Abstract

We report on an in-band optical signal-to-noise ratio monitoring technique for wavelength division multiplexed channels. Our proposal relies on the different degree of polarization between the signal (highly polarized) and the noise (not polarized). Using this principle, we divide the signal under test into two orthogonal polarization components and induce a differential group delay via a controlled birefringence apparatus that produces a wavelength-dependent shift of the polarization state of the signal. After a linear polarizing filter, high-resolution spectral analysis allows measurement of the amplified spontaneous emission noise level. The method is tested by experimental measurements of a 40 Gbit/s differential phase-shift keying channel showing very good performance.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. H. Lee, D. K. Jung, C. H. Kim, and Y. C. Chung, “OSNR monitoring technique using polarization-nulling method,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 88–90, 2001.
    [CrossRef]
  2. C. Floridia and J. C. de Moraes, “Fast on-line OSNR measurements based on polarization-nulling method with downhill simplex algorithm” Electron. Lett. 44, 926–927 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M-H. Cheung, L-K. Chen, and C-K. Chan, “PMD-insensitive OSNR monitoring based on polarization-nulling with off-center narrow-band filtering,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2562–2564 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  4. H. Y. Choi, Y. Takushima, and Y. C. Chung, “OSNR monitoring technique for DPSK/DQPSK signals based on self-heterodyne detection,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1124–1126 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  5. B. Kozicki, A. Maruta, and K. Kitayama, “Experimental demonstration of optical performance monitoring for RZ-DPSK signals using delay-top sampling method,” Opt. Express 16, 3566–3576 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. C-J. Chae and T. B. Anderson, “OSNR monitoring of 40 Gb/s differential PSK signals using a DC detector and a very low frequency band-pass filter,” in Proceedings of the LEOS Annual Meeting (IEEE, 2009), pp. 133–134.
    [CrossRef]
  7. X. Liu, Y.-H. Kao, S. Chandrasekhar, I. Kang, S. Cabot, and L. L. Buhl, “OSNR monitoring method for OOK and DPSK based on optical delay interferometer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1172–1174 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. Bakaul, “Low-cost PMD-insensitive and dispersion tolerant in-band OSNR monitor based on uncorrelated beat noise measurement,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 906–908(2008).
    [CrossRef]
  9. N. Chitrik, J. M. Oh, L. E. Nelson, and M. Brodsky, “In-band interferometric estimation of OSNR for PolMux Qpsk signals with unknown filter history,” in Proceedings of the 21st Annual Meeting of the Lasers and Electro-Optics Society (IEEE, 2008), pp. 537–538.
    [CrossRef]
  10. E. Flood, W. G. Guo, D. Reid, M. Lynch, A. L. Bradley, L. P. Barry, and J. F. Donegan, “OSNR monitoring using two fiber interferometers,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper OWB3.
  11. M. Brodsky, J. M. Oh, L. E. Nelson, and M. D. Feuer, “Sensitivity of interferometric OSNR measurements techniques to the variation in signal extinction ratio,” in Proceedings of the 34th European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC, 2008), paper We.1.D.6.
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. Subias, J. Pelayo, F. Villuendas, C. Heras, and E. Pellejer, “Very high resolution optical spectrometry by stimulated Brillouin scattering,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 855–857 (2005).
    [CrossRef]

2008 (4)

C. Floridia and J. C. de Moraes, “Fast on-line OSNR measurements based on polarization-nulling method with downhill simplex algorithm” Electron. Lett. 44, 926–927 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Y. Choi, Y. Takushima, and Y. C. Chung, “OSNR monitoring technique for DPSK/DQPSK signals based on self-heterodyne detection,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1124–1126 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Kozicki, A. Maruta, and K. Kitayama, “Experimental demonstration of optical performance monitoring for RZ-DPSK signals using delay-top sampling method,” Opt. Express 16, 3566–3576 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Bakaul, “Low-cost PMD-insensitive and dispersion tolerant in-band OSNR monitor based on uncorrelated beat noise measurement,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 906–908(2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

X. Liu, Y.-H. Kao, S. Chandrasekhar, I. Kang, S. Cabot, and L. L. Buhl, “OSNR monitoring method for OOK and DPSK based on optical delay interferometer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1172–1174 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

J. Subias, J. Pelayo, F. Villuendas, C. Heras, and E. Pellejer, “Very high resolution optical spectrometry by stimulated Brillouin scattering,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 855–857 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

M-H. Cheung, L-K. Chen, and C-K. Chan, “PMD-insensitive OSNR monitoring based on polarization-nulling with off-center narrow-band filtering,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2562–2564 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

J. H. Lee, D. K. Jung, C. H. Kim, and Y. C. Chung, “OSNR monitoring technique using polarization-nulling method,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 88–90, 2001.
[CrossRef]

Anderson, T. B.

C-J. Chae and T. B. Anderson, “OSNR monitoring of 40 Gb/s differential PSK signals using a DC detector and a very low frequency band-pass filter,” in Proceedings of the LEOS Annual Meeting (IEEE, 2009), pp. 133–134.
[CrossRef]

Bakaul, M.

M. Bakaul, “Low-cost PMD-insensitive and dispersion tolerant in-band OSNR monitor based on uncorrelated beat noise measurement,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 906–908(2008).
[CrossRef]

Barry, L. P.

E. Flood, W. G. Guo, D. Reid, M. Lynch, A. L. Bradley, L. P. Barry, and J. F. Donegan, “OSNR monitoring using two fiber interferometers,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper OWB3.

Bradley, A. L.

E. Flood, W. G. Guo, D. Reid, M. Lynch, A. L. Bradley, L. P. Barry, and J. F. Donegan, “OSNR monitoring using two fiber interferometers,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper OWB3.

Brodsky, M.

M. Brodsky, J. M. Oh, L. E. Nelson, and M. D. Feuer, “Sensitivity of interferometric OSNR measurements techniques to the variation in signal extinction ratio,” in Proceedings of the 34th European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC, 2008), paper We.1.D.6.
[CrossRef]

N. Chitrik, J. M. Oh, L. E. Nelson, and M. Brodsky, “In-band interferometric estimation of OSNR for PolMux Qpsk signals with unknown filter history,” in Proceedings of the 21st Annual Meeting of the Lasers and Electro-Optics Society (IEEE, 2008), pp. 537–538.
[CrossRef]

Buhl, L. L.

X. Liu, Y.-H. Kao, S. Chandrasekhar, I. Kang, S. Cabot, and L. L. Buhl, “OSNR monitoring method for OOK and DPSK based on optical delay interferometer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1172–1174 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cabot, S.

X. Liu, Y.-H. Kao, S. Chandrasekhar, I. Kang, S. Cabot, and L. L. Buhl, “OSNR monitoring method for OOK and DPSK based on optical delay interferometer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1172–1174 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chae, C-J.

C-J. Chae and T. B. Anderson, “OSNR monitoring of 40 Gb/s differential PSK signals using a DC detector and a very low frequency band-pass filter,” in Proceedings of the LEOS Annual Meeting (IEEE, 2009), pp. 133–134.
[CrossRef]

Chan, C-K.

M-H. Cheung, L-K. Chen, and C-K. Chan, “PMD-insensitive OSNR monitoring based on polarization-nulling with off-center narrow-band filtering,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2562–2564 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chandrasekhar, S.

X. Liu, Y.-H. Kao, S. Chandrasekhar, I. Kang, S. Cabot, and L. L. Buhl, “OSNR monitoring method for OOK and DPSK based on optical delay interferometer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1172–1174 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L-K.

M-H. Cheung, L-K. Chen, and C-K. Chan, “PMD-insensitive OSNR monitoring based on polarization-nulling with off-center narrow-band filtering,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2562–2564 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cheung, M-H.

M-H. Cheung, L-K. Chen, and C-K. Chan, “PMD-insensitive OSNR monitoring based on polarization-nulling with off-center narrow-band filtering,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2562–2564 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chitrik, N.

N. Chitrik, J. M. Oh, L. E. Nelson, and M. Brodsky, “In-band interferometric estimation of OSNR for PolMux Qpsk signals with unknown filter history,” in Proceedings of the 21st Annual Meeting of the Lasers and Electro-Optics Society (IEEE, 2008), pp. 537–538.
[CrossRef]

Choi, H. Y.

H. Y. Choi, Y. Takushima, and Y. C. Chung, “OSNR monitoring technique for DPSK/DQPSK signals based on self-heterodyne detection,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1124–1126 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chung, Y. C.

H. Y. Choi, Y. Takushima, and Y. C. Chung, “OSNR monitoring technique for DPSK/DQPSK signals based on self-heterodyne detection,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1124–1126 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Lee, D. K. Jung, C. H. Kim, and Y. C. Chung, “OSNR monitoring technique using polarization-nulling method,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 88–90, 2001.
[CrossRef]

de Moraes, J. C.

C. Floridia and J. C. de Moraes, “Fast on-line OSNR measurements based on polarization-nulling method with downhill simplex algorithm” Electron. Lett. 44, 926–927 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Donegan, J. F.

E. Flood, W. G. Guo, D. Reid, M. Lynch, A. L. Bradley, L. P. Barry, and J. F. Donegan, “OSNR monitoring using two fiber interferometers,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper OWB3.

Feuer, M. D.

M. Brodsky, J. M. Oh, L. E. Nelson, and M. D. Feuer, “Sensitivity of interferometric OSNR measurements techniques to the variation in signal extinction ratio,” in Proceedings of the 34th European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC, 2008), paper We.1.D.6.
[CrossRef]

Flood, E.

E. Flood, W. G. Guo, D. Reid, M. Lynch, A. L. Bradley, L. P. Barry, and J. F. Donegan, “OSNR monitoring using two fiber interferometers,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper OWB3.

Floridia, C.

C. Floridia and J. C. de Moraes, “Fast on-line OSNR measurements based on polarization-nulling method with downhill simplex algorithm” Electron. Lett. 44, 926–927 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Guo, W. G.

E. Flood, W. G. Guo, D. Reid, M. Lynch, A. L. Bradley, L. P. Barry, and J. F. Donegan, “OSNR monitoring using two fiber interferometers,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper OWB3.

Heras, C.

J. Subias, J. Pelayo, F. Villuendas, C. Heras, and E. Pellejer, “Very high resolution optical spectrometry by stimulated Brillouin scattering,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 855–857 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jung, D. K.

J. H. Lee, D. K. Jung, C. H. Kim, and Y. C. Chung, “OSNR monitoring technique using polarization-nulling method,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 88–90, 2001.
[CrossRef]

Kang, I.

X. Liu, Y.-H. Kao, S. Chandrasekhar, I. Kang, S. Cabot, and L. L. Buhl, “OSNR monitoring method for OOK and DPSK based on optical delay interferometer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1172–1174 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kao, Y.-H.

X. Liu, Y.-H. Kao, S. Chandrasekhar, I. Kang, S. Cabot, and L. L. Buhl, “OSNR monitoring method for OOK and DPSK based on optical delay interferometer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1172–1174 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, C. H.

J. H. Lee, D. K. Jung, C. H. Kim, and Y. C. Chung, “OSNR monitoring technique using polarization-nulling method,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 88–90, 2001.
[CrossRef]

Kitayama, K.

Kozicki, B.

Lee, J. H.

J. H. Lee, D. K. Jung, C. H. Kim, and Y. C. Chung, “OSNR monitoring technique using polarization-nulling method,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 88–90, 2001.
[CrossRef]

Liu, X.

X. Liu, Y.-H. Kao, S. Chandrasekhar, I. Kang, S. Cabot, and L. L. Buhl, “OSNR monitoring method for OOK and DPSK based on optical delay interferometer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1172–1174 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lynch, M.

E. Flood, W. G. Guo, D. Reid, M. Lynch, A. L. Bradley, L. P. Barry, and J. F. Donegan, “OSNR monitoring using two fiber interferometers,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper OWB3.

Maruta, A.

Nelson, L. E.

N. Chitrik, J. M. Oh, L. E. Nelson, and M. Brodsky, “In-band interferometric estimation of OSNR for PolMux Qpsk signals with unknown filter history,” in Proceedings of the 21st Annual Meeting of the Lasers and Electro-Optics Society (IEEE, 2008), pp. 537–538.
[CrossRef]

M. Brodsky, J. M. Oh, L. E. Nelson, and M. D. Feuer, “Sensitivity of interferometric OSNR measurements techniques to the variation in signal extinction ratio,” in Proceedings of the 34th European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC, 2008), paper We.1.D.6.
[CrossRef]

Oh, J. M.

M. Brodsky, J. M. Oh, L. E. Nelson, and M. D. Feuer, “Sensitivity of interferometric OSNR measurements techniques to the variation in signal extinction ratio,” in Proceedings of the 34th European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC, 2008), paper We.1.D.6.
[CrossRef]

N. Chitrik, J. M. Oh, L. E. Nelson, and M. Brodsky, “In-band interferometric estimation of OSNR for PolMux Qpsk signals with unknown filter history,” in Proceedings of the 21st Annual Meeting of the Lasers and Electro-Optics Society (IEEE, 2008), pp. 537–538.
[CrossRef]

Pelayo, J.

J. Subias, J. Pelayo, F. Villuendas, C. Heras, and E. Pellejer, “Very high resolution optical spectrometry by stimulated Brillouin scattering,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 855–857 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pellejer, E.

J. Subias, J. Pelayo, F. Villuendas, C. Heras, and E. Pellejer, “Very high resolution optical spectrometry by stimulated Brillouin scattering,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 855–857 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Reid, D.

E. Flood, W. G. Guo, D. Reid, M. Lynch, A. L. Bradley, L. P. Barry, and J. F. Donegan, “OSNR monitoring using two fiber interferometers,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper OWB3.

Subias, J.

J. Subias, J. Pelayo, F. Villuendas, C. Heras, and E. Pellejer, “Very high resolution optical spectrometry by stimulated Brillouin scattering,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 855–857 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Takushima, Y.

H. Y. Choi, Y. Takushima, and Y. C. Chung, “OSNR monitoring technique for DPSK/DQPSK signals based on self-heterodyne detection,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1124–1126 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Villuendas, F.

J. Subias, J. Pelayo, F. Villuendas, C. Heras, and E. Pellejer, “Very high resolution optical spectrometry by stimulated Brillouin scattering,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 855–857 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

C. Floridia and J. C. de Moraes, “Fast on-line OSNR measurements based on polarization-nulling method with downhill simplex algorithm” Electron. Lett. 44, 926–927 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (6)

M-H. Cheung, L-K. Chen, and C-K. Chan, “PMD-insensitive OSNR monitoring based on polarization-nulling with off-center narrow-band filtering,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2562–2564 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Y. Choi, Y. Takushima, and Y. C. Chung, “OSNR monitoring technique for DPSK/DQPSK signals based on self-heterodyne detection,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1124–1126 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X. Liu, Y.-H. Kao, S. Chandrasekhar, I. Kang, S. Cabot, and L. L. Buhl, “OSNR monitoring method for OOK and DPSK based on optical delay interferometer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1172–1174 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Bakaul, “Low-cost PMD-insensitive and dispersion tolerant in-band OSNR monitor based on uncorrelated beat noise measurement,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 906–908(2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Subias, J. Pelayo, F. Villuendas, C. Heras, and E. Pellejer, “Very high resolution optical spectrometry by stimulated Brillouin scattering,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 855–857 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Lee, D. K. Jung, C. H. Kim, and Y. C. Chung, “OSNR monitoring technique using polarization-nulling method,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 88–90, 2001.
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Other (4)

N. Chitrik, J. M. Oh, L. E. Nelson, and M. Brodsky, “In-band interferometric estimation of OSNR for PolMux Qpsk signals with unknown filter history,” in Proceedings of the 21st Annual Meeting of the Lasers and Electro-Optics Society (IEEE, 2008), pp. 537–538.
[CrossRef]

E. Flood, W. G. Guo, D. Reid, M. Lynch, A. L. Bradley, L. P. Barry, and J. F. Donegan, “OSNR monitoring using two fiber interferometers,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper OWB3.

M. Brodsky, J. M. Oh, L. E. Nelson, and M. D. Feuer, “Sensitivity of interferometric OSNR measurements techniques to the variation in signal extinction ratio,” in Proceedings of the 34th European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC, 2008), paper We.1.D.6.
[CrossRef]

C-J. Chae and T. B. Anderson, “OSNR monitoring of 40 Gb/s differential PSK signals using a DC detector and a very low frequency band-pass filter,” in Proceedings of the LEOS Annual Meeting (IEEE, 2009), pp. 133–134.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Poincaré sphere representing the polarization states of the SUT: ASE component is placed in the unpolarized center, signal SOP rotates along the BA for its different wavelengths (dotted circumference), the projection of the SOP on the polarizing filter axis (PFA) determines the suppression of the signal, being maximum when the SOP is P sup .

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

High-resolution spectrum of the SUT at the input of the measurement system.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Proposed experimental setup.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

High-resolution spectrum of the SUT at the output of the measurement system and output when the SUT only contains ASE.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Minima in the output spectrum stop at the ASE level, enabling the measurement.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

OSNR values measured with our setup compared with those obtained from separate measurements of signal and noise.

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