Abstract

We measured the thermo-optic coefficients dn/dT of anisotropic Nd:KGd(WO4)2 crystals at the wavelengths of 1.064μm and 532nm (300K) by a beam deflection method. The values of dn/dT are determined to be dnp/dT=16.0×106K1, dnm/dT=11.8×106K1, and dng/dT=19.5×106K1 (at 1.064μm) and dnp/dT=14.3×106K1, dnm/dT=10.0×106K1, and dng/dT=15.0×106K1 (at 532nm). Thermal lensing in the flashlamp-pumped Np- and Ng-cut Nd:KGd(WO4)2 laser rods was studied at 1.064μm by a probe beam technique in the nonlasing conditions, and the contribution of the photoelastic term to the thermal lens optical power was estimated. Athermal propagation directions with the definitions dn/dT+(n1)αT=0 and dn/dT+nαT=0 were found in Nd:KGd(WO4)2.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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2010 (4)

V. I. Dashkevich, V. A. Orlovich, and A. P. Shkadarevich, “Dynamics of generation of a pulsed Nd3+:KGd(WO4)2/V3+:YAG laser emitting in the self-frequency Raman conversion mode at λ=1.538μm,” J. Appl. Spectrosc. 77, 349–356 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Loiko, K. V. Yumashev, I. A. Denisov, N. V. Kuleshov, and A. A. Pavlyuk, “Laser performance and thermal lensing in flashlamp pumped Np-cut and Ng-cut Nd:KGW crystals,” Appl. Phys. B 100, 477–483 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Soulard, A. Zinoviev, J. L. Doualan, E. Ivakin, O. Antipov, and R. Moncorge, “Detailed characterization of pump-induced refractive index changes observed in Nd:YVO4, Nd:GdVO4 and Nd:KGW,” Opt. Express 18, 1553–1568(2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Pekarek, C. Fiebig, M. C. Stumpf, A. E. H. Oehler, K. Paschke, G. Erbert, T. Sudmeyer, and U. Keller, “Diode-pumped gigahertz femtosecond Yb:KGW laser with a peak power of 3.9kW,” Opt. Express 18, 16320–16326 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (7)

2008 (4)

2007 (4)

Y. Chen, Y. Lin, X. Gong, Q. Tan, J. Zhuang, Z. Luo, and Y. Huang, “Polarized spectroscopic properties of Nd3+-doped KGd(WO4)2 single crystal,” J. Lumin. 126, 653–660 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. V. Yumashev, V. G. Savitski, N. V. Kuleshov, A. A. Pavlyuk, D. D. Molotkov, and A. L. Protasenya, “Laser performance of Ng-cut flash-lamp pumped Nd:KGW at high repetition rates,” Appl. Phys. B 89, 39–43 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. V. Filippov, N. V. Kuleshov, and I. T. Bodnar, “Negative thermo-optical coefficients and athermal directions in monoclinic KGd(WO4)2 and KY(WO4)2 laser host crystals in the visible region,” Appl. Phys. B 87, 611–614 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Jianhong, L. Jipeng, S. Rongbing, L. Jinghui, Z. Hui, X. Canhua, S. Fei, L. Zongzhi, Z. Jian, Z. Wenrong, and L. Wenxiong, “Short pulse eye-safe laser with a stimulated Raman scattering self-conversion based on a Nd:KGW crystal,” Opt. Lett. 32, 1096–1098 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (3)

M. C. Pujol, X. Mateos, A. Aznar, X. Solans, S. Surinach, J. Massons, F. Diaz, and M. Aguilo, “Structural redetermination, thermal expansion and refractive indices of KLu(WO4)2,” J. Appl. Cryst. 39, 230–236 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. R. Holtom, “Mode-locked Yb:KGW laser longitudinally pumped by polarization-coupled diode bars,” Opt. Lett. 31, 2719–2721 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Chenais, F. Druon, S. Forget, F. Balembois, and P. Georges, “On thermal effects in solid-state lasers: the case of ytterbium-doped materials,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 30, 89–153(2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

2002 (3)

A. A. Kaminskii, J. B. Gruber, S. N. Bagaev, K. Ueda, U. Hommerich, J. T. Seo, D. Temple, B. Zandi, A. A. Kornienko, E. B. Dunina, A. A. Pavlyuk, R. F. Klevtsova, and F. A. Kuznetsov, “Optical spectroscopy and visible stimulated emission of Dy3+ ions in monoclinic α-KY(WO4)2 and α-KGd(WO4)2 crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 125108(2002).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Bowman, N. W. Jenkins, S. P. O’Connor, and B. J. Feldman, “Sensitivity and stability of a radiation-balanced laser system,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 1339–1348 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Pujol, M. A. Bursukova, F. Guell, X. Mateos, R. Sole, Jna. Gavalda, M. Aguilo, J. Massons, F. Diaz, P. Klopp, U. Griebner, and V. Petrov, “Growth, optical characterization, and laser operation of a stoichiometric crystal KYb(WO4)2,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 165121 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

A. A. Kaminskii, A. F. Konstantinova, V. P. Orekhova, A. V. Butashin, R. F. Klevtsova, and A. A. Pavlyuk, “Optical and nonlinear laser properties of the χ(3)-active monoclinic α-KY(WO4)2 crystals,” Crystallogr. Rep. (Transl. Kristallografiya) 46, 665–672 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Pujol, M. Solé, J. Massons, Jna. Gavaldà, X. Solans, C. Zaldo, F. Díaz, and M. Aguiló, “Structural study of monoclinic KGd(WO4)2 and effects of lanthanide substitution,” J. Appl. Crystallogr. 34, 1–6 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

1999 (1)

M. C. Pujol, M. Rico, C. Zaldo, M. Sole, V. Nikolov, X. Solans, and Dıaz F. M. Aguilo, “Crystalline structure and optical spectroscopy of Er3+-doped KGd(WO4)2 single crystals,” Appl. Phys. B 68, 187–197 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

A. A. Demidovich, A. P. Shkadarevich, M. B. Danailov, P. Apai, T. Gasmi, V. P. Gribkovskii, A. N. Kuzmin, G. I. Ryabtsev, and L. E. Batay, “Comparison of cw laser performance of Nd:KGW, Nd:YAG, Nd:BEL, and Nd:YVO4 under laser diode pumping,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 11–15 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

N. V. Kuleshov, A. A. Lagatsky, V. G. Sherbitsky, V. P. Mikhailov, E. Heumann, T. Jensen, A. Diening, and G. Huber, “CW laser performance of Yb and Er, Yb doped tungstates,” Appl. Phys. B 64, 409–413 (1997).
[CrossRef]

I. V. Mochalov, “Laser and nonlinear properties of the potassium gadolinium tungstate laser crystal KGd(WO4)2:Nd3+-(KGW:Nd),” Opt. Eng. 36, 1660–1669 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1970 (1)

Abdolvand, A.

Aguilo, Diaz F. M.

M. C. Pujol, M. Rico, C. Zaldo, M. Sole, V. Nikolov, X. Solans, and Dıaz F. M. Aguilo, “Crystalline structure and optical spectroscopy of Er3+-doped KGd(WO4)2 single crystals,” Appl. Phys. B 68, 187–197 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Aguilo, M.

M. C. Pujol, X. Mateos, A. Aznar, X. Solans, S. Surinach, J. Massons, F. Diaz, and M. Aguilo, “Structural redetermination, thermal expansion and refractive indices of KLu(WO4)2,” J. Appl. Cryst. 39, 230–236 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Pujol, M. A. Bursukova, F. Guell, X. Mateos, R. Sole, Jna. Gavalda, M. Aguilo, J. Massons, F. Diaz, P. Klopp, U. Griebner, and V. Petrov, “Growth, optical characterization, and laser operation of a stoichiometric crystal KYb(WO4)2,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 165121 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Aguiló, M.

S. Vatnik, M. C. Pujol, J. J. Carvajal, X. Mateos, M. Aguiló, F. Díaz, and V. Petrov, “Thermo-optic coefficients of monoclinic Klu(WO4)2,” Appl. Phys. B 95, 653–656 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ò. Silvestre, J. Grau, M. C. Pujol, J. Massons, M. Aguiló, F. Díaz, M. T. Borowiec, A. Szewczyk, M. U. Gutowska, M. Massot, A. Salazar, and V. Petrov, “Thermal properties of monoclinic KLu(WO4)2 as a promising solid state laser host,” Opt. Express 16, 5022–5034 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. C. Pujol, M. Solé, J. Massons, Jna. Gavaldà, X. Solans, C. Zaldo, F. Díaz, and M. Aguiló, “Structural study of monoclinic KGd(WO4)2 and effects of lanthanide substitution,” J. Appl. Crystallogr. 34, 1–6 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Antipov, O.

Apai, P.

A. A. Demidovich, A. P. Shkadarevich, M. B. Danailov, P. Apai, T. Gasmi, V. P. Gribkovskii, A. N. Kuzmin, G. I. Ryabtsev, and L. E. Batay, “Comparison of cw laser performance of Nd:KGW, Nd:YAG, Nd:BEL, and Nd:YVO4 under laser diode pumping,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 11–15 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Aznar, A.

M. C. Pujol, X. Mateos, A. Aznar, X. Solans, S. Surinach, J. Massons, F. Diaz, and M. Aguilo, “Structural redetermination, thermal expansion and refractive indices of KLu(WO4)2,” J. Appl. Cryst. 39, 230–236 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bagaev, S. N.

A. A. Kaminskii, J. B. Gruber, S. N. Bagaev, K. Ueda, U. Hommerich, J. T. Seo, D. Temple, B. Zandi, A. A. Kornienko, E. B. Dunina, A. A. Pavlyuk, R. F. Klevtsova, and F. A. Kuznetsov, “Optical spectroscopy and visible stimulated emission of Dy3+ ions in monoclinic α-KY(WO4)2 and α-KGd(WO4)2 crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 125108(2002).
[CrossRef]

Balembois, F.

S. Chenais, F. Druon, S. Forget, F. Balembois, and P. Georges, “On thermal effects in solid-state lasers: the case of ytterbium-doped materials,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 30, 89–153(2006).
[CrossRef]

Barzda, V.

Basiev, T. T.

D. S. Chunaev, T. T. Basiev, V. A. Konushkin, A. G. Papashvili, and A. Ya. Karasik, “Synchronously pumped intracavity YLF-Nd-KGW picosecond Raman lasers and LiF:F2− amplifiers,” Laser Phys. Lett. 5, 589–592 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. T. Basiev, “New crystals for Raman lasers,” Phys. Solid State 47, 1400–1405 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Batay, L. E.

A. A. Demidovich, A. P. Shkadarevich, M. B. Danailov, P. Apai, T. Gasmi, V. P. Gribkovskii, A. N. Kuzmin, G. I. Ryabtsev, and L. E. Batay, “Comparison of cw laser performance of Nd:KGW, Nd:YAG, Nd:BEL, and Nd:YVO4 under laser diode pumping,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 11–15 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Berger, J. A.

Biswal, S.

Bodnar, I. T.

V. V. Filippov, N. V. Kuleshov, and I. T. Bodnar, “Negative thermo-optical coefficients and athermal directions in monoclinic KGd(WO4)2 and KY(WO4)2 laser host crystals in the visible region,” Appl. Phys. B 87, 611–614 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Born, M.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, 1993).

Borowiec, M. T.

Bowman, S. R.

S. Biswal, S. P. O’Connor, and S. R. Bowman, “Thermo-optical parameters measured in ytterbium-doped potassium gadolinium tungstate,” Appl. Opt. 44, 3093–3097 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. R. Bowman, N. W. Jenkins, S. P. O’Connor, and B. J. Feldman, “Sensitivity and stability of a radiation-balanced laser system,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 1339–1348 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Bowman and C. E. Mungan, “New materials for optical cooling,” Appl. Phys B 71, 807–811 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Braun, B.

Bruner, F.

Burakevich, V. N.

Burns, D.

Bursukova, M. A.

M. C. Pujol, M. A. Bursukova, F. Guell, X. Mateos, R. Sole, Jna. Gavalda, M. Aguilo, J. Massons, F. Diaz, P. Klopp, U. Griebner, and V. Petrov, “Growth, optical characterization, and laser operation of a stoichiometric crystal KYb(WO4)2,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 165121 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Butashin, A. V.

A. A. Kaminskii, A. F. Konstantinova, V. P. Orekhova, A. V. Butashin, R. F. Klevtsova, and A. A. Pavlyuk, “Optical and nonlinear laser properties of the χ(3)-active monoclinic α-KY(WO4)2 crystals,” Crystallogr. Rep. (Transl. Kristallografiya) 46, 665–672 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Calvez, S.

Canhua, X.

Carvajal, J. J.

S. Vatnik, M. C. Pujol, J. J. Carvajal, X. Mateos, M. Aguiló, F. Díaz, and V. Petrov, “Thermo-optic coefficients of monoclinic Klu(WO4)2,” Appl. Phys. B 95, 653–656 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.

Y. Chen, Y. Lin, X. Gong, Q. Tan, J. Zhuang, Z. Luo, and Y. Huang, “Polarized spectroscopic properties of Nd3+-doped KGd(WO4)2 single crystal,” J. Lumin. 126, 653–660 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chenais, S.

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P. A. Loiko, K. V. Yumashev, I. A. Denisov, N. V. Kuleshov, and A. A. Pavlyuk, “Laser performance and thermal lensing in flashlamp pumped Np-cut and Ng-cut Nd:KGW crystals,” Appl. Phys. B 100, 477–483 (2010).
[CrossRef]

der Au, J. Aus

Diaz, F.

M. C. Pujol, X. Mateos, A. Aznar, X. Solans, S. Surinach, J. Massons, F. Diaz, and M. Aguilo, “Structural redetermination, thermal expansion and refractive indices of KLu(WO4)2,” J. Appl. Cryst. 39, 230–236 (2006).
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M. C. Pujol, M. A. Bursukova, F. Guell, X. Mateos, R. Sole, Jna. Gavalda, M. Aguilo, J. Massons, F. Diaz, P. Klopp, U. Griebner, and V. Petrov, “Growth, optical characterization, and laser operation of a stoichiometric crystal KYb(WO4)2,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 165121 (2002).
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S. Vatnik, M. C. Pujol, J. J. Carvajal, X. Mateos, M. Aguiló, F. Díaz, and V. Petrov, “Thermo-optic coefficients of monoclinic Klu(WO4)2,” Appl. Phys. B 95, 653–656 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ò. Silvestre, J. Grau, M. C. Pujol, J. Massons, M. Aguiló, F. Díaz, M. T. Borowiec, A. Szewczyk, M. U. Gutowska, M. Massot, A. Salazar, and V. Petrov, “Thermal properties of monoclinic KLu(WO4)2 as a promising solid state laser host,” Opt. Express 16, 5022–5034 (2008).
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N. V. Kuleshov, A. A. Lagatsky, V. G. Sherbitsky, V. P. Mikhailov, E. Heumann, T. Jensen, A. Diening, and G. Huber, “CW laser performance of Yb and Er, Yb doped tungstates,” Appl. Phys. B 64, 409–413 (1997).
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Druon, F.

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A. A. Kaminskii, J. B. Gruber, S. N. Bagaev, K. Ueda, U. Hommerich, J. T. Seo, D. Temple, B. Zandi, A. A. Kornienko, E. B. Dunina, A. A. Pavlyuk, R. F. Klevtsova, and F. A. Kuznetsov, “Optical spectroscopy and visible stimulated emission of Dy3+ ions in monoclinic α-KY(WO4)2 and α-KGd(WO4)2 crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 125108(2002).
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Fei, S.

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Filippov, V. V.

V. V. Filippov, N. V. Kuleshov, and I. T. Bodnar, “Negative thermo-optical coefficients and athermal directions in monoclinic KGd(WO4)2 and KY(WO4)2 laser host crystals in the visible region,” Appl. Phys. B 87, 611–614 (2007).
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S. Chenais, F. Druon, S. Forget, F. Balembois, and P. Georges, “On thermal effects in solid-state lasers: the case of ytterbium-doped materials,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 30, 89–153(2006).
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A. A. Demidovich, A. P. Shkadarevich, M. B. Danailov, P. Apai, T. Gasmi, V. P. Gribkovskii, A. N. Kuzmin, G. I. Ryabtsev, and L. E. Batay, “Comparison of cw laser performance of Nd:KGW, Nd:YAG, Nd:BEL, and Nd:YVO4 under laser diode pumping,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 11–15 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gavalda, Jna.

M. C. Pujol, M. A. Bursukova, F. Guell, X. Mateos, R. Sole, Jna. Gavalda, M. Aguilo, J. Massons, F. Diaz, P. Klopp, U. Griebner, and V. Petrov, “Growth, optical characterization, and laser operation of a stoichiometric crystal KYb(WO4)2,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 165121 (2002).
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M. C. Pujol, M. Solé, J. Massons, Jna. Gavaldà, X. Solans, C. Zaldo, F. Díaz, and M. Aguiló, “Structural study of monoclinic KGd(WO4)2 and effects of lanthanide substitution,” J. Appl. Crystallogr. 34, 1–6 (2001).
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S. Chenais, F. Druon, S. Forget, F. Balembois, and P. Georges, “On thermal effects in solid-state lasers: the case of ytterbium-doped materials,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 30, 89–153(2006).
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Gong, X.

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Granados, E.

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M. C. Pujol, M. A. Bursukova, F. Guell, X. Mateos, R. Sole, Jna. Gavalda, M. Aguilo, J. Massons, F. Diaz, P. Klopp, U. Griebner, and V. Petrov, “Growth, optical characterization, and laser operation of a stoichiometric crystal KYb(WO4)2,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 165121 (2002).
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A. A. Kaminskii, J. B. Gruber, S. N. Bagaev, K. Ueda, U. Hommerich, J. T. Seo, D. Temple, B. Zandi, A. A. Kornienko, E. B. Dunina, A. A. Pavlyuk, R. F. Klevtsova, and F. A. Kuznetsov, “Optical spectroscopy and visible stimulated emission of Dy3+ ions in monoclinic α-KY(WO4)2 and α-KGd(WO4)2 crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 125108(2002).
[CrossRef]

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M. C. Pujol, M. A. Bursukova, F. Guell, X. Mateos, R. Sole, Jna. Gavalda, M. Aguilo, J. Massons, F. Diaz, P. Klopp, U. Griebner, and V. Petrov, “Growth, optical characterization, and laser operation of a stoichiometric crystal KYb(WO4)2,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 165121 (2002).
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Gutowska, M. U.

Harder, C.

Heumann, E.

N. V. Kuleshov, A. A. Lagatsky, V. G. Sherbitsky, V. P. Mikhailov, E. Heumann, T. Jensen, A. Diening, and G. Huber, “CW laser performance of Yb and Er, Yb doped tungstates,” Appl. Phys. B 64, 409–413 (1997).
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Huang, Y.

Y. Chen, Y. Lin, X. Gong, Q. Tan, J. Zhuang, Z. Luo, and Y. Huang, “Polarized spectroscopic properties of Nd3+-doped KGd(WO4)2 single crystal,” J. Lumin. 126, 653–660 (2007).
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N. V. Kuleshov, A. A. Lagatsky, V. G. Sherbitsky, V. P. Mikhailov, E. Heumann, T. Jensen, A. Diening, and G. Huber, “CW laser performance of Yb and Er, Yb doped tungstates,” Appl. Phys. B 64, 409–413 (1997).
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Ivakin, E.

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S. R. Bowman, N. W. Jenkins, S. P. O’Connor, and B. J. Feldman, “Sensitivity and stability of a radiation-balanced laser system,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 1339–1348 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jensen, T.

N. V. Kuleshov, A. A. Lagatsky, V. G. Sherbitsky, V. P. Mikhailov, E. Heumann, T. Jensen, A. Diening, and G. Huber, “CW laser performance of Yb and Er, Yb doped tungstates,” Appl. Phys. B 64, 409–413 (1997).
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A. A. Kaminskii, A. F. Konstantinova, V. P. Orekhova, A. V. Butashin, R. F. Klevtsova, and A. A. Pavlyuk, “Optical and nonlinear laser properties of the χ(3)-active monoclinic α-KY(WO4)2 crystals,” Crystallogr. Rep. (Transl. Kristallografiya) 46, 665–672 (2001).
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Kharchenko, L. Y.

A. A. Pavlyuk, Y. V. Vasiliev, L. Y. Kharchenko, and F. A. Kuznetsov, Proceedings of the APSAM-92, Asia Pacific Society for Advanced Materials, Shanghai, 26–29 April 1992 (1993), pp. 164–171.

Kiefer, W.

Klevtsova, R. F.

A. A. Kaminskii, J. B. Gruber, S. N. Bagaev, K. Ueda, U. Hommerich, J. T. Seo, D. Temple, B. Zandi, A. A. Kornienko, E. B. Dunina, A. A. Pavlyuk, R. F. Klevtsova, and F. A. Kuznetsov, “Optical spectroscopy and visible stimulated emission of Dy3+ ions in monoclinic α-KY(WO4)2 and α-KGd(WO4)2 crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 125108(2002).
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A. A. Kaminskii, A. F. Konstantinova, V. P. Orekhova, A. V. Butashin, R. F. Klevtsova, and A. A. Pavlyuk, “Optical and nonlinear laser properties of the χ(3)-active monoclinic α-KY(WO4)2 crystals,” Crystallogr. Rep. (Transl. Kristallografiya) 46, 665–672 (2001).
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M. C. Pujol, M. A. Bursukova, F. Guell, X. Mateos, R. Sole, Jna. Gavalda, M. Aguilo, J. Massons, F. Diaz, P. Klopp, U. Griebner, and V. Petrov, “Growth, optical characterization, and laser operation of a stoichiometric crystal KYb(WO4)2,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 165121 (2002).
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A. A. Kaminskii, A. F. Konstantinova, V. P. Orekhova, A. V. Butashin, R. F. Klevtsova, and A. A. Pavlyuk, “Optical and nonlinear laser properties of the χ(3)-active monoclinic α-KY(WO4)2 crystals,” Crystallogr. Rep. (Transl. Kristallografiya) 46, 665–672 (2001).
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Konushkin, V. A.

D. S. Chunaev, T. T. Basiev, V. A. Konushkin, A. G. Papashvili, and A. Ya. Karasik, “Synchronously pumped intracavity YLF-Nd-KGW picosecond Raman lasers and LiF:F2− amplifiers,” Laser Phys. Lett. 5, 589–592 (2008).
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Kornienko, A. A.

A. A. Kaminskii, J. B. Gruber, S. N. Bagaev, K. Ueda, U. Hommerich, J. T. Seo, D. Temple, B. Zandi, A. A. Kornienko, E. B. Dunina, A. A. Pavlyuk, R. F. Klevtsova, and F. A. Kuznetsov, “Optical spectroscopy and visible stimulated emission of Dy3+ ions in monoclinic α-KY(WO4)2 and α-KGd(WO4)2 crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 125108(2002).
[CrossRef]

Krainer, L.

Kuleshov, N. V.

P. A. Loiko, K. V. Yumashev, I. A. Denisov, N. V. Kuleshov, and A. A. Pavlyuk, “Laser performance and thermal lensing in flashlamp pumped Np-cut and Ng-cut Nd:KGW crystals,” Appl. Phys. B 100, 477–483 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Loiko, K. V. Yumashev, N. V. Kuleshov, V. G. Savitski, S. Calvez, D. Burns, and A. A. Pavlyuk, “Thermal lens study in diode pumped Ng- and Np-cut Nd:KGd(WO4)2 laser crystals,” Opt. Express 17, 23536–23543 (2009).
[CrossRef]

V. V. Filippov, N. V. Kuleshov, and I. T. Bodnar, “Negative thermo-optical coefficients and athermal directions in monoclinic KGd(WO4)2 and KY(WO4)2 laser host crystals in the visible region,” Appl. Phys. B 87, 611–614 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. V. Yumashev, V. G. Savitski, N. V. Kuleshov, A. A. Pavlyuk, D. D. Molotkov, and A. L. Protasenya, “Laser performance of Ng-cut flash-lamp pumped Nd:KGW at high repetition rates,” Appl. Phys. B 89, 39–43 (2007).
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F. Bruner, G. I. Spushler, J. Aus der Au, L. Krainer, F. Morier-Genoud, R. Paschotta, N. Lichtenstein, S. Weiss, C. Harder, A. A. Lagatsky, A. Abdolvand, N. V. Kuleshov, and U. Keller, “Diode-pumped femtosecond Yb:KGd(WO4)2 laser with 1.1W average power,” Opt. Lett. 25, 1119–1121 (2000).
[CrossRef]

N. V. Kuleshov, A. A. Lagatsky, V. G. Sherbitsky, V. P. Mikhailov, E. Heumann, T. Jensen, A. Diening, and G. Huber, “CW laser performance of Yb and Er, Yb doped tungstates,” Appl. Phys. B 64, 409–413 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Loiko, K. V. Yumashev, N. V. Kuleshov, and A. A. Pavlyuk, “Thermooptic coefficients of Nd-doped anisotropic KGd(WO4)2, YVO4 and GdVO4 laser crystals,” Appl. Phys. B (published online 21 July 2010).
[CrossRef]

Kuzmin, A. N.

A. A. Demidovich, A. P. Shkadarevich, M. B. Danailov, P. Apai, T. Gasmi, V. P. Gribkovskii, A. N. Kuzmin, G. I. Ryabtsev, and L. E. Batay, “Comparison of cw laser performance of Nd:KGW, Nd:YAG, Nd:BEL, and Nd:YVO4 under laser diode pumping,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 11–15 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kuznetsov, F. A.

A. A. Kaminskii, J. B. Gruber, S. N. Bagaev, K. Ueda, U. Hommerich, J. T. Seo, D. Temple, B. Zandi, A. A. Kornienko, E. B. Dunina, A. A. Pavlyuk, R. F. Klevtsova, and F. A. Kuznetsov, “Optical spectroscopy and visible stimulated emission of Dy3+ ions in monoclinic α-KY(WO4)2 and α-KGd(WO4)2 crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 125108(2002).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Pavlyuk, Y. V. Vasiliev, L. Y. Kharchenko, and F. A. Kuznetsov, Proceedings of the APSAM-92, Asia Pacific Society for Advanced Materials, Shanghai, 26–29 April 1992 (1993), pp. 164–171.

Lagatsky, A. A.

F. Bruner, G. I. Spushler, J. Aus der Au, L. Krainer, F. Morier-Genoud, R. Paschotta, N. Lichtenstein, S. Weiss, C. Harder, A. A. Lagatsky, A. Abdolvand, N. V. Kuleshov, and U. Keller, “Diode-pumped femtosecond Yb:KGd(WO4)2 laser with 1.1W average power,” Opt. Lett. 25, 1119–1121 (2000).
[CrossRef]

N. V. Kuleshov, A. A. Lagatsky, V. G. Sherbitsky, V. P. Mikhailov, E. Heumann, T. Jensen, A. Diening, and G. Huber, “CW laser performance of Yb and Er, Yb doped tungstates,” Appl. Phys. B 64, 409–413 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Li, L.

M. Liu, J. Liu, L. Li, and S. S. Liu, “Experimental study on pulse characteristics of diode-pumped Q-switched Nd:KGW laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 6, 437–440 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Li, S.

Lichtenstein, N.

Lin, Y.

Y. Chen, Y. Lin, X. Gong, Q. Tan, J. Zhuang, Z. Luo, and Y. Huang, “Polarized spectroscopic properties of Nd3+-doped KGd(WO4)2 single crystal,” J. Lumin. 126, 653–660 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lisinetskii, V. A.

Liu, J.

M. Liu, J. Liu, L. Li, and S. S. Liu, “Experimental study on pulse characteristics of diode-pumped Q-switched Nd:KGW laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 6, 437–440 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liu, M.

M. Liu, J. Liu, L. Li, and S. S. Liu, “Experimental study on pulse characteristics of diode-pumped Q-switched Nd:KGW laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 6, 437–440 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liu, S. S.

M. Liu, J. Liu, L. Li, and S. S. Liu, “Experimental study on pulse characteristics of diode-pumped Q-switched Nd:KGW laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 6, 437–440 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Loiko, P. A.

P. A. Loiko, K. V. Yumashev, I. A. Denisov, N. V. Kuleshov, and A. A. Pavlyuk, “Laser performance and thermal lensing in flashlamp pumped Np-cut and Ng-cut Nd:KGW crystals,” Appl. Phys. B 100, 477–483 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Loiko, K. V. Yumashev, N. V. Kuleshov, V. G. Savitski, S. Calvez, D. Burns, and A. A. Pavlyuk, “Thermal lens study in diode pumped Ng- and Np-cut Nd:KGd(WO4)2 laser crystals,” Opt. Express 17, 23536–23543 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Loiko, K. V. Yumashev, N. V. Kuleshov, and A. A. Pavlyuk, “Thermooptic coefficients of Nd-doped anisotropic KGd(WO4)2, YVO4 and GdVO4 laser crystals,” Appl. Phys. B (published online 21 July 2010).
[CrossRef]

Luo, Z.

Y. Chen, Y. Lin, X. Gong, Q. Tan, J. Zhuang, Z. Luo, and Y. Huang, “Polarized spectroscopic properties of Nd3+-doped KGd(WO4)2 single crystal,” J. Lumin. 126, 653–660 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Major, A.

Massons, J.

Ò. Silvestre, J. Grau, M. C. Pujol, J. Massons, M. Aguiló, F. Díaz, M. T. Borowiec, A. Szewczyk, M. U. Gutowska, M. Massot, A. Salazar, and V. Petrov, “Thermal properties of monoclinic KLu(WO4)2 as a promising solid state laser host,” Opt. Express 16, 5022–5034 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. C. Pujol, X. Mateos, A. Aznar, X. Solans, S. Surinach, J. Massons, F. Diaz, and M. Aguilo, “Structural redetermination, thermal expansion and refractive indices of KLu(WO4)2,” J. Appl. Cryst. 39, 230–236 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Pujol, M. A. Bursukova, F. Guell, X. Mateos, R. Sole, Jna. Gavalda, M. Aguilo, J. Massons, F. Diaz, P. Klopp, U. Griebner, and V. Petrov, “Growth, optical characterization, and laser operation of a stoichiometric crystal KYb(WO4)2,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 165121 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Pujol, M. Solé, J. Massons, Jna. Gavaldà, X. Solans, C. Zaldo, F. Díaz, and M. Aguiló, “Structural study of monoclinic KGd(WO4)2 and effects of lanthanide substitution,” J. Appl. Crystallogr. 34, 1–6 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Massot, M.

Mateos, X.

S. Vatnik, M. C. Pujol, J. J. Carvajal, X. Mateos, M. Aguiló, F. Díaz, and V. Petrov, “Thermo-optic coefficients of monoclinic Klu(WO4)2,” Appl. Phys. B 95, 653–656 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Pujol, X. Mateos, A. Aznar, X. Solans, S. Surinach, J. Massons, F. Diaz, and M. Aguilo, “Structural redetermination, thermal expansion and refractive indices of KLu(WO4)2,” J. Appl. Cryst. 39, 230–236 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Pujol, M. A. Bursukova, F. Guell, X. Mateos, R. Sole, Jna. Gavalda, M. Aguilo, J. Massons, F. Diaz, P. Klopp, U. Griebner, and V. Petrov, “Growth, optical characterization, and laser operation of a stoichiometric crystal KYb(WO4)2,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 165121 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Meyrath, T. P.

Mikhailov, V. P.

N. V. Kuleshov, A. A. Lagatsky, V. G. Sherbitsky, V. P. Mikhailov, E. Heumann, T. Jensen, A. Diening, and G. Huber, “CW laser performance of Yb and Er, Yb doped tungstates,” Appl. Phys. B 64, 409–413 (1997).
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Mochalov, I. V.

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K. V. Yumashev, V. G. Savitski, N. V. Kuleshov, A. A. Pavlyuk, D. D. Molotkov, and A. L. Protasenya, “Laser performance of Ng-cut flash-lamp pumped Nd:KGW at high repetition rates,” Appl. Phys. B 89, 39–43 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Moncorge, R.

Morier-Genoud, F.

Mungan, C. E.

S. R. Bowman and C. E. Mungan, “New materials for optical cooling,” Appl. Phys B 71, 807–811 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nikolov, V.

M. C. Pujol, M. Rico, C. Zaldo, M. Sole, V. Nikolov, X. Solans, and Dıaz F. M. Aguilo, “Crystalline structure and optical spectroscopy of Er3+-doped KGd(WO4)2 single crystals,” Appl. Phys. B 68, 187–197 (1999).
[CrossRef]

O’Connor, S. P.

S. Biswal, S. P. O’Connor, and S. R. Bowman, “Thermo-optical parameters measured in ytterbium-doped potassium gadolinium tungstate,” Appl. Opt. 44, 3093–3097 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. R. Bowman, N. W. Jenkins, S. P. O’Connor, and B. J. Feldman, “Sensitivity and stability of a radiation-balanced laser system,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 1339–1348 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Oehler, A. E. H.

Orekhova, V. P.

A. A. Kaminskii, A. F. Konstantinova, V. P. Orekhova, A. V. Butashin, R. F. Klevtsova, and A. A. Pavlyuk, “Optical and nonlinear laser properties of the χ(3)-active monoclinic α-KY(WO4)2 crystals,” Crystallogr. Rep. (Transl. Kristallografiya) 46, 665–672 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Orlovich, V. A.

V. I. Dashkevich, V. A. Orlovich, and A. P. Shkadarevich, “Dynamics of generation of a pulsed Nd3+:KGd(WO4)2/V3+:YAG laser emitting in the self-frequency Raman conversion mode at λ=1.538μm,” J. Appl. Spectrosc. 77, 349–356 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Demidovich, A. S. Grabtchikov, V. A. Lisinetskii, V. N. Burakevich, V. A. Orlovich, and W. Kiefer, “Continuous-wave Raman generation in a diode-pumped Nd3+:KGd(WO4)2laser,” Opt. Lett. 30, 1701–1703 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Papashvili, A. G.

D. S. Chunaev, T. T. Basiev, V. A. Konushkin, A. G. Papashvili, and A. Ya. Karasik, “Synchronously pumped intracavity YLF-Nd-KGW picosecond Raman lasers and LiF:F2− amplifiers,” Laser Phys. Lett. 5, 589–592 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Paschke, K.

Paschotta, R.

Pask, H. M.

Pavlyuk, A. A.

P. A. Loiko, K. V. Yumashev, I. A. Denisov, N. V. Kuleshov, and A. A. Pavlyuk, “Laser performance and thermal lensing in flashlamp pumped Np-cut and Ng-cut Nd:KGW crystals,” Appl. Phys. B 100, 477–483 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Loiko, K. V. Yumashev, N. V. Kuleshov, V. G. Savitski, S. Calvez, D. Burns, and A. A. Pavlyuk, “Thermal lens study in diode pumped Ng- and Np-cut Nd:KGd(WO4)2 laser crystals,” Opt. Express 17, 23536–23543 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. V. Yumashev, V. G. Savitski, N. V. Kuleshov, A. A. Pavlyuk, D. D. Molotkov, and A. L. Protasenya, “Laser performance of Ng-cut flash-lamp pumped Nd:KGW at high repetition rates,” Appl. Phys. B 89, 39–43 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Kaminskii, J. B. Gruber, S. N. Bagaev, K. Ueda, U. Hommerich, J. T. Seo, D. Temple, B. Zandi, A. A. Kornienko, E. B. Dunina, A. A. Pavlyuk, R. F. Klevtsova, and F. A. Kuznetsov, “Optical spectroscopy and visible stimulated emission of Dy3+ ions in monoclinic α-KY(WO4)2 and α-KGd(WO4)2 crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 125108(2002).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Kaminskii, A. F. Konstantinova, V. P. Orekhova, A. V. Butashin, R. F. Klevtsova, and A. A. Pavlyuk, “Optical and nonlinear laser properties of the χ(3)-active monoclinic α-KY(WO4)2 crystals,” Crystallogr. Rep. (Transl. Kristallografiya) 46, 665–672 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Pavlyuk, Y. V. Vasiliev, L. Y. Kharchenko, and F. A. Kuznetsov, Proceedings of the APSAM-92, Asia Pacific Society for Advanced Materials, Shanghai, 26–29 April 1992 (1993), pp. 164–171.

P. A. Loiko, K. V. Yumashev, N. V. Kuleshov, and A. A. Pavlyuk, “Thermooptic coefficients of Nd-doped anisotropic KGd(WO4)2, YVO4 and GdVO4 laser crystals,” Appl. Phys. B (published online 21 July 2010).
[CrossRef]

Pekarek, S.

Petrov, V.

S. Vatnik, M. C. Pujol, J. J. Carvajal, X. Mateos, M. Aguiló, F. Díaz, and V. Petrov, “Thermo-optic coefficients of monoclinic Klu(WO4)2,” Appl. Phys. B 95, 653–656 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ò. Silvestre, J. Grau, M. C. Pujol, J. Massons, M. Aguiló, F. Díaz, M. T. Borowiec, A. Szewczyk, M. U. Gutowska, M. Massot, A. Salazar, and V. Petrov, “Thermal properties of monoclinic KLu(WO4)2 as a promising solid state laser host,” Opt. Express 16, 5022–5034 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. C. Pujol, M. A. Bursukova, F. Guell, X. Mateos, R. Sole, Jna. Gavalda, M. Aguilo, J. Massons, F. Diaz, P. Klopp, U. Griebner, and V. Petrov, “Growth, optical characterization, and laser operation of a stoichiometric crystal KYb(WO4)2,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 165121 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Protasenya, A. L.

K. V. Yumashev, V. G. Savitski, N. V. Kuleshov, A. A. Pavlyuk, D. D. Molotkov, and A. L. Protasenya, “Laser performance of Ng-cut flash-lamp pumped Nd:KGW at high repetition rates,” Appl. Phys. B 89, 39–43 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pujol, M. C.

S. Vatnik, M. C. Pujol, J. J. Carvajal, X. Mateos, M. Aguiló, F. Díaz, and V. Petrov, “Thermo-optic coefficients of monoclinic Klu(WO4)2,” Appl. Phys. B 95, 653–656 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ò. Silvestre, J. Grau, M. C. Pujol, J. Massons, M. Aguiló, F. Díaz, M. T. Borowiec, A. Szewczyk, M. U. Gutowska, M. Massot, A. Salazar, and V. Petrov, “Thermal properties of monoclinic KLu(WO4)2 as a promising solid state laser host,” Opt. Express 16, 5022–5034 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. C. Pujol, X. Mateos, A. Aznar, X. Solans, S. Surinach, J. Massons, F. Diaz, and M. Aguilo, “Structural redetermination, thermal expansion and refractive indices of KLu(WO4)2,” J. Appl. Cryst. 39, 230–236 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Pujol, M. A. Bursukova, F. Guell, X. Mateos, R. Sole, Jna. Gavalda, M. Aguilo, J. Massons, F. Diaz, P. Klopp, U. Griebner, and V. Petrov, “Growth, optical characterization, and laser operation of a stoichiometric crystal KYb(WO4)2,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 165121 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Pujol, M. Solé, J. Massons, Jna. Gavaldà, X. Solans, C. Zaldo, F. Díaz, and M. Aguiló, “Structural study of monoclinic KGd(WO4)2 and effects of lanthanide substitution,” J. Appl. Crystallogr. 34, 1–6 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Pujol, M. Rico, C. Zaldo, M. Sole, V. Nikolov, X. Solans, and Dıaz F. M. Aguilo, “Crystalline structure and optical spectroscopy of Er3+-doped KGd(WO4)2 single crystals,” Appl. Phys. B 68, 187–197 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rico, M.

M. C. Pujol, M. Rico, C. Zaldo, M. Sole, V. Nikolov, X. Solans, and Dıaz F. M. Aguilo, “Crystalline structure and optical spectroscopy of Er3+-doped KGd(WO4)2 single crystals,” Appl. Phys. B 68, 187–197 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rongbing, S.

Ryabtsev, G. I.

A. A. Demidovich, A. P. Shkadarevich, M. B. Danailov, P. Apai, T. Gasmi, V. P. Gribkovskii, A. N. Kuzmin, G. I. Ryabtsev, and L. E. Batay, “Comparison of cw laser performance of Nd:KGW, Nd:YAG, Nd:BEL, and Nd:YVO4 under laser diode pumping,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 11–15 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Salazar, A.

Sandkuijl, D.

Savitski, V. G.

P. A. Loiko, K. V. Yumashev, N. V. Kuleshov, V. G. Savitski, S. Calvez, D. Burns, and A. A. Pavlyuk, “Thermal lens study in diode pumped Ng- and Np-cut Nd:KGd(WO4)2 laser crystals,” Opt. Express 17, 23536–23543 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. V. Yumashev, V. G. Savitski, N. V. Kuleshov, A. A. Pavlyuk, D. D. Molotkov, and A. L. Protasenya, “Laser performance of Ng-cut flash-lamp pumped Nd:KGW at high repetition rates,” Appl. Phys. B 89, 39–43 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schroeder, W. A.

Seo, J. T.

A. A. Kaminskii, J. B. Gruber, S. N. Bagaev, K. Ueda, U. Hommerich, J. T. Seo, D. Temple, B. Zandi, A. A. Kornienko, E. B. Dunina, A. A. Pavlyuk, R. F. Klevtsova, and F. A. Kuznetsov, “Optical spectroscopy and visible stimulated emission of Dy3+ ions in monoclinic α-KY(WO4)2 and α-KGd(WO4)2 crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 125108(2002).
[CrossRef]

Sherbitsky, V. G.

N. V. Kuleshov, A. A. Lagatsky, V. G. Sherbitsky, V. P. Mikhailov, E. Heumann, T. Jensen, A. Diening, and G. Huber, “CW laser performance of Yb and Er, Yb doped tungstates,” Appl. Phys. B 64, 409–413 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Shkadarevich, A. P.

V. I. Dashkevich, V. A. Orlovich, and A. P. Shkadarevich, “Dynamics of generation of a pulsed Nd3+:KGd(WO4)2/V3+:YAG laser emitting in the self-frequency Raman conversion mode at λ=1.538μm,” J. Appl. Spectrosc. 77, 349–356 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Demidovich, A. P. Shkadarevich, M. B. Danailov, P. Apai, T. Gasmi, V. P. Gribkovskii, A. N. Kuzmin, G. I. Ryabtsev, and L. E. Batay, “Comparison of cw laser performance of Nd:KGW, Nd:YAG, Nd:BEL, and Nd:YVO4 under laser diode pumping,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 11–15 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Silvestre, Ò.

Solans, X.

M. C. Pujol, X. Mateos, A. Aznar, X. Solans, S. Surinach, J. Massons, F. Diaz, and M. Aguilo, “Structural redetermination, thermal expansion and refractive indices of KLu(WO4)2,” J. Appl. Cryst. 39, 230–236 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Pujol, M. Solé, J. Massons, Jna. Gavaldà, X. Solans, C. Zaldo, F. Díaz, and M. Aguiló, “Structural study of monoclinic KGd(WO4)2 and effects of lanthanide substitution,” J. Appl. Crystallogr. 34, 1–6 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Pujol, M. Rico, C. Zaldo, M. Sole, V. Nikolov, X. Solans, and Dıaz F. M. Aguilo, “Crystalline structure and optical spectroscopy of Er3+-doped KGd(WO4)2 single crystals,” Appl. Phys. B 68, 187–197 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sole, M.

M. C. Pujol, M. Rico, C. Zaldo, M. Sole, V. Nikolov, X. Solans, and Dıaz F. M. Aguilo, “Crystalline structure and optical spectroscopy of Er3+-doped KGd(WO4)2 single crystals,” Appl. Phys. B 68, 187–197 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sole, R.

M. C. Pujol, M. A. Bursukova, F. Guell, X. Mateos, R. Sole, Jna. Gavalda, M. Aguilo, J. Massons, F. Diaz, P. Klopp, U. Griebner, and V. Petrov, “Growth, optical characterization, and laser operation of a stoichiometric crystal KYb(WO4)2,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 165121 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Solé, M.

M. C. Pujol, M. Solé, J. Massons, Jna. Gavaldà, X. Solans, C. Zaldo, F. Díaz, and M. Aguiló, “Structural study of monoclinic KGd(WO4)2 and effects of lanthanide substitution,” J. Appl. Crystallogr. 34, 1–6 (2001).
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Spence, D. J.

Spushler, G. I.

Stumpf, M. C.

Sudmeyer, T.

Surinach, S.

M. C. Pujol, X. Mateos, A. Aznar, X. Solans, S. Surinach, J. Massons, F. Diaz, and M. Aguilo, “Structural redetermination, thermal expansion and refractive indices of KLu(WO4)2,” J. Appl. Cryst. 39, 230–236 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Szewczyk, A.

Tan, J.

M. Zhou, X. Wang, and J. Tan, “Feasibility analysis of radiation balanced laser,” Opt. Commun. 282, 1841–1846 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tan, Q.

Y. Chen, Y. Lin, X. Gong, Q. Tan, J. Zhuang, Z. Luo, and Y. Huang, “Polarized spectroscopic properties of Nd3+-doped KGd(WO4)2 single crystal,” J. Lumin. 126, 653–660 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Temple, D.

A. A. Kaminskii, J. B. Gruber, S. N. Bagaev, K. Ueda, U. Hommerich, J. T. Seo, D. Temple, B. Zandi, A. A. Kornienko, E. B. Dunina, A. A. Pavlyuk, R. F. Klevtsova, and F. A. Kuznetsov, “Optical spectroscopy and visible stimulated emission of Dy3+ ions in monoclinic α-KY(WO4)2 and α-KGd(WO4)2 crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 125108(2002).
[CrossRef]

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A. A. Kaminskii, J. B. Gruber, S. N. Bagaev, K. Ueda, U. Hommerich, J. T. Seo, D. Temple, B. Zandi, A. A. Kornienko, E. B. Dunina, A. A. Pavlyuk, R. F. Klevtsova, and F. A. Kuznetsov, “Optical spectroscopy and visible stimulated emission of Dy3+ ions in monoclinic α-KY(WO4)2 and α-KGd(WO4)2 crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 125108(2002).
[CrossRef]

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A. A. Pavlyuk, Y. V. Vasiliev, L. Y. Kharchenko, and F. A. Kuznetsov, Proceedings of the APSAM-92, Asia Pacific Society for Advanced Materials, Shanghai, 26–29 April 1992 (1993), pp. 164–171.

Vatnik, S.

S. Vatnik, M. C. Pujol, J. J. Carvajal, X. Mateos, M. Aguiló, F. Díaz, and V. Petrov, “Thermo-optic coefficients of monoclinic Klu(WO4)2,” Appl. Phys. B 95, 653–656 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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M. Zhou, X. Wang, and J. Tan, “Feasibility analysis of radiation balanced laser,” Opt. Commun. 282, 1841–1846 (2009).
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M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, 1993).

Yumashev, K. V.

P. A. Loiko, K. V. Yumashev, I. A. Denisov, N. V. Kuleshov, and A. A. Pavlyuk, “Laser performance and thermal lensing in flashlamp pumped Np-cut and Ng-cut Nd:KGW crystals,” Appl. Phys. B 100, 477–483 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Loiko, K. V. Yumashev, N. V. Kuleshov, V. G. Savitski, S. Calvez, D. Burns, and A. A. Pavlyuk, “Thermal lens study in diode pumped Ng- and Np-cut Nd:KGd(WO4)2 laser crystals,” Opt. Express 17, 23536–23543 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. V. Yumashev, V. G. Savitski, N. V. Kuleshov, A. A. Pavlyuk, D. D. Molotkov, and A. L. Protasenya, “Laser performance of Ng-cut flash-lamp pumped Nd:KGW at high repetition rates,” Appl. Phys. B 89, 39–43 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Loiko, K. V. Yumashev, N. V. Kuleshov, and A. A. Pavlyuk, “Thermooptic coefficients of Nd-doped anisotropic KGd(WO4)2, YVO4 and GdVO4 laser crystals,” Appl. Phys. B (published online 21 July 2010).
[CrossRef]

Zaldo, C.

M. C. Pujol, M. Solé, J. Massons, Jna. Gavaldà, X. Solans, C. Zaldo, F. Díaz, and M. Aguiló, “Structural study of monoclinic KGd(WO4)2 and effects of lanthanide substitution,” J. Appl. Crystallogr. 34, 1–6 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Pujol, M. Rico, C. Zaldo, M. Sole, V. Nikolov, X. Solans, and Dıaz F. M. Aguilo, “Crystalline structure and optical spectroscopy of Er3+-doped KGd(WO4)2 single crystals,” Appl. Phys. B 68, 187–197 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zandi, B.

A. A. Kaminskii, J. B. Gruber, S. N. Bagaev, K. Ueda, U. Hommerich, J. T. Seo, D. Temple, B. Zandi, A. A. Kornienko, E. B. Dunina, A. A. Pavlyuk, R. F. Klevtsova, and F. A. Kuznetsov, “Optical spectroscopy and visible stimulated emission of Dy3+ ions in monoclinic α-KY(WO4)2 and α-KGd(WO4)2 crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 125108(2002).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, M.

M. Zhou, X. Wang, and J. Tan, “Feasibility analysis of radiation balanced laser,” Opt. Commun. 282, 1841–1846 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhuang, J.

Y. Chen, Y. Lin, X. Gong, Q. Tan, J. Zhuang, Z. Luo, and Y. Huang, “Polarized spectroscopic properties of Nd3+-doped KGd(WO4)2 single crystal,” J. Lumin. 126, 653–660 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zinoviev, A.

Zongzhi, L.

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys B (1)

S. R. Bowman and C. E. Mungan, “New materials for optical cooling,” Appl. Phys B 71, 807–811 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (7)

M. C. Pujol, M. Rico, C. Zaldo, M. Sole, V. Nikolov, X. Solans, and Dıaz F. M. Aguilo, “Crystalline structure and optical spectroscopy of Er3+-doped KGd(WO4)2 single crystals,” Appl. Phys. B 68, 187–197 (1999).
[CrossRef]

N. V. Kuleshov, A. A. Lagatsky, V. G. Sherbitsky, V. P. Mikhailov, E. Heumann, T. Jensen, A. Diening, and G. Huber, “CW laser performance of Yb and Er, Yb doped tungstates,” Appl. Phys. B 64, 409–413 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Demidovich, A. P. Shkadarevich, M. B. Danailov, P. Apai, T. Gasmi, V. P. Gribkovskii, A. N. Kuzmin, G. I. Ryabtsev, and L. E. Batay, “Comparison of cw laser performance of Nd:KGW, Nd:YAG, Nd:BEL, and Nd:YVO4 under laser diode pumping,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 11–15 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. V. Yumashev, V. G. Savitski, N. V. Kuleshov, A. A. Pavlyuk, D. D. Molotkov, and A. L. Protasenya, “Laser performance of Ng-cut flash-lamp pumped Nd:KGW at high repetition rates,” Appl. Phys. B 89, 39–43 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. V. Filippov, N. V. Kuleshov, and I. T. Bodnar, “Negative thermo-optical coefficients and athermal directions in monoclinic KGd(WO4)2 and KY(WO4)2 laser host crystals in the visible region,” Appl. Phys. B 87, 611–614 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Vatnik, M. C. Pujol, J. J. Carvajal, X. Mateos, M. Aguiló, F. Díaz, and V. Petrov, “Thermo-optic coefficients of monoclinic Klu(WO4)2,” Appl. Phys. B 95, 653–656 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Loiko, K. V. Yumashev, I. A. Denisov, N. V. Kuleshov, and A. A. Pavlyuk, “Laser performance and thermal lensing in flashlamp pumped Np-cut and Ng-cut Nd:KGW crystals,” Appl. Phys. B 100, 477–483 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Crystallogr. Rep. (Transl. Kristallografiya) (1)

A. A. Kaminskii, A. F. Konstantinova, V. P. Orekhova, A. V. Butashin, R. F. Klevtsova, and A. A. Pavlyuk, “Optical and nonlinear laser properties of the χ(3)-active monoclinic α-KY(WO4)2 crystals,” Crystallogr. Rep. (Transl. Kristallografiya) 46, 665–672 (2001).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

S. R. Bowman, N. W. Jenkins, S. P. O’Connor, and B. J. Feldman, “Sensitivity and stability of a radiation-balanced laser system,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 1339–1348 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Cryst. (1)

M. C. Pujol, X. Mateos, A. Aznar, X. Solans, S. Surinach, J. Massons, F. Diaz, and M. Aguilo, “Structural redetermination, thermal expansion and refractive indices of KLu(WO4)2,” J. Appl. Cryst. 39, 230–236 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Crystallogr. (1)

M. C. Pujol, M. Solé, J. Massons, Jna. Gavaldà, X. Solans, C. Zaldo, F. Díaz, and M. Aguiló, “Structural study of monoclinic KGd(WO4)2 and effects of lanthanide substitution,” J. Appl. Crystallogr. 34, 1–6 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Spectrosc. (1)

V. I. Dashkevich, V. A. Orlovich, and A. P. Shkadarevich, “Dynamics of generation of a pulsed Nd3+:KGd(WO4)2/V3+:YAG laser emitting in the self-frequency Raman conversion mode at λ=1.538μm,” J. Appl. Spectrosc. 77, 349–356 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Lumin. (1)

Y. Chen, Y. Lin, X. Gong, Q. Tan, J. Zhuang, Z. Luo, and Y. Huang, “Polarized spectroscopic properties of Nd3+-doped KGd(WO4)2 single crystal,” J. Lumin. 126, 653–660 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Laser Phys. Lett. (2)

D. S. Chunaev, T. T. Basiev, V. A. Konushkin, A. G. Papashvili, and A. Ya. Karasik, “Synchronously pumped intracavity YLF-Nd-KGW picosecond Raman lasers and LiF:F2− amplifiers,” Laser Phys. Lett. 5, 589–592 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Liu, J. Liu, L. Li, and S. S. Liu, “Experimental study on pulse characteristics of diode-pumped Q-switched Nd:KGW laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 6, 437–440 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

M. Zhou, X. Wang, and J. Tan, “Feasibility analysis of radiation balanced laser,” Opt. Commun. 282, 1841–1846 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

I. V. Mochalov, “Laser and nonlinear properties of the potassium gadolinium tungstate laser crystal KGd(WO4)2:Nd3+-(KGW:Nd),” Opt. Eng. 36, 1660–1669 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (9)

Ò. Silvestre, J. Grau, M. C. Pujol, J. Massons, M. Aguiló, F. Díaz, M. T. Borowiec, A. Szewczyk, M. U. Gutowska, M. Massot, A. Salazar, and V. Petrov, “Thermal properties of monoclinic KLu(WO4)2 as a promising solid state laser host,” Opt. Express 16, 5022–5034 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Hoos, S. Li, T. P. Meyrath, B. Braun, and H. Giessen, “Thermal lensing in an end-pumped Yb:KGW slab laser with high power single emitter diodes,” Opt. Express 16, 6041–6049(2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Berger, M. J. Greco, and W. A. Schroeder, “High-power, femtosecond, thermal-lens-shaped Yb:KGW oscillator,” Opt. Express 16, 8629–8640 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Granados, H. M. Pask, and D. J. Spence, “Synchronously pumped continuous-wave mode-locked yellow Raman laser at 559nm,” Opt. Express 17, 569–574 (2009).
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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup for the measurements of thermal coefficient of the optical path d n / d T + ( n 1 ) α T by the beam deflection method: solid line, beam path without thermal gradient in the crystal; dotted lines, with thermal gradient (for different signs of thermal coefficient of the optical path); k , beam propagation direction; E 1 ( E 2 ) , two different beam polarizations; L and H, crystal length and height, correspondingly; L scr , distance from the crystal face to the CCD camera; and F, cutoff filters.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Thermal lens optical power dependent on the average electrical pump power measured at probe beam wavelengths of 1.064 μm : a, b, N p -cut Nd:KGW and c, d, N g -cut Nd:KGW ( E probe , probe beam polarization). Directions A and B are the directions of the major and minor semiaxes of the probe beam elliptical cross section (Fig. 3). Points are the experimental data, and lines are the linear approximation. For comparison, the corresponding data at the wavelength of 632.8 nm from [35] are presented.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic of the probe beam mode distortion in the far field at high pump levels for both investigated N p - and N g -cut Nd:KGW laser rods with respect to the optical indicatrix axes N p , N m , and N g and the principal axes of the thermal expansion tensor ellipsoid X 1 and X 3 : solid blue circles, undisturbed mode profile; dashed red ellipses, elliptical probe beam cross sections; and A and B, major and minor semiaxes of the probe beam cross-section ellipses, respectively.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Graphic illustration of the athermal direction location in the Nd:KGW laser crystal at the wavelength of 1.064 μm : a, b, d n / d T + ( n 1 ) α T = 0 definition (so-called laser cavity configuration), a, light polarization E N p and b, E N m . c, d, d n / d T + n α T = 0 definition (so-called etalon configuration) c, light polarization E N g and d, E N m .

Tables (4)

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Table 1 Thermal Coefficients of the Optical Path d n / d T + ( n 1 ) α T [ 10 6 K 1 ] of Nd (3 at.%):KGW and KGW Crystals at the Wavelengths of 1.064 μm and 532 nm

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Table 2 Thermo-optic Coefficients d n / d T [ 10 6 K 1 ] of Nd (3 at.%):KGW and KGW Crystals at the Wavelengths of 1.064 μm , 632.8 nm (Adopted from [37]) and 532 nm

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Table 3 Thermal Lens Sensitivity Factors M [ 10 3 m 1 / W ] of the Studied Laser Rods and Thermal Lens Astigmatism Degree S [ 10 3 m 1 / W ] at the Probe Beam Wavelength of 1.064 μm a

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Table 4 Values of Thermo-Optic Coefficients d n / d T , Term Related with the Stress-Dependent Variation of the Refractive Index P stress , Term Related with the Crystal End Faces Bulging under Pumping Due to the Thermal Expansion Q dist , and Their Sum d n / d T + P stress + Q dist [ 10 6 K 1 ] for the Studied Flashlamp-Pumped N p - and N g -Cut Nd:KGW Laser Rods at the Light Wavelength of 1.064 μm a

Equations (2)

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d n d T + ( n 1 ) · α T = Δ x shift L · L scr · H Δ T h c .
M = d D TL d P pump = η h 2 K c · π r 0 2 · [ d n / d T + P stress + Q dist ] .

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