Abstract

Metal-insulator-metal (MIM) structures have been the subject of great interest as nanoscale plasmonic waveguides. The modeling and measurement of the loss in these waveguides is one of the critical issues in realizing the plasmon-based nanocircuitry. Due to the subwavelength size of the structure, the light injection and the measurement of the loss in MIM structures typically require tapered fibers or waveguides, as well as multiple waveguide structures with various length scales 8 9 or scanning near-field optical microscopy. The transverse transmission/reflection (TTR) method is presented for determining the loss of plasmonic modes in MIM waveguides. The approach is based on determining the width of the reflection angular spectrum in the attenuated total reflection configuration. Owing to its transverse character, the TTR method potentially provides a more straightforward and simpler way to determine the loss of plasmonic modes in MIM structures.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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2009 (1)

2008 (1)

2007 (1)

2006 (5)

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J. Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature 440, 508-511 (2006).

S. A. Maier, “Plasmonics: the promise of highly integrated optical devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1671-1677 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. Ozbay, “Plasmonics: merging photonics and electronics at nanoscale dimensions,” Science 311, 189-193 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Zia, J. A. Schuller, A. Chandran, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics: the next chip-scale technology,” Mater. Today 9, 20-27 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Dionne, H. J. Lezec, and H. A. Atwater, “Highly confined photon transport in subwavelength metallic slot waveguides,” Nano Lett. 6, 1928-1932 (2006).

2005 (2)

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon-polariton guiding by subwavelength metal grooves,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 046802 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Veronis and S. H. Fan, “Bends and splitters in metal-dielectric-metal subwavelength plasmonic waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 131102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

T. Goto, Y. Katagiri, H. Fukuda, H. Shinojima, Y. Nakano, I. Kobayashi, and Y. Mitsuoka, “Propagation loss measurement for surface plasmon-polariton modes at metal waveguides on semiconductor substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 852-854(2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424, 824-830 (2003).

J. C. Weeber, Y. Lacroute, and A. Dereux, “Optical near-field distributions of surface plasmon waveguide modes,” Phys. Rev. B 68, 115401 (2003).

1999 (1)

1992 (2)

E. Anemogiannis and E. N. Glytsis, “Multilayer wave-guides--efficient numerical-analysis of general structures,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 1344-1351 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Q. Xia, A. K. Jordan, and J. A. Kong, “Inverse-scattering view of modal structures in inhomogeneous optical wave-guides,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 9, 740-748 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (2)

F. Z. Yang, G. W. Bradberry, and J. R. Sambles, “Long-range surface-mode supported by very thin silver films,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2030-2032 (1991).
[CrossRef]

B. Prade, J. Y. Vinet, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Guided optical waves in planar heterostructures with negative dielectric-constant,” Phys. Rev. B 44, 13556-13572 (1991).

1986 (1)

U. Durig, D. W. Pohl, and F. Rohner, “Near-field optical-scanning microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 59, 3318-3327 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1983 (2)

1970 (2)

1969 (1)

E. N. Economou, “Surface plasmons in thin films,” Phys. Rev. 182, 539-554 (1969).
[CrossRef]

1968 (1)

A. Otto, “Excitation of nonradiative surface plasma waves in silver by the method of frustrated total reflection,” Z. Phys. 216, 398-410 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Anemogiannis, E.

Atwater, H. A.

J. A. Dionne, H. J. Lezec, and H. A. Atwater, “Highly confined photon transport in subwavelength metallic slot waveguides,” Nano Lett. 6, 1928-1932 (2006).

Barnes, W. L.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424, 824-830 (2003).

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J. Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature 440, 508-511 (2006).

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon-polariton guiding by subwavelength metal grooves,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 046802 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bradberry, G. W.

F. Z. Yang, G. W. Bradberry, and J. R. Sambles, “Long-range surface-mode supported by very thin silver films,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2030-2032 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Brongersma, M. L.

R. Zia, J. A. Schuller, A. Chandran, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics: the next chip-scale technology,” Mater. Today 9, 20-27 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chandran, A.

R. Zia, J. A. Schuller, A. Chandran, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics: the next chip-scale technology,” Mater. Today 9, 20-27 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Craig, A. E.

Dereux, A.

J. C. Weeber, Y. Lacroute, and A. Dereux, “Optical near-field distributions of surface plasmon waveguide modes,” Phys. Rev. B 68, 115401 (2003).

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424, 824-830 (2003).

Devaux, E.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J. Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature 440, 508-511 (2006).

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon-polariton guiding by subwavelength metal grooves,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 046802 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dionne, J. A.

J. A. Dionne, H. J. Lezec, and H. A. Atwater, “Highly confined photon transport in subwavelength metallic slot waveguides,” Nano Lett. 6, 1928-1932 (2006).

Durig, U.

U. Durig, D. W. Pohl, and F. Rohner, “Near-field optical-scanning microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 59, 3318-3327 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Ebbesen, T. W.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J. Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature 440, 508-511 (2006).

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon-polariton guiding by subwavelength metal grooves,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 046802 (2005).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424, 824-830 (2003).

Economou, E. N.

E. N. Economou, “Surface plasmons in thin films,” Phys. Rev. 182, 539-554 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Fan, S. H.

G. Veronis and S. H. Fan, “Bends and splitters in metal-dielectric-metal subwavelength plasmonic waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 131102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Feigenbaum, E.

Fukuda, H.

T. Goto, Y. Katagiri, H. Fukuda, H. Shinojima, Y. Nakano, I. Kobayashi, and Y. Mitsuoka, “Propagation loss measurement for surface plasmon-polariton modes at metal waveguides on semiconductor substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 852-854(2004).
[CrossRef]

Fukui, M.

Gaylord, T. K.

Glytsis, E. N.

Goto, T.

T. Goto, Y. Katagiri, H. Fukuda, H. Shinojima, Y. Nakano, I. Kobayashi, and Y. Mitsuoka, “Propagation loss measurement for surface plasmon-polariton modes at metal waveguides on semiconductor substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 852-854(2004).
[CrossRef]

Haraguchi, M.

Jordan, A. K.

Katagiri, Y.

T. Goto, Y. Katagiri, H. Fukuda, H. Shinojima, Y. Nakano, I. Kobayashi, and Y. Mitsuoka, “Propagation loss measurement for surface plasmon-polariton modes at metal waveguides on semiconductor substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 852-854(2004).
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, I.

T. Goto, Y. Katagiri, H. Fukuda, H. Shinojima, Y. Nakano, I. Kobayashi, and Y. Mitsuoka, “Propagation loss measurement for surface plasmon-polariton modes at metal waveguides on semiconductor substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 852-854(2004).
[CrossRef]

Kong, J. A.

Lacroute, Y.

J. C. Weeber, Y. Lacroute, and A. Dereux, “Optical near-field distributions of surface plasmon waveguide modes,” Phys. Rev. B 68, 115401 (2003).

Laluet, J. Y.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J. Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature 440, 508-511 (2006).

Lezec, H. J.

J. A. Dionne, H. J. Lezec, and H. A. Atwater, “Highly confined photon transport in subwavelength metallic slot waveguides,” Nano Lett. 6, 1928-1932 (2006).

Lin, C.-I.

Maier, S. A.

S. A. Maier, “Plasmonics: the promise of highly integrated optical devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1671-1677 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Matsuzaki, Y.

Mitsuoka, Y.

T. Goto, Y. Katagiri, H. Fukuda, H. Shinojima, Y. Nakano, I. Kobayashi, and Y. Mitsuoka, “Propagation loss measurement for surface plasmon-polariton modes at metal waveguides on semiconductor substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 852-854(2004).
[CrossRef]

Mysyrowicz, A.

B. Prade, J. Y. Vinet, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Guided optical waves in planar heterostructures with negative dielectric-constant,” Phys. Rev. B 44, 13556-13572 (1991).

Nakagaki, M.

Nakano, Y.

T. Goto, Y. Katagiri, H. Fukuda, H. Shinojima, Y. Nakano, I. Kobayashi, and Y. Mitsuoka, “Propagation loss measurement for surface plasmon-polariton modes at metal waveguides on semiconductor substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 852-854(2004).
[CrossRef]

Okamoto, T.

Olson, G. A.

Orenstein, M.

Otto, A.

A. Otto, “Excitation of nonradiative surface plasma waves in silver by the method of frustrated total reflection,” Z. Phys. 216, 398-410 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Ozbay, E.

E. Ozbay, “Plasmonics: merging photonics and electronics at nanoscale dimensions,” Science 311, 189-193 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Palik, E. D.

E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids(Academic, 1985).

Pohl, D. W.

U. Durig, D. W. Pohl, and F. Rohner, “Near-field optical-scanning microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 59, 3318-3327 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Prade, B.

B. Prade, J. Y. Vinet, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Guided optical waves in planar heterostructures with negative dielectric-constant,” Phys. Rev. B 44, 13556-13572 (1991).

Quail, J. C.

Raether, H.

H. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings (Springer-Verlag, 1988).

Rako, J. G.

Rohner, F.

U. Durig, D. W. Pohl, and F. Rohner, “Near-field optical-scanning microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 59, 3318-3327 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Sambles, J. R.

F. Z. Yang, G. W. Bradberry, and J. R. Sambles, “Long-range surface-mode supported by very thin silver films,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2030-2032 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Sarid, D.

Schuller, J. A.

R. Zia, J. A. Schuller, A. Chandran, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics: the next chip-scale technology,” Mater. Today 9, 20-27 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shinojima, H.

T. Goto, Y. Katagiri, H. Fukuda, H. Shinojima, Y. Nakano, I. Kobayashi, and Y. Mitsuoka, “Propagation loss measurement for surface plasmon-polariton modes at metal waveguides on semiconductor substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 852-854(2004).
[CrossRef]

Simon, H. J.

Tien, P. K.

Ulrich, R.

Veronis, G.

G. Veronis and S. H. Fan, “Bends and splitters in metal-dielectric-metal subwavelength plasmonic waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 131102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Vinet, J. Y.

B. Prade, J. Y. Vinet, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Guided optical waves in planar heterostructures with negative dielectric-constant,” Phys. Rev. B 44, 13556-13572 (1991).

Volkov, V. S.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J. Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature 440, 508-511 (2006).

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon-polariton guiding by subwavelength metal grooves,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 046802 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Weeber, J. C.

J. C. Weeber, Y. Lacroute, and A. Dereux, “Optical near-field distributions of surface plasmon waveguide modes,” Phys. Rev. B 68, 115401 (2003).

Xia, J. Q.

Yang, F. Z.

F. Z. Yang, G. W. Bradberry, and J. R. Sambles, “Long-range surface-mode supported by very thin silver films,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2030-2032 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Zia, R.

R. Zia, J. A. Schuller, A. Chandran, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics: the next chip-scale technology,” Mater. Today 9, 20-27 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

G. Veronis and S. H. Fan, “Bends and splitters in metal-dielectric-metal subwavelength plasmonic waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 131102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Goto, Y. Katagiri, H. Fukuda, H. Shinojima, Y. Nakano, I. Kobayashi, and Y. Mitsuoka, “Propagation loss measurement for surface plasmon-polariton modes at metal waveguides on semiconductor substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 852-854(2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

S. A. Maier, “Plasmonics: the promise of highly integrated optical devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1671-1677 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

U. Durig, D. W. Pohl, and F. Rohner, “Near-field optical-scanning microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 59, 3318-3327 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (3)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Mater. Today (1)

R. Zia, J. A. Schuller, A. Chandran, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics: the next chip-scale technology,” Mater. Today 9, 20-27 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (1)

J. A. Dionne, H. J. Lezec, and H. A. Atwater, “Highly confined photon transport in subwavelength metallic slot waveguides,” Nano Lett. 6, 1928-1932 (2006).

Nature (2)

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424, 824-830 (2003).

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J. Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature 440, 508-511 (2006).

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. (1)

E. N. Economou, “Surface plasmons in thin films,” Phys. Rev. 182, 539-554 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (2)

B. Prade, J. Y. Vinet, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Guided optical waves in planar heterostructures with negative dielectric-constant,” Phys. Rev. B 44, 13556-13572 (1991).

J. C. Weeber, Y. Lacroute, and A. Dereux, “Optical near-field distributions of surface plasmon waveguide modes,” Phys. Rev. B 68, 115401 (2003).

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon-polariton guiding by subwavelength metal grooves,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 046802 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. Z. Yang, G. W. Bradberry, and J. R. Sambles, “Long-range surface-mode supported by very thin silver films,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2030-2032 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

E. Ozbay, “Plasmonics: merging photonics and electronics at nanoscale dimensions,” Science 311, 189-193 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Z. Phys. (1)

A. Otto, “Excitation of nonradiative surface plasma waves in silver by the method of frustrated total reflection,” Z. Phys. 216, 398-410 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids(Academic, 1985).

H. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings (Springer-Verlag, 1988).

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