grating-tuned external-cavity quantum-cascade semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2834-2836 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Luo, G. P.

G. P. Luo, C. Peng, H. Q. Le, S. S. Pei, H. Lee, W. Y. Hwang, B. Ishaug, and J. Zheng, “Broadly wavelength-tunable external cavity mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 486-494 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Luo, C. Peng, H. Q. Le, S. S. Pei, W. Y. Hwang, B. Ishaug, J. Um, J. N. Baillargeon, and C. H. Lin, “Grating-tuned external-cavity quantum-cascade semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2834-2836 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lyakh, A.

R. Maulini, I. Dunayevskiy, A. Lyakh, A. Tsekoun, C. K. N. Patel, L. Diehl, C. Pflugl, and F. Capasso, “Widely tunable high-power external cavity quantum cascade laser operating in continuous-wave at room temperature,” Electron. Lett. 45, 107-108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Manne, J.

J. Manne, W. Jager, and J. Tulip, “Sensitive detection of ammonia and ethylene with a pulsed quantum cascade laser using intra and interpulse spectroscopic techniques,” Appl. Phys. B 94, 337-344 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Maulini, R.

R. Maulini, I. Dunayevskiy, A. Lyakh, A. Tsekoun, C. K. N. Patel, L. Diehl, C. Pflugl, and F. Capasso, “Widely tunable high-power external cavity quantum cascade laser operating in continuous-wave at room temperature,” Electron. Lett. 45, 107-108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Wysocki, R. Lewicki, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, L. Diehl, F. Capasso, M. Troccoli, G. Hofler, D. Bour, S. Corzine, R. Maulini, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, “Widely tunable mode-hop-free external cavity quantum cascade lasers for high resolution spectroscopy and chemical sensing,” Appl. Phys. B 92, 305-311 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Maulini, A. Mohan, M. Giovannini, J. Faist, and E. Gini, “External cavity quantum-cascade laser tunable from 8.2 to 10.4 μm using a gain element with a heterogeneous cascade,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 201113 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Maulini, M. Beck, J. Faist, and E. Gini, “Broadband tuning of external cavity bound-to-continuum quantum-cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1659-1661 (2004).
[CrossRef]

McCann, P. J.

J. D. Jeffers, C. B. Roller, K. Namjou, M. A. Evans, L. McSpadden, J. Grego, and P. J. McCann, “Real-time diode laser measurements of vapor-phase benzene,” Anal. Chem. 76, 424-432(2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McCurdy, M. R.

M. R. McCurdy, Y. Bakhirkin, G. Wysocki, R. Lewicki, and F. K. Tittel, “Recent advances of laser-spectroscopy-based techniques for applications in breath analysis,” J. Breath Res. 014001 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McManus, J. B.

Q. Shi, D. D. Nelson, J. B. McManus, M. S. Zahniser, M. E. Parrish, R. E. Baren, K. H. Shafer, and C. N. Harward, “Quantum cascade infrared laser spectroscopy for real-time cigarette smoke analysis,” Anal. Chem. 75, 5180-5190 (2003).
[CrossRef]

McSpadden, L.

J. D. Jeffers, C. B. Roller, K. Namjou, M. A. Evans, L. McSpadden, J. Grego, and P. J. McCann, “Real-time diode laser measurements of vapor-phase benzene,” Anal. Chem. 76, 424-432(2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Melchior, H.

M. Beck, D. Hofstetter, T. Aellen, J. Faist, U. Oesterle, M. Ilegems, E. Gini, and H. Melchior, “Continuous wave operation of a mid-infrared semiconductor laser at room temperature,” Science 295, 301-305 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Menzel, L.

L. Menzel, A. A. Kosterev, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, and W. Urban, “Spectroscopic detection of biological NO with a quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. B 72, 859-863(2001).

Minoura, H.

H. Takekawa, H. Minoura, and S. Yamazaki, “Temperature dependence of secondary organic aerosol formation by photo-oxidation of hydrocarbons,” Atmos. Environ. 37, 3413-3424(2003).
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Mohan, A.

A. Mohan, A. Wittmann, A. Hugi, S. Blaser, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, “Room-temperature continuous-wave operation of an external-cavity quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Lett. 32, 2792-2794 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Maulini, A. Mohan, M. Giovannini, J. Faist, and E. Gini, “External cavity quantum-cascade laser tunable from 8.2 to 10.4 μm using a gain element with a heterogeneous cascade,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 201113 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Muller, A.

Murena, F.

F. Murena, “Air quality nearby road traffic tunnel portals: BTEX monitoring,” J. Environ. Sci. (China) 19, 578-583 (2007).
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Namjou, K.

J. D. Jeffers, C. B. Roller, K. Namjou, M. A. Evans, L. McSpadden, J. Grego, and P. J. McCann, “Real-time diode laser measurements of vapor-phase benzene,” Anal. Chem. 76, 424-432(2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nelson, D. D.

Q. Shi, D. D. Nelson, J. B. McManus, M. S. Zahniser, M. E. Parrish, R. E. Baren, K. H. Shafer, and C. N. Harward, “Quantum cascade infrared laser spectroscopy for real-time cigarette smoke analysis,” Anal. Chem. 75, 5180-5190 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nieman, T. A.

D. A. Skoog, F. J. Holler, and T. A. Nieman, Principles of Instrumental Analysis (Brooks/Cole: Thomson Learning, 1998).

Oesterle, U.

M. Beck, D. Hofstetter, T. Aellen, J. Faist, U. Oesterle, M. Ilegems, E. Gini, and H. Melchior, “Continuous wave operation of a mid-infrared semiconductor laser at room temperature,” Science 295, 301-305 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pandis, S. N.

J. H. Seinfeld and S. N. Pandis, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics: From Air Pollution to Climate Change (Wiley, 2006).

Parrish, M. E.

Q. Shi, D. D. Nelson, J. B. McManus, M. S. Zahniser, M. E. Parrish, R. E. Baren, K. H. Shafer, and C. N. Harward, “Quantum cascade infrared laser spectroscopy for real-time cigarette smoke analysis,” Anal. Chem. 75, 5180-5190 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Patel, C. K. N.

R. Maulini, I. Dunayevskiy, A. Lyakh, A. Tsekoun, C. K. N. Patel, L. Diehl, C. Pflugl, and F. Capasso, “Widely tunable high-power external cavity quantum cascade laser operating in continuous-wave at room temperature,” Electron. Lett. 45, 107-108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pei, S. S.

G. P. Luo, C. Peng, H. Q. Le, S. S. Pei, H. Lee, W. Y. Hwang, B. Ishaug, and J. Zheng, “Broadly wavelength-tunable external cavity mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 486-494 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Luo, C. Peng, H. Q. Le, S. S. Pei, W. Y. Hwang, B. Ishaug, J. Um, J. N. Baillargeon, and C. H. Lin, “Grating-tuned external-cavity quantum-cascade semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2834-2836 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Peng, C.

G. P. Luo, C. Peng, H. Q. Le, S. S. Pei, H. Lee, W. Y. Hwang, B. Ishaug, and J. Zheng, “Broadly wavelength-tunable external cavity mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 486-494 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Luo, C. Peng, H. Q. Le, S. S. Pei, W. Y. Hwang, B. Ishaug, J. Um, J. N. Baillargeon, and C. H. Lin, “Grating-tuned external-cavity quantum-cascade semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2834-2836 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Peverall, R.

G. Hancock, J. H. van Helden, R. Peverall, G. A. D. Ritchie, and R. J. Walker, “Direct and wavelength modulation spectroscopy using a cw external cavity quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 201110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pflugl, C.

R. Maulini, I. Dunayevskiy, A. Lyakh, A. Tsekoun, C. K. N. Patel, L. Diehl, C. Pflugl, and F. Capasso, “Widely tunable high-power external cavity quantum cascade laser operating in continuous-wave at room temperature,” Electron. Lett. 45, 107-108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pustogov, V.

Pustogov, V. V.

J. Berger and V. V. Pustogov, “Monitoring of benzene in the 10 μm and 14 μm region,” Infrared Physics & Technology Infrared Phys. Technol. 37, 163-166 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Rao, G. N.

Remillard, J. T.

Rhoderick, G. C.

Richert, J. F.

Ritchie, G. A. D.

G. Hancock, J. H. van Helden, R. Peverall, G. A. D. Ritchie, and R. J. Walker, “Direct and wavelength modulation spectroscopy using a cw external cavity quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 201110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Roller, C.

Roller, C. B.

J. D. Jeffers, C. B. Roller, K. Namjou, M. A. Evans, L. McSpadden, J. Grego, and P. J. McCann, “Real-time diode laser measurements of vapor-phase benzene,” Anal. Chem. 76, 424-432(2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sams, R. L.

Seinfeld, J. H.

J. H. Seinfeld and S. N. Pandis, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics: From Air Pollution to Climate Change (Wiley, 2006).

Shafer, K. H.

Q. Shi, D. D. Nelson, J. B. McManus, M. S. Zahniser, M. E. Parrish, R. E. Baren, K. H. Shafer, and C. N. Harward, “Quantum cascade infrared laser spectroscopy for real-time cigarette smoke analysis,” Anal. Chem. 75, 5180-5190 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sharpe, S. W.

Shi, Q.

Q. Shi, D. D. Nelson, J. B. McManus, M. S. Zahniser, M. E. Parrish, R. E. Baren, K. H. Shafer, and C. N. Harward, “Quantum cascade infrared laser spectroscopy for real-time cigarette smoke analysis,” Anal. Chem. 75, 5180-5190 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shon, Z. H.

K. H. Kim, Z. H. Shon, M. Y. Kim, Y. Sunwoo, E. C. Jeon, and J. H. Hong, “Major aromatic VOC in the ambient air in the proximity of an urban landfill facility,” J. Hazard. Mater. 150, 754-764 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sirtori, C.

J. Faist, F. Capasso, C. Sirtori, D. L. Sivco, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Continuous-wave operation of a vertical transition quantum cascade laser above T=80 K,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3057-3059 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade laser,” Science 264, 553-556 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sivco, D. L.

A. A. Kosterev, F. K. Tittel, R. Kohler, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, S. Wehe, and M. G. Allen, “Thermoelectrically cooled quantum-cascade-laser-based sensor for the continuous monitoring of ambient atmospheric carbon monoxide,” Appl. Opt. 41, 1169-1173 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. H. Weber, J. T. Remillard, R. E. Chase, J. F. Richert, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, and A. Y. Cho, “Using a wavelength-modulated quantum cascade laser to measure NO concentrations in the parts-per-billion range for vehicle emissions certification,” Appl. Spectrosc. 56, 706-714 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. Gmachl, D. L. Sivco, R. Colombelli, F. Capasso, and A. Y. Cho, “Ultra-broadband semiconductor laser,” Nature 415, 883-887 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Menzel, A. A. Kosterev, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, and W. Urban, “Spectroscopic detection of biological NO with a quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. B 72, 859-863(2001).

C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, “Recent progress in quantum cascade lasers and applications,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 64, 1533-1601 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Faist, F. Capasso, C. Sirtori, D. L. Sivco, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Continuous-wave operation of a vertical transition quantum cascade laser above T=80 K,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3057-3059 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade laser,” Science 264, 553-556 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Skoog, D. A.

D. A. Skoog, F. J. Holler, and T. A. Nieman, Principles of Instrumental Analysis (Brooks/Cole: Thomson Learning, 1998).

So, S.

A. Kosterev, G. Wysocki, Y. Bakhirkin, S. So, R. Lewicki, M. Fraser, F. Tittel, and R. F. Curl, “Application of quantum cascade lasers to trace gas analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 90, 165-176 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sumpf, B.

J. Waschull, B. Sumpf, Y. Heiner, and H. D. Kronfeldt, “Diode laser spectroscopy in the ν14 band of benzene,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 37, 193-198 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sunwoo, Y.

K. H. Kim, Z. H. Shon, M. Y. Kim, Y. Sunwoo, E. C. Jeon, and J. H. Hong, “Major aromatic VOC in the ambient air in the proximity of an urban landfill facility,” J. Hazard. Mater. 150, 754-764 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Takekawa, H.

H. Takekawa, H. Minoura, and S. Yamazaki, “Temperature dependence of secondary organic aerosol formation by photo-oxidation of hydrocarbons,” Atmos. Environ. 37, 3413-3424(2003).
[CrossRef]

Tittel, F.

A. Kosterev, G. Wysocki, Y. Bakhirkin, S. So, R. Lewicki, M. Fraser, F. Tittel, and R. F. Curl, “Application of quantum cascade lasers to trace gas analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 90, 165-176 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. D. Chen, F. Cazier, F. Tittel, and D. Boucher, “Measurements of benzene concentration by difference-frequency laser absorption spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 39, 6238-6242 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tittel, F. K.

G. Wysocki, R. Lewicki, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, L. Diehl, F. Capasso, M. Troccoli, G. Hofler, D. Bour, S. Corzine, R. Maulini, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, “Widely tunable mode-hop-free external cavity quantum cascade lasers for high resolution spectroscopy and chemical sensing,” Appl. Phys. B 92, 305-311 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. R. McCurdy, Y. Bakhirkin, G. Wysocki, R. Lewicki, and F. K. Tittel, “Recent advances of laser-spectroscopy-based techniques for applications in breath analysis,” J. Breath Res. 014001 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Weidmann, A. A. Kosterev, C. Roller, R. F. Curl, M. P. Fraser, and F. K. Tittel, “Monitoring of ethylene by a pulsed quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Opt. 43, 3329-3334 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. A. Kosterev, F. K. Tittel, R. Kohler, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, S. Wehe, and M. G. Allen, “Thermoelectrically cooled quantum-cascade-laser-based sensor for the continuous monitoring of ambient atmospheric carbon monoxide,” Appl. Opt. 41, 1169-1173 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. A. Kosterev and F. K. Tittel, “Chemical sensors based on quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 582-591 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. Menzel, A. A. Kosterev, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, and W. Urban, “Spectroscopic detection of biological NO with a quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. B 72, 859-863(2001).

Totschnig, G.

Troccoli, M.

G. Wysocki, R. Lewicki, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, L. Diehl, F. Capasso, M. Troccoli, G. Hofler, D. Bour, S. Corzine, R. Maulini, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, “Widely tunable mode-hop-free external cavity quantum cascade lasers for high resolution spectroscopy and chemical sensing,” Appl. Phys. B 92, 305-311 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tsekoun, A.

R. Maulini, I. Dunayevskiy, A. Lyakh, A. Tsekoun, C. K. N. Patel, L. Diehl, C. Pflugl, and F. Capasso, “Widely tunable high-power external cavity quantum cascade laser operating in continuous-wave at room temperature,” Electron. Lett. 45, 107-108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tulip, J.

J. Manne, W. Jager, and J. Tulip, “Sensitive detection of ammonia and ethylene with a pulsed quantum cascade laser using intra and interpulse spectroscopic techniques,” Appl. Phys. B 94, 337-344 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Um, J.

G. P. Luo, C. Peng, H. Q. Le, S. S. Pei, W. Y. Hwang, B. Ishaug, J. Um, J. N. Baillargeon, and C. H. Lin, “Grating-tuned external-cavity quantum-cascade semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2834-2836 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Urban, W.

L. Menzel, A. A. Kosterev, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, and W. Urban, “Spectroscopic detection of biological NO with a quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. B 72, 859-863(2001).

van Helden, J. H.

G. Hancock, J. H. van Helden, R. Peverall, G. A. D. Ritchie, and R. J. Walker, “Direct and wavelength modulation spectroscopy using a cw external cavity quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 201110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Walker, R. J.

G. Hancock, J. H. van Helden, R. Peverall, G. A. D. Ritchie, and R. J. Walker, “Direct and wavelength modulation spectroscopy using a cw external cavity quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 201110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Waschull, J.

J. Waschull, B. Sumpf, Y. Heiner, and H. D. Kronfeldt, “Diode laser spectroscopy in the ν14 band of benzene,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 37, 193-198 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Weber, W. H.

Wehe, S.

Weidmann, D.

Winter, F.

Wittmann, A.

Wysocki, G.

G. Wysocki, R. Lewicki, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, L. Diehl, F. Capasso, M. Troccoli, G. Hofler, D. Bour, S. Corzine, R. Maulini, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, “Widely tunable mode-hop-free external cavity quantum cascade lasers for high resolution spectroscopy and chemical sensing,” Appl. Phys. B 92, 305-311 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Kosterev, G. Wysocki, Y. Bakhirkin, S. So, R. Lewicki, M. Fraser, F. Tittel, and R. F. Curl, “Application of quantum cascade lasers to trace gas analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 90, 165-176 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. R. McCurdy, Y. Bakhirkin, G. Wysocki, R. Lewicki, and F. K. Tittel, “Recent advances of laser-spectroscopy-based techniques for applications in breath analysis,” J. Breath Res. 014001 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yamazaki, S.

H. Takekawa, H. Minoura, and S. Yamazaki, “Temperature dependence of secondary organic aerosol formation by photo-oxidation of hydrocarbons,” Atmos. Environ. 37, 3413-3424(2003).
[CrossRef]

Zahniser, M. S.

Q. Shi, D. D. Nelson, J. B. McManus, M. S. Zahniser, M. E. Parrish, R. E. Baren, K. H. Shafer, and C. N. Harward, “Quantum cascade infrared laser spectroscopy for real-time cigarette smoke analysis,” Anal. Chem. 75, 5180-5190 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, J.

G. P. Luo, C. Peng, H. Q. Le, S. S. Pei, H. Lee, W. Y. Hwang, B. Ishaug, and J. Zheng, “Broadly wavelength-tunable external cavity mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 486-494 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Chem.

Q. Shi, D. D. Nelson, J. B. McManus, M. S. Zahniser, M. E. Parrish, R. E. Baren, K. H. Shafer, and C. N. Harward, “Quantum cascade infrared laser spectroscopy for real-time cigarette smoke analysis,” Anal. Chem. 75, 5180-5190 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Jeffers, C. B. Roller, K. Namjou, M. A. Evans, L. McSpadden, J. Grego, and P. J. McCann, “Real-time diode laser measurements of vapor-phase benzene,” Anal. Chem. 76, 424-432(2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. B

L. Menzel, A. A. Kosterev, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, and W. Urban, “Spectroscopic detection of biological NO with a quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. B 72, 859-863(2001).

A. Kosterev, G. Wysocki, Y. Bakhirkin, S. So, R. Lewicki, M. Fraser, F. Tittel, and R. F. Curl, “Application of quantum cascade lasers to trace gas analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 90, 165-176 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Cousin, W. Chen, D. Bigourd, M. Fourmentin, and S. Kassi, “Telecom-grade fiber laser-based difference-frequency generation and ppb-level detection of benzene vapor in air around 3 μm,” Appl. Phys. B 97919-929 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Manne, W. Jager, and J. Tulip, “Sensitive detection of ammonia and ethylene with a pulsed quantum cascade laser using intra and interpulse spectroscopic techniques,” Appl. Phys. B 94, 337-344 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Wysocki, R. Lewicki, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, L. Diehl, F. Capasso, M. Troccoli, G. Hofler, D. Bour, S. Corzine, R. Maulini, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, “Widely tunable mode-hop-free external cavity quantum cascade lasers for high resolution spectroscopy and chemical sensing,” Appl. Phys. B 92, 305-311 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

J. Faist, F. Capasso, C. Sirtori, D. L. Sivco, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Continuous-wave operation of a vertical transition quantum cascade laser above T=80 K,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3057-3059 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. Maulini, A. Mohan, M. Giovannini, J. Faist, and E. Gini, “External cavity quantum-cascade laser tunable from 8.2 to 10.4 μm using a gain element with a heterogeneous cascade,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 201113 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Maulini, M. Beck, J. Faist, and E. Gini, “Broadband tuning of external cavity bound-to-continuum quantum-cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1659-1661 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Luo, C. Peng, H. Q. Le, S. S. Pei, W. Y. Hwang, B. Ishaug, J. Um, J. N. Baillargeon, and C. H. Lin, “Grating-tuned external-cavity quantum-cascade semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2834-2836 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. Hancock, J. H. van Helden, R. Peverall, G. A. D. Ritchie, and R. J. Walker, “Direct and wavelength modulation spectroscopy using a cw external cavity quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 201110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Spectrosc.

Atmos. Environ.

H. Takekawa, H. Minoura, and S. Yamazaki, “Temperature dependence of secondary organic aerosol formation by photo-oxidation of hydrocarbons,” Atmos. Environ. 37, 3413-3424(2003).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

R. Maulini, I. Dunayevskiy, A. Lyakh, A. Tsekoun, C. K. N. Patel, L. Diehl, C. Pflugl, and F. Capasso, “Widely tunable high-power external cavity quantum cascade laser operating in continuous-wave at room temperature,” Electron. Lett. 45, 107-108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

A. A. Kosterev and F. K. Tittel, “Chemical sensors based on quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 582-591 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Luo, C. Peng, H. Q. Le, S. S. Pei, H. Lee, W. Y. Hwang, B. Ishaug, and J. Zheng, “Broadly wavelength-tunable external cavity mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 486-494 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Infrared Phys. Technol.

J. Waschull, B. Sumpf, Y. Heiner, and H. D. Kronfeldt, “Diode laser spectroscopy in the ν14 band of benzene,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 37, 193-198 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Infrared Physics & Technology

J. Berger and V. V. Pustogov, “Monitoring of benzene in the 10 μm and 14 μm region,” Infrared Physics & Technology Infrared Phys. Technol. 37, 163-166 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Breath Res.

M. R. McCurdy, Y. Bakhirkin, G. Wysocki, R. Lewicki, and F. K. Tittel, “Recent advances of laser-spectroscopy-based techniques for applications in breath analysis,” J. Breath Res. 014001 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Environ. Sci. (China)

F. Murena, “Air quality nearby road traffic tunnel portals: BTEX monitoring,” J. Environ. Sci. (China) 19, 578-583 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Hazard. Mater.

K. H. Kim, Z. H. Shon, M. Y. Kim, Y. Sunwoo, E. C. Jeon, and J. H. Hong, “Major aromatic VOC in the ambient air in the proximity of an urban landfill facility,” J. Hazard. Mater. 150, 754-764 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nature

C. Gmachl, D. L. Sivco, R. Colombelli, F. Capasso, and A. Y. Cho, “Ultra-broadband semiconductor laser,” Nature 415, 883-887 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett.

Rep. Prog. Phys.

C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, “Recent progress in quantum cascade lasers and applications,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 64, 1533-1601 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Science

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade laser,” Science 264, 553-556 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Beck, D. Hofstetter, T. Aellen, J. Faist, U. Oesterle, M. Ilegems, E. Gini, and H. Melchior, “Continuous wave operation of a mid-infrared semiconductor laser at room temperature,” Science 295, 301-305 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

“Interaction profile for: benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX),” Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2004).

J. H. Seinfeld and S. N. Pandis, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics: From Air Pollution to Climate Change (Wiley, 2006).

D. A. Skoog, F. J. Holler, and T. A. Nieman, Principles of Instrumental Analysis (Brooks/Cole: Thomson Learning, 1998).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental layout: cw EC-QCL, infrared laser; LD, laser driver; MC, multipass cell; L1 and L2, lenses; M, mirror; BS, beam splitter; D, detector; AF, analog low-pass filter; SP, signal processing.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Intensity output of the cw EC-QCL over the entire tuning range (scanned at a rate of 8.5 cm 1 / s ). Mode-hop-free and mode-hop ranges are indicated with MHF and MH, respectively.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Observed (thin curves) and theoretical [28] (thick curve) spectra of (a) benzene and (b) toluene in nitrogen at atmospheric pressure.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Observed (thin curves) and theoretical [28] (thick curve) spectra of a mixture of 1 ppm benzene and 1 ppm toluene in nitrogen at atmospheric pressure.

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