Abstract

We compare the filtering capabilities of two infrared fibers developed to achieve a high rejection ratio of the higher order modes in order to obtain compact modal filters devoted to stellar interferometry. Two types of double-clad fibers are studied: a fiber with a second thin absorbing cladding and a fiber with a second thick absorbing cladding closer to the fiber core; both are single mode around the CO2 band (10.6μm). We present the single-mode spectral domain and the nulling capabilities of both fibers for different fiber lengths, comparing simulations with experimental results. We show that the filtering capabilities are improved when the absorbing clad is closer to the fiber core, as the propagation distance needed to filter out these modes is shorter. Thus, to obtain high rejection ratios in compact devices, an absorbing cladding close to the core of the fiber is compulsory in order to suppress cladding modes that could eventually recouple into the waveguide. We present an empirical model that allows determining the minimum filter length, considering only one effective leaky mode with low attenuation, which considerably simplifies the theoretical studies.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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2009 (4)

M. Ollivier, O. Absil, F. Allard, J.-P. Berger, P. Bordé, F. Cassaing, B. Chazelas, A. Chelli, O. Chesneau, V. Coudé du Foresto, D. Defrère, P. Duchon, P. Gabor, J. Gay, E. Herwats, S. Jacquinod, P. Kern, P. Kervella, J.-M. Le Duigou, A. Léger, B. Lopez, F. Malbet, D. Mourard, D. Pelat, G. Perrin, Y. Rabbia, D. Rouan, J.-M. Reiss, G. Rousset, F. Selsis, P. Stee, and J. Surdej, “PEGASE, an infrared interferometer to study stellar environments and low mass companions around nearby stars,” Exp. Astron. 23, 403–434 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Dasgupta, N. G. R. Broderick, D. J. Richardson, T. Lewi, and A. Katzir, “Improved method for estimating the minimum length of modal filters fabricated for stellar interferometry,” Opt. Express 17, 1935–1946 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Lewi, A. Tsun, A. Katzir, J. Kaster, and F. Fuchs, “Silver halide single mode fiber for broadband middle infrared stellar interferometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 261105(2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Grille, G. Martin, L. Labadie, B. Arezki, P. Kern, T. Lewi, A. Tsun, and A. Katzir, “Single mode mid-infrared silver halide asymmetric flat waveguide obtained from crystal extrusion,” Opt. Express 17, 12516–12522 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

R. Grille, L. Labadie, P. Kern, G. Martin, and B. Arezki, “Characterization of silver halide fiber for modal filtering on mid-infrared: imaging, nulling and spectral transmission,” Proc. SPIE 7013, 70133Q (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Ksendzov, T. Lewi, O. P. Lay, S. R. Martin, R. O. Gappinger, P. R. Lawson, R. D. Peters, S. Shalem, A. Tsun, and A. Katzir, “Modal filtering for midinfrared nulling interferometry using single mode silver halide fibers,” Appl. Opt. 47, 5728–5735(2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

2006 (1)

2005 (1)

S. Shalem, A. Tsun, E. Rave, A. Milo, L. Nagli, and A. Katzir, “Silver halide single-mode fiber for the middle infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 091103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

O. Wallner, V. Artjuschenko, and R. Flatscher, “Development of silver-halide single-mode fibers for modal filtering in the mid-infrared,” Proc. SPIE 5491, 636–646 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

P. Leproux, V. Weber, I. Schanen-Duport, P. Haguenauer, V. Doya, F. Reynaud, and P. Kern, “Numerical simulations on spatial filtering efficiency with optical fibers and integrated optics components,” Proc. SPIE 4838, 1324–1333(2003).
[CrossRef]

W. C. Danchi, D. Deming, M. Kuchner, and S. Seager, “Detection of close-in extrasolar giant planets using the Fourier-Kelvin Stellar Interferometer,” Astrophys. J. Lett. 597, L57–L60 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

1998 (1)

C. Beichman, “Terrestrial Planet Finder: the search for life-bearing planets around other stars,” Proc. SPIE 3350, 719–723 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

A. Leger, J. M. Mariotti, B. Menesson, M. Ollivier, J. L. Puget, D. Rouan, and J. Schneider, “Could we search for primitive life on extrasolar planets in the near future?” Icarus 123, 249–255 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

T. Lang, L. Thévenaz, Z. B. Ren, and Ph. Robert, “Cut-off wavelength measurements of Ti:LiNbO3 channel waveguides,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 5, 1124–1130 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

1971 (1)

Absil, O.

M. Ollivier, O. Absil, F. Allard, J.-P. Berger, P. Bordé, F. Cassaing, B. Chazelas, A. Chelli, O. Chesneau, V. Coudé du Foresto, D. Defrère, P. Duchon, P. Gabor, J. Gay, E. Herwats, S. Jacquinod, P. Kern, P. Kervella, J.-M. Le Duigou, A. Léger, B. Lopez, F. Malbet, D. Mourard, D. Pelat, G. Perrin, Y. Rabbia, D. Rouan, J.-M. Reiss, G. Rousset, F. Selsis, P. Stee, and J. Surdej, “PEGASE, an infrared interferometer to study stellar environments and low mass companions around nearby stars,” Exp. Astron. 23, 403–434 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Allard, F.

M. Ollivier, O. Absil, F. Allard, J.-P. Berger, P. Bordé, F. Cassaing, B. Chazelas, A. Chelli, O. Chesneau, V. Coudé du Foresto, D. Defrère, P. Duchon, P. Gabor, J. Gay, E. Herwats, S. Jacquinod, P. Kern, P. Kervella, J.-M. Le Duigou, A. Léger, B. Lopez, F. Malbet, D. Mourard, D. Pelat, G. Perrin, Y. Rabbia, D. Rouan, J.-M. Reiss, G. Rousset, F. Selsis, P. Stee, and J. Surdej, “PEGASE, an infrared interferometer to study stellar environments and low mass companions around nearby stars,” Exp. Astron. 23, 403–434 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Arezki, B.

R. Grille, G. Martin, L. Labadie, B. Arezki, P. Kern, T. Lewi, A. Tsun, and A. Katzir, “Single mode mid-infrared silver halide asymmetric flat waveguide obtained from crystal extrusion,” Opt. Express 17, 12516–12522 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Grille, L. Labadie, P. Kern, G. Martin, and B. Arezki, “Characterization of silver halide fiber for modal filtering on mid-infrared: imaging, nulling and spectral transmission,” Proc. SPIE 7013, 70133Q (2008).
[CrossRef]

Artjuschenko, V.

O. Wallner, V. Artjuschenko, and R. Flatscher, “Development of silver-halide single-mode fibers for modal filtering in the mid-infrared,” Proc. SPIE 5491, 636–646 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bakalski, I.

Beichman, C.

C. Beichman, “Terrestrial Planet Finder: the search for life-bearing planets around other stars,” Proc. SPIE 3350, 719–723 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Berger, J.-P.

M. Ollivier, O. Absil, F. Allard, J.-P. Berger, P. Bordé, F. Cassaing, B. Chazelas, A. Chelli, O. Chesneau, V. Coudé du Foresto, D. Defrère, P. Duchon, P. Gabor, J. Gay, E. Herwats, S. Jacquinod, P. Kern, P. Kervella, J.-M. Le Duigou, A. Léger, B. Lopez, F. Malbet, D. Mourard, D. Pelat, G. Perrin, Y. Rabbia, D. Rouan, J.-M. Reiss, G. Rousset, F. Selsis, P. Stee, and J. Surdej, “PEGASE, an infrared interferometer to study stellar environments and low mass companions around nearby stars,” Exp. Astron. 23, 403–434 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bordé, P.

M. Ollivier, O. Absil, F. Allard, J.-P. Berger, P. Bordé, F. Cassaing, B. Chazelas, A. Chelli, O. Chesneau, V. Coudé du Foresto, D. Defrère, P. Duchon, P. Gabor, J. Gay, E. Herwats, S. Jacquinod, P. Kern, P. Kervella, J.-M. Le Duigou, A. Léger, B. Lopez, F. Malbet, D. Mourard, D. Pelat, G. Perrin, Y. Rabbia, D. Rouan, J.-M. Reiss, G. Rousset, F. Selsis, P. Stee, and J. Surdej, “PEGASE, an infrared interferometer to study stellar environments and low mass companions around nearby stars,” Exp. Astron. 23, 403–434 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Boussard-Pledel, C.

Broderick, N. G. R.

Bureau, B.

Cassaing, F.

M. Ollivier, O. Absil, F. Allard, J.-P. Berger, P. Bordé, F. Cassaing, B. Chazelas, A. Chelli, O. Chesneau, V. Coudé du Foresto, D. Defrère, P. Duchon, P. Gabor, J. Gay, E. Herwats, S. Jacquinod, P. Kern, P. Kervella, J.-M. Le Duigou, A. Léger, B. Lopez, F. Malbet, D. Mourard, D. Pelat, G. Perrin, Y. Rabbia, D. Rouan, J.-M. Reiss, G. Rousset, F. Selsis, P. Stee, and J. Surdej, “PEGASE, an infrared interferometer to study stellar environments and low mass companions around nearby stars,” Exp. Astron. 23, 403–434 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chazelas, B.

M. Ollivier, O. Absil, F. Allard, J.-P. Berger, P. Bordé, F. Cassaing, B. Chazelas, A. Chelli, O. Chesneau, V. Coudé du Foresto, D. Defrère, P. Duchon, P. Gabor, J. Gay, E. Herwats, S. Jacquinod, P. Kern, P. Kervella, J.-M. Le Duigou, A. Léger, B. Lopez, F. Malbet, D. Mourard, D. Pelat, G. Perrin, Y. Rabbia, D. Rouan, J.-M. Reiss, G. Rousset, F. Selsis, P. Stee, and J. Surdej, “PEGASE, an infrared interferometer to study stellar environments and low mass companions around nearby stars,” Exp. Astron. 23, 403–434 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chelli, A.

M. Ollivier, O. Absil, F. Allard, J.-P. Berger, P. Bordé, F. Cassaing, B. Chazelas, A. Chelli, O. Chesneau, V. Coudé du Foresto, D. Defrère, P. Duchon, P. Gabor, J. Gay, E. Herwats, S. Jacquinod, P. Kern, P. Kervella, J.-M. Le Duigou, A. Léger, B. Lopez, F. Malbet, D. Mourard, D. Pelat, G. Perrin, Y. Rabbia, D. Rouan, J.-M. Reiss, G. Rousset, F. Selsis, P. Stee, and J. Surdej, “PEGASE, an infrared interferometer to study stellar environments and low mass companions around nearby stars,” Exp. Astron. 23, 403–434 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, L. K.

Chesneau, O.

M. Ollivier, O. Absil, F. Allard, J.-P. Berger, P. Bordé, F. Cassaing, B. Chazelas, A. Chelli, O. Chesneau, V. Coudé du Foresto, D. Defrère, P. Duchon, P. Gabor, J. Gay, E. Herwats, S. Jacquinod, P. Kern, P. Kervella, J.-M. Le Duigou, A. Léger, B. Lopez, F. Malbet, D. Mourard, D. Pelat, G. Perrin, Y. Rabbia, D. Rouan, J.-M. Reiss, G. Rousset, F. Selsis, P. Stee, and J. Surdej, “PEGASE, an infrared interferometer to study stellar environments and low mass companions around nearby stars,” Exp. Astron. 23, 403–434 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Danchi, W. C.

W. C. Danchi, D. Deming, M. Kuchner, and S. Seager, “Detection of close-in extrasolar giant planets using the Fourier-Kelvin Stellar Interferometer,” Astrophys. J. Lett. 597, L57–L60 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dasgupta, S.

Defrère, D.

M. Ollivier, O. Absil, F. Allard, J.-P. Berger, P. Bordé, F. Cassaing, B. Chazelas, A. Chelli, O. Chesneau, V. Coudé du Foresto, D. Defrère, P. Duchon, P. Gabor, J. Gay, E. Herwats, S. Jacquinod, P. Kern, P. Kervella, J.-M. Le Duigou, A. Léger, B. Lopez, F. Malbet, D. Mourard, D. Pelat, G. Perrin, Y. Rabbia, D. Rouan, J.-M. Reiss, G. Rousset, F. Selsis, P. Stee, and J. Surdej, “PEGASE, an infrared interferometer to study stellar environments and low mass companions around nearby stars,” Exp. Astron. 23, 403–434 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Deming, D.

W. C. Danchi, D. Deming, M. Kuchner, and S. Seager, “Detection of close-in extrasolar giant planets using the Fourier-Kelvin Stellar Interferometer,” Astrophys. J. Lett. 597, L57–L60 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Doya, V.

P. Leproux, V. Weber, I. Schanen-Duport, P. Haguenauer, V. Doya, F. Reynaud, and P. Kern, “Numerical simulations on spatial filtering efficiency with optical fibers and integrated optics components,” Proc. SPIE 4838, 1324–1333(2003).
[CrossRef]

du Foresto, V. Coudé

M. Ollivier, O. Absil, F. Allard, J.-P. Berger, P. Bordé, F. Cassaing, B. Chazelas, A. Chelli, O. Chesneau, V. Coudé du Foresto, D. Defrère, P. Duchon, P. Gabor, J. Gay, E. Herwats, S. Jacquinod, P. Kern, P. Kervella, J.-M. Le Duigou, A. Léger, B. Lopez, F. Malbet, D. Mourard, D. Pelat, G. Perrin, Y. Rabbia, D. Rouan, J.-M. Reiss, G. Rousset, F. Selsis, P. Stee, and J. Surdej, “PEGASE, an infrared interferometer to study stellar environments and low mass companions around nearby stars,” Exp. Astron. 23, 403–434 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Duchon, P.

M. Ollivier, O. Absil, F. Allard, J.-P. Berger, P. Bordé, F. Cassaing, B. Chazelas, A. Chelli, O. Chesneau, V. Coudé du Foresto, D. Defrère, P. Duchon, P. Gabor, J. Gay, E. Herwats, S. Jacquinod, P. Kern, P. Kervella, J.-M. Le Duigou, A. Léger, B. Lopez, F. Malbet, D. Mourard, D. Pelat, G. Perrin, Y. Rabbia, D. Rouan, J.-M. Reiss, G. Rousset, F. Selsis, P. Stee, and J. Surdej, “PEGASE, an infrared interferometer to study stellar environments and low mass companions around nearby stars,” Exp. Astron. 23, 403–434 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Faber, A. J.

Flanagan, J. C.

Flatscher, R.

O. Wallner, V. Artjuschenko, and R. Flatscher, “Development of silver-halide single-mode fibers for modal filtering in the mid-infrared,” Proc. SPIE 5491, 636–646 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Foster, M. J.

Fuchs, F.

T. Lewi, A. Tsun, A. Katzir, J. Kaster, and F. Fuchs, “Silver halide single mode fiber for broadband middle infrared stellar interferometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 261105(2009).
[CrossRef]

Gabor, P.

M. Ollivier, O. Absil, F. Allard, J.-P. Berger, P. Bordé, F. Cassaing, B. Chazelas, A. Chelli, O. Chesneau, V. Coudé du Foresto, D. Defrère, P. Duchon, P. Gabor, J. Gay, E. Herwats, S. Jacquinod, P. Kern, P. Kervella, J.-M. Le Duigou, A. Léger, B. Lopez, F. Malbet, D. Mourard, D. Pelat, G. Perrin, Y. Rabbia, D. Rouan, J.-M. Reiss, G. Rousset, F. Selsis, P. Stee, and J. Surdej, “PEGASE, an infrared interferometer to study stellar environments and low mass companions around nearby stars,” Exp. Astron. 23, 403–434 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gappinger, R. O.

Gay, J.

M. Ollivier, O. Absil, F. Allard, J.-P. Berger, P. Bordé, F. Cassaing, B. Chazelas, A. Chelli, O. Chesneau, V. Coudé du Foresto, D. Defrère, P. Duchon, P. Gabor, J. Gay, E. Herwats, S. Jacquinod, P. Kern, P. Kervella, J.-M. Le Duigou, A. Léger, B. Lopez, F. Malbet, D. Mourard, D. Pelat, G. Perrin, Y. Rabbia, D. Rouan, J.-M. Reiss, G. Rousset, F. Selsis, P. Stee, and J. Surdej, “PEGASE, an infrared interferometer to study stellar environments and low mass companions around nearby stars,” Exp. Astron. 23, 403–434 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gielesen, W. L. M.

Gloge, D.

Grille, R.

R. Grille, G. Martin, L. Labadie, B. Arezki, P. Kern, T. Lewi, A. Tsun, and A. Katzir, “Single mode mid-infrared silver halide asymmetric flat waveguide obtained from crystal extrusion,” Opt. Express 17, 12516–12522 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Grille, L. Labadie, P. Kern, G. Martin, and B. Arezki, “Characterization of silver halide fiber for modal filtering on mid-infrared: imaging, nulling and spectral transmission,” Proc. SPIE 7013, 70133Q (2008).
[CrossRef]

Haguenauer, P.

P. Leproux, V. Weber, I. Schanen-Duport, P. Haguenauer, V. Doya, F. Reynaud, and P. Kern, “Numerical simulations on spatial filtering efficiency with optical fibers and integrated optics components,” Proc. SPIE 4838, 1324–1333(2003).
[CrossRef]

Herwats, E.

M. Ollivier, O. Absil, F. Allard, J.-P. Berger, P. Bordé, F. Cassaing, B. Chazelas, A. Chelli, O. Chesneau, V. Coudé du Foresto, D. Defrère, P. Duchon, P. Gabor, J. Gay, E. Herwats, S. Jacquinod, P. Kern, P. Kervella, J.-M. Le Duigou, A. Léger, B. Lopez, F. Malbet, D. Mourard, D. Pelat, G. Perrin, Y. Rabbia, D. Rouan, J.-M. Reiss, G. Rousset, F. Selsis, P. Stee, and J. Surdej, “PEGASE, an infrared interferometer to study stellar environments and low mass companions around nearby stars,” Exp. Astron. 23, 403–434 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Houizot, P.

Jacquinod, S.

M. Ollivier, O. Absil, F. Allard, J.-P. Berger, P. Bordé, F. Cassaing, B. Chazelas, A. Chelli, O. Chesneau, V. Coudé du Foresto, D. Defrère, P. Duchon, P. Gabor, J. Gay, E. Herwats, S. Jacquinod, P. Kern, P. Kervella, J.-M. Le Duigou, A. Léger, B. Lopez, F. Malbet, D. Mourard, D. Pelat, G. Perrin, Y. Rabbia, D. Rouan, J.-M. Reiss, G. Rousset, F. Selsis, P. Stee, and J. Surdej, “PEGASE, an infrared interferometer to study stellar environments and low mass companions around nearby stars,” Exp. Astron. 23, 403–434 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kaster, J.

T. Lewi, A. Tsun, A. Katzir, J. Kaster, and F. Fuchs, “Silver halide single mode fiber for broadband middle infrared stellar interferometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 261105(2009).
[CrossRef]

Katzir, A.

Kawana, A.

Kern, P.

R. Grille, G. Martin, L. Labadie, B. Arezki, P. Kern, T. Lewi, A. Tsun, and A. Katzir, “Single mode mid-infrared silver halide asymmetric flat waveguide obtained from crystal extrusion,” Opt. Express 17, 12516–12522 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Ollivier, O. Absil, F. Allard, J.-P. Berger, P. Bordé, F. Cassaing, B. Chazelas, A. Chelli, O. Chesneau, V. Coudé du Foresto, D. Defrère, P. Duchon, P. Gabor, J. Gay, E. Herwats, S. Jacquinod, P. Kern, P. Kervella, J.-M. Le Duigou, A. Léger, B. Lopez, F. Malbet, D. Mourard, D. Pelat, G. Perrin, Y. Rabbia, D. Rouan, J.-M. Reiss, G. Rousset, F. Selsis, P. Stee, and J. Surdej, “PEGASE, an infrared interferometer to study stellar environments and low mass companions around nearby stars,” Exp. Astron. 23, 403–434 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Grille, L. Labadie, P. Kern, G. Martin, and B. Arezki, “Characterization of silver halide fiber for modal filtering on mid-infrared: imaging, nulling and spectral transmission,” Proc. SPIE 7013, 70133Q (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Leproux, V. Weber, I. Schanen-Duport, P. Haguenauer, V. Doya, F. Reynaud, and P. Kern, “Numerical simulations on spatial filtering efficiency with optical fibers and integrated optics components,” Proc. SPIE 4838, 1324–1333(2003).
[CrossRef]

Kervella, P.

M. Ollivier, O. Absil, F. Allard, J.-P. Berger, P. Bordé, F. Cassaing, B. Chazelas, A. Chelli, O. Chesneau, V. Coudé du Foresto, D. Defrère, P. Duchon, P. Gabor, J. Gay, E. Herwats, S. Jacquinod, P. Kern, P. Kervella, J.-M. Le Duigou, A. Léger, B. Lopez, F. Malbet, D. Mourard, D. Pelat, G. Perrin, Y. Rabbia, D. Rouan, J.-M. Reiss, G. Rousset, F. Selsis, P. Stee, and J. Surdej, “PEGASE, an infrared interferometer to study stellar environments and low mass companions around nearby stars,” Exp. Astron. 23, 403–434 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ksendzov, A.

Kuchner, M.

W. C. Danchi, D. Deming, M. Kuchner, and S. Seager, “Detection of close-in extrasolar giant planets using the Fourier-Kelvin Stellar Interferometer,” Astrophys. J. Lett. 597, L57–L60 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Labadie, L.

R. Grille, G. Martin, L. Labadie, B. Arezki, P. Kern, T. Lewi, A. Tsun, and A. Katzir, “Single mode mid-infrared silver halide asymmetric flat waveguide obtained from crystal extrusion,” Opt. Express 17, 12516–12522 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Grille, L. Labadie, P. Kern, G. Martin, and B. Arezki, “Characterization of silver halide fiber for modal filtering on mid-infrared: imaging, nulling and spectral transmission,” Proc. SPIE 7013, 70133Q (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lang, T.

T. Lang, L. Thévenaz, Z. B. Ren, and Ph. Robert, “Cut-off wavelength measurements of Ti:LiNbO3 channel waveguides,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 5, 1124–1130 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Lawson, P. R.

Lay, O. P.

Le Duigou, J.-M.

M. Ollivier, O. Absil, F. Allard, J.-P. Berger, P. Bordé, F. Cassaing, B. Chazelas, A. Chelli, O. Chesneau, V. Coudé du Foresto, D. Defrère, P. Duchon, P. Gabor, J. Gay, E. Herwats, S. Jacquinod, P. Kern, P. Kervella, J.-M. Le Duigou, A. Léger, B. Lopez, F. Malbet, D. Mourard, D. Pelat, G. Perrin, Y. Rabbia, D. Rouan, J.-M. Reiss, G. Rousset, F. Selsis, P. Stee, and J. Surdej, “PEGASE, an infrared interferometer to study stellar environments and low mass companions around nearby stars,” Exp. Astron. 23, 403–434 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Leeb, W. R.

Leger, A.

A. Leger, J. M. Mariotti, B. Menesson, M. Ollivier, J. L. Puget, D. Rouan, and J. Schneider, “Could we search for primitive life on extrasolar planets in the near future?” Icarus 123, 249–255 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Léger, A.

M. Ollivier, O. Absil, F. Allard, J.-P. Berger, P. Bordé, F. Cassaing, B. Chazelas, A. Chelli, O. Chesneau, V. Coudé du Foresto, D. Defrère, P. Duchon, P. Gabor, J. Gay, E. Herwats, S. Jacquinod, P. Kern, P. Kervella, J.-M. Le Duigou, A. Léger, B. Lopez, F. Malbet, D. Mourard, D. Pelat, G. Perrin, Y. Rabbia, D. Rouan, J.-M. Reiss, G. Rousset, F. Selsis, P. Stee, and J. Surdej, “PEGASE, an infrared interferometer to study stellar environments and low mass companions around nearby stars,” Exp. Astron. 23, 403–434 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Leproux, P.

P. Leproux, V. Weber, I. Schanen-Duport, P. Haguenauer, V. Doya, F. Reynaud, and P. Kern, “Numerical simulations on spatial filtering efficiency with optical fibers and integrated optics components,” Proc. SPIE 4838, 1324–1333(2003).
[CrossRef]

Lewi, T.

Lopez, B.

M. Ollivier, O. Absil, F. Allard, J.-P. Berger, P. Bordé, F. Cassaing, B. Chazelas, A. Chelli, O. Chesneau, V. Coudé du Foresto, D. Defrère, P. Duchon, P. Gabor, J. Gay, E. Herwats, S. Jacquinod, P. Kern, P. Kervella, J.-M. Le Duigou, A. Léger, B. Lopez, F. Malbet, D. Mourard, D. Pelat, G. Perrin, Y. Rabbia, D. Rouan, J.-M. Reiss, G. Rousset, F. Selsis, P. Stee, and J. Surdej, “PEGASE, an infrared interferometer to study stellar environments and low mass companions around nearby stars,” Exp. Astron. 23, 403–434 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lucas, J.

Malbet, F.

M. Ollivier, O. Absil, F. Allard, J.-P. Berger, P. Bordé, F. Cassaing, B. Chazelas, A. Chelli, O. Chesneau, V. Coudé du Foresto, D. Defrère, P. Duchon, P. Gabor, J. Gay, E. Herwats, S. Jacquinod, P. Kern, P. Kervella, J.-M. Le Duigou, A. Léger, B. Lopez, F. Malbet, D. Mourard, D. Pelat, G. Perrin, Y. Rabbia, D. Rouan, J.-M. Reiss, G. Rousset, F. Selsis, P. Stee, and J. Surdej, “PEGASE, an infrared interferometer to study stellar environments and low mass companions around nearby stars,” Exp. Astron. 23, 403–434 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mariotti, J. M.

A. Leger, J. M. Mariotti, B. Menesson, M. Ollivier, J. L. Puget, D. Rouan, and J. Schneider, “Could we search for primitive life on extrasolar planets in the near future?” Icarus 123, 249–255 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Martin, G.

R. Grille, G. Martin, L. Labadie, B. Arezki, P. Kern, T. Lewi, A. Tsun, and A. Katzir, “Single mode mid-infrared silver halide asymmetric flat waveguide obtained from crystal extrusion,” Opt. Express 17, 12516–12522 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Grille, L. Labadie, P. Kern, G. Martin, and B. Arezki, “Characterization of silver halide fiber for modal filtering on mid-infrared: imaging, nulling and spectral transmission,” Proc. SPIE 7013, 70133Q (2008).
[CrossRef]

Martin, S. R.

Menesson, B.

A. Leger, J. M. Mariotti, B. Menesson, M. Ollivier, J. L. Puget, D. Rouan, and J. Schneider, “Could we search for primitive life on extrasolar planets in the near future?” Icarus 123, 249–255 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Mennesson, B.

Milo, A.

S. Shalem, A. Tsun, E. Rave, A. Milo, L. Nagli, and A. Katzir, “Silver halide single-mode fiber for the middle infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 091103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mourard, D.

M. Ollivier, O. Absil, F. Allard, J.-P. Berger, P. Bordé, F. Cassaing, B. Chazelas, A. Chelli, O. Chesneau, V. Coudé du Foresto, D. Defrère, P. Duchon, P. Gabor, J. Gay, E. Herwats, S. Jacquinod, P. Kern, P. Kervella, J.-M. Le Duigou, A. Léger, B. Lopez, F. Malbet, D. Mourard, D. Pelat, G. Perrin, Y. Rabbia, D. Rouan, J.-M. Reiss, G. Rousset, F. Selsis, P. Stee, and J. Surdej, “PEGASE, an infrared interferometer to study stellar environments and low mass companions around nearby stars,” Exp. Astron. 23, 403–434 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Murakami, Y.

Nagli, L.

S. Shalem, A. Tsun, E. Rave, A. Milo, L. Nagli, and A. Katzir, “Silver halide single-mode fiber for the middle infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 091103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ollivier, M.

M. Ollivier, O. Absil, F. Allard, J.-P. Berger, P. Bordé, F. Cassaing, B. Chazelas, A. Chelli, O. Chesneau, V. Coudé du Foresto, D. Defrère, P. Duchon, P. Gabor, J. Gay, E. Herwats, S. Jacquinod, P. Kern, P. Kervella, J.-M. Le Duigou, A. Léger, B. Lopez, F. Malbet, D. Mourard, D. Pelat, G. Perrin, Y. Rabbia, D. Rouan, J.-M. Reiss, G. Rousset, F. Selsis, P. Stee, and J. Surdej, “PEGASE, an infrared interferometer to study stellar environments and low mass companions around nearby stars,” Exp. Astron. 23, 403–434 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. Mennesson, M. Ollivier, and C. Ruilier, “Use of single-mode waveguides to correct the optical defects of a nulling interferometer,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19, 596–602 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Leger, J. M. Mariotti, B. Menesson, M. Ollivier, J. L. Puget, D. Rouan, and J. Schneider, “Could we search for primitive life on extrasolar planets in the near future?” Icarus 123, 249–255 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Pelat, D.

M. Ollivier, O. Absil, F. Allard, J.-P. Berger, P. Bordé, F. Cassaing, B. Chazelas, A. Chelli, O. Chesneau, V. Coudé du Foresto, D. Defrère, P. Duchon, P. Gabor, J. Gay, E. Herwats, S. Jacquinod, P. Kern, P. Kervella, J.-M. Le Duigou, A. Léger, B. Lopez, F. Malbet, D. Mourard, D. Pelat, G. Perrin, Y. Rabbia, D. Rouan, J.-M. Reiss, G. Rousset, F. Selsis, P. Stee, and J. Surdej, “PEGASE, an infrared interferometer to study stellar environments and low mass companions around nearby stars,” Exp. Astron. 23, 403–434 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pereira, J.

Perrin, G.

M. Ollivier, O. Absil, F. Allard, J.-P. Berger, P. Bordé, F. Cassaing, B. Chazelas, A. Chelli, O. Chesneau, V. Coudé du Foresto, D. Defrère, P. Duchon, P. Gabor, J. Gay, E. Herwats, S. Jacquinod, P. Kern, P. Kervella, J.-M. Le Duigou, A. Léger, B. Lopez, F. Malbet, D. Mourard, D. Pelat, G. Perrin, Y. Rabbia, D. Rouan, J.-M. Reiss, G. Rousset, F. Selsis, P. Stee, and J. Surdej, “PEGASE, an infrared interferometer to study stellar environments and low mass companions around nearby stars,” Exp. Astron. 23, 403–434 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Peters, R. D.

Puget, J. L.

A. Leger, J. M. Mariotti, B. Menesson, M. Ollivier, J. L. Puget, D. Rouan, and J. Schneider, “Could we search for primitive life on extrasolar planets in the near future?” Icarus 123, 249–255 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Rabbia, Y.

M. Ollivier, O. Absil, F. Allard, J.-P. Berger, P. Bordé, F. Cassaing, B. Chazelas, A. Chelli, O. Chesneau, V. Coudé du Foresto, D. Defrère, P. Duchon, P. Gabor, J. Gay, E. Herwats, S. Jacquinod, P. Kern, P. Kervella, J.-M. Le Duigou, A. Léger, B. Lopez, F. Malbet, D. Mourard, D. Pelat, G. Perrin, Y. Rabbia, D. Rouan, J.-M. Reiss, G. Rousset, F. Selsis, P. Stee, and J. Surdej, “PEGASE, an infrared interferometer to study stellar environments and low mass companions around nearby stars,” Exp. Astron. 23, 403–434 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rave, E.

S. Shalem, A. Tsun, E. Rave, A. Milo, L. Nagli, and A. Katzir, “Silver halide single-mode fiber for the middle infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 091103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Reiss, J.-M.

M. Ollivier, O. Absil, F. Allard, J.-P. Berger, P. Bordé, F. Cassaing, B. Chazelas, A. Chelli, O. Chesneau, V. Coudé du Foresto, D. Defrère, P. Duchon, P. Gabor, J. Gay, E. Herwats, S. Jacquinod, P. Kern, P. Kervella, J.-M. Le Duigou, A. Léger, B. Lopez, F. Malbet, D. Mourard, D. Pelat, G. Perrin, Y. Rabbia, D. Rouan, J.-M. Reiss, G. Rousset, F. Selsis, P. Stee, and J. Surdej, “PEGASE, an infrared interferometer to study stellar environments and low mass companions around nearby stars,” Exp. Astron. 23, 403–434 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ren, Z. B.

T. Lang, L. Thévenaz, Z. B. Ren, and Ph. Robert, “Cut-off wavelength measurements of Ti:LiNbO3 channel waveguides,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 5, 1124–1130 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Reynaud, F.

P. Leproux, V. Weber, I. Schanen-Duport, P. Haguenauer, V. Doya, F. Reynaud, and P. Kern, “Numerical simulations on spatial filtering efficiency with optical fibers and integrated optics components,” Proc. SPIE 4838, 1324–1333(2003).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, D. J.

Robert, Ph.

T. Lang, L. Thévenaz, Z. B. Ren, and Ph. Robert, “Cut-off wavelength measurements of Ti:LiNbO3 channel waveguides,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 5, 1124–1130 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Rouan, D.

M. Ollivier, O. Absil, F. Allard, J.-P. Berger, P. Bordé, F. Cassaing, B. Chazelas, A. Chelli, O. Chesneau, V. Coudé du Foresto, D. Defrère, P. Duchon, P. Gabor, J. Gay, E. Herwats, S. Jacquinod, P. Kern, P. Kervella, J.-M. Le Duigou, A. Léger, B. Lopez, F. Malbet, D. Mourard, D. Pelat, G. Perrin, Y. Rabbia, D. Rouan, J.-M. Reiss, G. Rousset, F. Selsis, P. Stee, and J. Surdej, “PEGASE, an infrared interferometer to study stellar environments and low mass companions around nearby stars,” Exp. Astron. 23, 403–434 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Leger, J. M. Mariotti, B. Menesson, M. Ollivier, J. L. Puget, D. Rouan, and J. Schneider, “Could we search for primitive life on extrasolar planets in the near future?” Icarus 123, 249–255 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Rousset, G.

M. Ollivier, O. Absil, F. Allard, J.-P. Berger, P. Bordé, F. Cassaing, B. Chazelas, A. Chelli, O. Chesneau, V. Coudé du Foresto, D. Defrère, P. Duchon, P. Gabor, J. Gay, E. Herwats, S. Jacquinod, P. Kern, P. Kervella, J.-M. Le Duigou, A. Léger, B. Lopez, F. Malbet, D. Mourard, D. Pelat, G. Perrin, Y. Rabbia, D. Rouan, J.-M. Reiss, G. Rousset, F. Selsis, P. Stee, and J. Surdej, “PEGASE, an infrared interferometer to study stellar environments and low mass companions around nearby stars,” Exp. Astron. 23, 403–434 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ruilier, C.

Saleh, B. E. A.

B. E. A. Saleh and M. C. Teich, Fundamentals of Photonics (Wiley, 1991).
[CrossRef]

Schanen-Duport, I.

P. Leproux, V. Weber, I. Schanen-Duport, P. Haguenauer, V. Doya, F. Reynaud, and P. Kern, “Numerical simulations on spatial filtering efficiency with optical fibers and integrated optics components,” Proc. SPIE 4838, 1324–1333(2003).
[CrossRef]

Schneider, J.

A. Leger, J. M. Mariotti, B. Menesson, M. Ollivier, J. L. Puget, D. Rouan, and J. Schneider, “Could we search for primitive life on extrasolar planets in the near future?” Icarus 123, 249–255 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Seager, S.

W. C. Danchi, D. Deming, M. Kuchner, and S. Seager, “Detection of close-in extrasolar giant planets using the Fourier-Kelvin Stellar Interferometer,” Astrophys. J. Lett. 597, L57–L60 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Selsis, F.

M. Ollivier, O. Absil, F. Allard, J.-P. Berger, P. Bordé, F. Cassaing, B. Chazelas, A. Chelli, O. Chesneau, V. Coudé du Foresto, D. Defrère, P. Duchon, P. Gabor, J. Gay, E. Herwats, S. Jacquinod, P. Kern, P. Kervella, J.-M. Le Duigou, A. Léger, B. Lopez, F. Malbet, D. Mourard, D. Pelat, G. Perrin, Y. Rabbia, D. Rouan, J.-M. Reiss, G. Rousset, F. Selsis, P. Stee, and J. Surdej, “PEGASE, an infrared interferometer to study stellar environments and low mass companions around nearby stars,” Exp. Astron. 23, 403–434 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shalem, S.

Stee, P.

M. Ollivier, O. Absil, F. Allard, J.-P. Berger, P. Bordé, F. Cassaing, B. Chazelas, A. Chelli, O. Chesneau, V. Coudé du Foresto, D. Defrère, P. Duchon, P. Gabor, J. Gay, E. Herwats, S. Jacquinod, P. Kern, P. Kervella, J.-M. Le Duigou, A. Léger, B. Lopez, F. Malbet, D. Mourard, D. Pelat, G. Perrin, Y. Rabbia, D. Rouan, J.-M. Reiss, G. Rousset, F. Selsis, P. Stee, and J. Surdej, “PEGASE, an infrared interferometer to study stellar environments and low mass companions around nearby stars,” Exp. Astron. 23, 403–434 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Surdej, J.

M. Ollivier, O. Absil, F. Allard, J.-P. Berger, P. Bordé, F. Cassaing, B. Chazelas, A. Chelli, O. Chesneau, V. Coudé du Foresto, D. Defrère, P. Duchon, P. Gabor, J. Gay, E. Herwats, S. Jacquinod, P. Kern, P. Kervella, J.-M. Le Duigou, A. Léger, B. Lopez, F. Malbet, D. Mourard, D. Pelat, G. Perrin, Y. Rabbia, D. Rouan, J.-M. Reiss, G. Rousset, F. Selsis, P. Stee, and J. Surdej, “PEGASE, an infrared interferometer to study stellar environments and low mass companions around nearby stars,” Exp. Astron. 23, 403–434 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Teich, M. C.

B. E. A. Saleh and M. C. Teich, Fundamentals of Photonics (Wiley, 1991).
[CrossRef]

Thévenaz, L.

T. Lang, L. Thévenaz, Z. B. Ren, and Ph. Robert, “Cut-off wavelength measurements of Ti:LiNbO3 channel waveguides,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 5, 1124–1130 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Tsuchiya, H.

Tsun, A.

Van Nijmatten, P. A.

Wallner, O.

O. Wallner, V. Artjuschenko, and R. Flatscher, “Development of silver-halide single-mode fibers for modal filtering in the mid-infrared,” Proc. SPIE 5491, 636–646 (2004).
[CrossRef]

O. Wallner, W. R. Leeb, and P. J. Winzer, “Minimum length of a single mode fiber spatial filter,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19, 2445–2448 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Weber, V.

P. Leproux, V. Weber, I. Schanen-Duport, P. Haguenauer, V. Doya, F. Reynaud, and P. Kern, “Numerical simulations on spatial filtering efficiency with optical fibers and integrated optics components,” Proc. SPIE 4838, 1324–1333(2003).
[CrossRef]

Winzer, P. J.

Appl. Opt. (3)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

T. Lewi, A. Tsun, A. Katzir, J. Kaster, and F. Fuchs, “Silver halide single mode fiber for broadband middle infrared stellar interferometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 261105(2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Shalem, A. Tsun, E. Rave, A. Milo, L. Nagli, and A. Katzir, “Silver halide single-mode fiber for the middle infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 091103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Astrophys. J. Lett. (1)

W. C. Danchi, D. Deming, M. Kuchner, and S. Seager, “Detection of close-in extrasolar giant planets using the Fourier-Kelvin Stellar Interferometer,” Astrophys. J. Lett. 597, L57–L60 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Exp. Astron. (1)

M. Ollivier, O. Absil, F. Allard, J.-P. Berger, P. Bordé, F. Cassaing, B. Chazelas, A. Chelli, O. Chesneau, V. Coudé du Foresto, D. Defrère, P. Duchon, P. Gabor, J. Gay, E. Herwats, S. Jacquinod, P. Kern, P. Kervella, J.-M. Le Duigou, A. Léger, B. Lopez, F. Malbet, D. Mourard, D. Pelat, G. Perrin, Y. Rabbia, D. Rouan, J.-M. Reiss, G. Rousset, F. Selsis, P. Stee, and J. Surdej, “PEGASE, an infrared interferometer to study stellar environments and low mass companions around nearby stars,” Exp. Astron. 23, 403–434 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Icarus (1)

A. Leger, J. M. Mariotti, B. Menesson, M. Ollivier, J. L. Puget, D. Rouan, and J. Schneider, “Could we search for primitive life on extrasolar planets in the near future?” Icarus 123, 249–255 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (2)

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

T. Lang, L. Thévenaz, Z. B. Ren, and Ph. Robert, “Cut-off wavelength measurements of Ti:LiNbO3 channel waveguides,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 5, 1124–1130 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (4)

Proc. SPIE (4)

R. Grille, L. Labadie, P. Kern, G. Martin, and B. Arezki, “Characterization of silver halide fiber for modal filtering on mid-infrared: imaging, nulling and spectral transmission,” Proc. SPIE 7013, 70133Q (2008).
[CrossRef]

O. Wallner, V. Artjuschenko, and R. Flatscher, “Development of silver-halide single-mode fibers for modal filtering in the mid-infrared,” Proc. SPIE 5491, 636–646 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Beichman, “Terrestrial Planet Finder: the search for life-bearing planets around other stars,” Proc. SPIE 3350, 719–723 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. Leproux, V. Weber, I. Schanen-Duport, P. Haguenauer, V. Doya, F. Reynaud, and P. Kern, “Numerical simulations on spatial filtering efficiency with optical fibers and integrated optics components,” Proc. SPIE 4838, 1324–1333(2003).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

B. E. A. Saleh and M. C. Teich, Fundamentals of Photonics (Wiley, 1991).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup of the Fourier transform spectrometer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

FTS spectra of the fibers, allowing determination of single-mode cutoff wavelength. Upper (respectively, lower) figure: transmission of the thin (respectively, thick) clad absorbing fiber: gray curve, spectrum for the optical bench alone; black curve, spectrum obtained with the fiber.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Rejection ratio obtained from Eq. (4) using the attenuation coefficients presented in Tables 1, 2, plotted as a function of propagation length for the thin absorbing-clad fiber. We show the limiting possibilities for low η = 0.001 % and high η = 2 % coupling efficiencies with the effective leaky mode (so that coupling with FM is, respectively, η 0 = 99.999 % and η 0 = 98 % ): squares, high attenuation mode, highly coupled; crosses, high attenuation mode, weakly coupled; dashed–dotted curve, low attenuation mode, weakly coupled; and continuous curve, low attenuation mode, highly coupled. Also shown is the target rejection ratio ( 60 dB ) by the dashed line. (b) Rejection ratio obtained from Eq. (4) using the attenuation coefficients presented in Tables 1, 2, for the thick absorbing-clad fiber at two different regimes: low coupling ( η = 0.001 % ) and high coupling ( η = 2 % ): squares, high attenuation mode, highly coupled; crosses, high attenuation mode, weakly coupled; dashed–dotted curve, low attenuation mode, weakly coupled; and continuous curve, low attenuation mode, highly coupled. Also shown is the target rejection ratio ( 60 dB ) by the dashed line.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Experimental rejection ratio obtained for different segments of the thin absorbing-clad fiber (open triangles) and thick absorbing-clad fiber (open circles). The noise level limit, depending on the intensity fluctuations on the nulling setup is represented by horizontal lines (continuous, noise 1.5%; dashed, noise 1%). Also shown is the rejection ratio obtained without fibers (black square data point at L = 0 cm ) showing the limited quality of the incident beam. The fitting function for each set of data is shown next to the line.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Characteristics of Thin and Thick Absorbing-Clad Fibers a

Tables Icon

Table 2 Modal Characteristics of the Computed Modes at 10.6 µm for the Two Fibers Studied, for a Fiber Length of L = 15 cm and 30 cm a

Tables Icon

Table 3 Experimental and Theoretical Cutoff Wavelength of the Fibers

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I = I 1 + I 2 + 2 C I 1 I 2 cos φ ,
C = I 1 + I 2 I MIN 2 I 1 I 2 ,
ρ ( z ) = P FM P LM = η 0 e α 0 z i = 1 N η i e α i z ,
ρ ( z ) = η 0 e α 0 z η eff e α eff z ,
z = 1 α 01 α eff ln ( 1 η eff ρ η eff ) .
Δ = n core 2 n clad 2 2 n core 2 ( n core n clad ) n core .
λ cut-off = 2 π V ϕ 2 NA .

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