Abstract

Laser tomography and multiconjugate adaptive optics are under development for ground-based extremely large telescopes. Continuous wave sodium guide star lasers are planned for these systems, but their use raises some difficulties due to the extended nature of the beacons generated in the mesosphere and their spatiotemporal variability. We describe a performance analysis on the impact of laser launch telescope (LLT) location for the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) multiconjugate adaptive optics system. A semianalytical first-order noise propagation calculation is presented, supplemented by end-to-end Monte Carlo physical optics simulations. The principal conclusion of the study is that modestly superior performance is achieved with multiple LLT locations around the primary mirror, compared to a single central LLT behind the secondary mirror, but the largest value of any of these improvements is of the order of 20 nm rms for the expected wavefront sensor noise levels, suggesting that the final choice of geometry should depend primarily on the cost and complexity of implementation trade-off. This conclusion is also fully supported by the fact that, for the TMT 70arcsec laser guide star (LGS) asterism, the fratricide effect reduces the performance of the central launch geometry by only a small amount. The reduction ranges from only a few nm rms at zenith to a few tens of nm at a 45° zenith angle in the worst case that the effect cannot be calibrated.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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  1. E. Diolaiti, J.-M. Conan, I. Foppiani, M. Lombini, C. Petit, C. Robert, L. Schreiber, P. Ciliegi, E. Marchetti, M. Bellazzini, L. Busoni, S. Esposito, T. Fusco, N. Hubin, F. Quiros-Pacheco, A. Baruffolo, S. D’Odorico, J. Farinato, B. Neichel, R. Ragazzoni, C. Arcidiacono, V. Biliotti, G. Bregoli, G. Cosentino, and G. Innocenti, “A preliminary overview of the multi-conjugate adaptive optics module for the E-ELT,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70150U (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. Johns, “Progress on the GMT,” Proc. SPIE 7012, 70121B (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  3. B. Ellerbroek, S. Adkins, D. Andersen, J. Atwood, C. Boyer, P. Byrnes, R. Conan, L. Gilles, G. Herriot, P. Hickson, E. Hileman, D. Joyce, B. Leckie, M. Liang, T. Pfrommer, J.-C. Sinquin, J.-P. Véran, L. Wang, and P. Welle, “Progress toward developing the TMT adaptive optical systems and their components,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70150R (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  4. T. Pfrommer, P. Hickson, and C. Y. She, “A large-aperture sodium fluorescence lidar with very high resolution for mesopause dynamics and adaptive optics studies,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 36, L15831 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  5. L. Gilles and B. Ellerbroek, “Constrained matched filtering for extended dynamic range and improved noise rejection for Shack–Hartmann wavefront sensing,” Opt. Lett. 33, 1159–1161 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. R. Conan, O. Lardière, C. Bradley, G. Herriot, and K. Jackson, “Modeling the Thirty Meter Telescope matched filter based LGS wavefront sensing,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70154S (2008).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  15. L. Gilles and B. Ellerbroek, “Shack–Hartmann wavefront sensing with elongated sodium laser beacons: Centroiding versus matched filtering,” Appl. Opt. 45, 6568–6576(2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. L. Gilles and B. Ellerbroek, “Constrained matched filtering for extended dynamic range and improved noise rejection for Shack–Hartmann wavefront sensing,” Opt. Lett. 33, 1159–1161 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. R. Holzlöhner, S. M. Rochester, T. Pfrommer, D. B. Calia, D. Budker, J. M. Higbie, and W. Hackenberg, “Laser guide star return flux simulations based on observed sodium density profiles,” Proc. SPIE 7736, 77360V (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  18. P. V.Prasanth, V. Sivakumar, S. Sridharan, Y.B. Kumar, H. Bencherif, and D.N. Rao, “Lidar observations of sodium layer over low latitude, Gadinki (13.5 °N, 79.2 °E): Seasonal and nocturnal variations,” Ann. Geophys. 27, 3811–3823(2009).
    [CrossRef]
  19. D. Fussen, F. Vanhellemont, C. Bingen, E. Kyrölä, J. Tamminen, V. Sofieva, S. Hassinen, A. Seppälä, P. Verronen, J.-L. Bertaux, A. Hauchecorne, F. Dalaudier, J.-B. Renard, R. Fraisse, O. F.d’Andon, G. Barrot, A. Mangin, B. Théodore, M. Guirlet, R. Koopman, P. Snoeij, and L. Saavedra, “Global measurement of the mesospheric sodium layer by the star occultation instrument GOMOS,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 31, L24110 (2004).
    [CrossRef]

2010 (6)

E. Diolaiti, J.-M. Conan, I. Foppiani, M. Lombini, E. Marchetti, C. Petit, C. Robert, L. Schreiber, A. Baruffolo, M. Bellazzini, G. Bregoli, P. Ciliego, G. Cosentino, V. Biliotti, S. D’Odorico, T. Fusco, N. Hubin, S. Meimon, and J.-F. Sauvage, “Towards the phase A review of MAORY, the multi-conjugate adaptive optics module for the E-ELT,” in First Adaptive Optics for Extremely Large Telescope Conference (EDP Sciences, 2010), 02007-p1–02007-p5, available online at http://ao4elt.edpsciences.org.

C. Robert, J.-M. Conan, D. Gratadour, C. Petit, and T. Fusco, “Shack–Hartmann tomographic wavefront reconstruction using LGS: analysis of spot elongation and fratricide effect,” in First Adaptive Optics for Extremely Large Telescope Conference (EDP Sciences, 2010), 05010-p1–05010-p6, available online at http://ao4elt.edpsciences.org.

L. Wang, A. Otarola, and B. Ellerbroek, “Impact of sodium laser guide star fratricide on multi-conjugate adaptive optics systems,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 27, A19–A28 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Wang, A. Otarola, and B. Ellerbroek, “Impact of laser guide star fratricide on TMT MCAO system,” Proc. SPIE 7736, 77360G (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Gilles, L. Wang, and B. Ellerbroek, “Modeling update for the Thirty Meter Telescope laser guide star dual-conjugate adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 7736, 77360W(2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Holzlöhner, S. M. Rochester, T. Pfrommer, D. B. Calia, D. Budker, J. M. Higbie, and W. Hackenberg, “Laser guide star return flux simulations based on observed sodium density profiles,” Proc. SPIE 7736, 77360V (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

P. V.Prasanth, V. Sivakumar, S. Sridharan, Y.B. Kumar, H. Bencherif, and D.N. Rao, “Lidar observations of sodium layer over low latitude, Gadinki (13.5 °N, 79.2 °E): Seasonal and nocturnal variations,” Ann. Geophys. 27, 3811–3823(2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Pfrommer, P. Hickson, and C. Y. She, “A large-aperture sodium fluorescence lidar with very high resolution for mesopause dynamics and adaptive optics studies,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 36, L15831 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (8)

L. Gilles and B. Ellerbroek, “Constrained matched filtering for extended dynamic range and improved noise rejection for Shack–Hartmann wavefront sensing,” Opt. Lett. 33, 1159–1161 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Conan, O. Lardière, C. Bradley, G. Herriot, and K. Jackson, “Modeling the Thirty Meter Telescope matched filter based LGS wavefront sensing,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70154S (2008).
[CrossRef]

O. Lardiére, R. Conan, C. Bradley, G. Herriot, and K. Jackson, “Laser guide star wavefront sensing for TMT: Experimental results of the matched filtering,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70154T (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Tallon, I. Tallon-Bosc, C. Béchet, and E. Thiébaut, “Shack–Hartmann wavefront reconstruction with elongated sodium laser guide stars: Improvements with priors and noise correlations,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70151N (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. Diolaiti, J.-M. Conan, I. Foppiani, M. Lombini, C. Petit, C. Robert, L. Schreiber, P. Ciliegi, E. Marchetti, M. Bellazzini, L. Busoni, S. Esposito, T. Fusco, N. Hubin, F. Quiros-Pacheco, A. Baruffolo, S. D’Odorico, J. Farinato, B. Neichel, R. Ragazzoni, C. Arcidiacono, V. Biliotti, G. Bregoli, G. Cosentino, and G. Innocenti, “A preliminary overview of the multi-conjugate adaptive optics module for the E-ELT,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70150U (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Johns, “Progress on the GMT,” Proc. SPIE 7012, 70121B (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Ellerbroek, S. Adkins, D. Andersen, J. Atwood, C. Boyer, P. Byrnes, R. Conan, L. Gilles, G. Herriot, P. Hickson, E. Hileman, D. Joyce, B. Leckie, M. Liang, T. Pfrommer, J.-C. Sinquin, J.-P. Véran, L. Wang, and P. Welle, “Progress toward developing the TMT adaptive optical systems and their components,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70150R (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Gilles and B. Ellerbroek, “Constrained matched filtering for extended dynamic range and improved noise rejection for Shack–Hartmann wavefront sensing,” Opt. Lett. 33, 1159–1161 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

2004 (1)

D. Fussen, F. Vanhellemont, C. Bingen, E. Kyrölä, J. Tamminen, V. Sofieva, S. Hassinen, A. Seppälä, P. Verronen, J.-L. Bertaux, A. Hauchecorne, F. Dalaudier, J.-B. Renard, R. Fraisse, O. F.d’Andon, G. Barrot, A. Mangin, B. Théodore, M. Guirlet, R. Koopman, P. Snoeij, and L. Saavedra, “Global measurement of the mesospheric sodium layer by the star occultation instrument GOMOS,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 31, L24110 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

Adkins, S.

B. Ellerbroek, S. Adkins, D. Andersen, J. Atwood, C. Boyer, P. Byrnes, R. Conan, L. Gilles, G. Herriot, P. Hickson, E. Hileman, D. Joyce, B. Leckie, M. Liang, T. Pfrommer, J.-C. Sinquin, J.-P. Véran, L. Wang, and P. Welle, “Progress toward developing the TMT adaptive optical systems and their components,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70150R (2008).
[CrossRef]

Andersen, D.

B. Ellerbroek, S. Adkins, D. Andersen, J. Atwood, C. Boyer, P. Byrnes, R. Conan, L. Gilles, G. Herriot, P. Hickson, E. Hileman, D. Joyce, B. Leckie, M. Liang, T. Pfrommer, J.-C. Sinquin, J.-P. Véran, L. Wang, and P. Welle, “Progress toward developing the TMT adaptive optical systems and their components,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70150R (2008).
[CrossRef]

Arcidiacono, C.

E. Diolaiti, J.-M. Conan, I. Foppiani, M. Lombini, C. Petit, C. Robert, L. Schreiber, P. Ciliegi, E. Marchetti, M. Bellazzini, L. Busoni, S. Esposito, T. Fusco, N. Hubin, F. Quiros-Pacheco, A. Baruffolo, S. D’Odorico, J. Farinato, B. Neichel, R. Ragazzoni, C. Arcidiacono, V. Biliotti, G. Bregoli, G. Cosentino, and G. Innocenti, “A preliminary overview of the multi-conjugate adaptive optics module for the E-ELT,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70150U (2008).
[CrossRef]

Argall, P. S.

Atwood, J.

B. Ellerbroek, S. Adkins, D. Andersen, J. Atwood, C. Boyer, P. Byrnes, R. Conan, L. Gilles, G. Herriot, P. Hickson, E. Hileman, D. Joyce, B. Leckie, M. Liang, T. Pfrommer, J.-C. Sinquin, J.-P. Véran, L. Wang, and P. Welle, “Progress toward developing the TMT adaptive optical systems and their components,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70150R (2008).
[CrossRef]

Barrot, G.

D. Fussen, F. Vanhellemont, C. Bingen, E. Kyrölä, J. Tamminen, V. Sofieva, S. Hassinen, A. Seppälä, P. Verronen, J.-L. Bertaux, A. Hauchecorne, F. Dalaudier, J.-B. Renard, R. Fraisse, O. F.d’Andon, G. Barrot, A. Mangin, B. Théodore, M. Guirlet, R. Koopman, P. Snoeij, and L. Saavedra, “Global measurement of the mesospheric sodium layer by the star occultation instrument GOMOS,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 31, L24110 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Baruffolo, A.

E. Diolaiti, J.-M. Conan, I. Foppiani, M. Lombini, E. Marchetti, C. Petit, C. Robert, L. Schreiber, A. Baruffolo, M. Bellazzini, G. Bregoli, P. Ciliego, G. Cosentino, V. Biliotti, S. D’Odorico, T. Fusco, N. Hubin, S. Meimon, and J.-F. Sauvage, “Towards the phase A review of MAORY, the multi-conjugate adaptive optics module for the E-ELT,” in First Adaptive Optics for Extremely Large Telescope Conference (EDP Sciences, 2010), 02007-p1–02007-p5, available online at http://ao4elt.edpsciences.org.

E. Diolaiti, J.-M. Conan, I. Foppiani, M. Lombini, C. Petit, C. Robert, L. Schreiber, P. Ciliegi, E. Marchetti, M. Bellazzini, L. Busoni, S. Esposito, T. Fusco, N. Hubin, F. Quiros-Pacheco, A. Baruffolo, S. D’Odorico, J. Farinato, B. Neichel, R. Ragazzoni, C. Arcidiacono, V. Biliotti, G. Bregoli, G. Cosentino, and G. Innocenti, “A preliminary overview of the multi-conjugate adaptive optics module for the E-ELT,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70150U (2008).
[CrossRef]

Béchet, C.

M. Tallon, I. Tallon-Bosc, C. Béchet, and E. Thiébaut, “Shack–Hartmann wavefront reconstruction with elongated sodium laser guide stars: Improvements with priors and noise correlations,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70151N (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bellazzini, M.

E. Diolaiti, J.-M. Conan, I. Foppiani, M. Lombini, E. Marchetti, C. Petit, C. Robert, L. Schreiber, A. Baruffolo, M. Bellazzini, G. Bregoli, P. Ciliego, G. Cosentino, V. Biliotti, S. D’Odorico, T. Fusco, N. Hubin, S. Meimon, and J.-F. Sauvage, “Towards the phase A review of MAORY, the multi-conjugate adaptive optics module for the E-ELT,” in First Adaptive Optics for Extremely Large Telescope Conference (EDP Sciences, 2010), 02007-p1–02007-p5, available online at http://ao4elt.edpsciences.org.

E. Diolaiti, J.-M. Conan, I. Foppiani, M. Lombini, C. Petit, C. Robert, L. Schreiber, P. Ciliegi, E. Marchetti, M. Bellazzini, L. Busoni, S. Esposito, T. Fusco, N. Hubin, F. Quiros-Pacheco, A. Baruffolo, S. D’Odorico, J. Farinato, B. Neichel, R. Ragazzoni, C. Arcidiacono, V. Biliotti, G. Bregoli, G. Cosentino, and G. Innocenti, “A preliminary overview of the multi-conjugate adaptive optics module for the E-ELT,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70150U (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bencherif, H.

P. V.Prasanth, V. Sivakumar, S. Sridharan, Y.B. Kumar, H. Bencherif, and D.N. Rao, “Lidar observations of sodium layer over low latitude, Gadinki (13.5 °N, 79.2 °E): Seasonal and nocturnal variations,” Ann. Geophys. 27, 3811–3823(2009).
[CrossRef]

Bertaux, J.-L.

D. Fussen, F. Vanhellemont, C. Bingen, E. Kyrölä, J. Tamminen, V. Sofieva, S. Hassinen, A. Seppälä, P. Verronen, J.-L. Bertaux, A. Hauchecorne, F. Dalaudier, J.-B. Renard, R. Fraisse, O. F.d’Andon, G. Barrot, A. Mangin, B. Théodore, M. Guirlet, R. Koopman, P. Snoeij, and L. Saavedra, “Global measurement of the mesospheric sodium layer by the star occultation instrument GOMOS,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 31, L24110 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Biliotti, V.

E. Diolaiti, J.-M. Conan, I. Foppiani, M. Lombini, E. Marchetti, C. Petit, C. Robert, L. Schreiber, A. Baruffolo, M. Bellazzini, G. Bregoli, P. Ciliego, G. Cosentino, V. Biliotti, S. D’Odorico, T. Fusco, N. Hubin, S. Meimon, and J.-F. Sauvage, “Towards the phase A review of MAORY, the multi-conjugate adaptive optics module for the E-ELT,” in First Adaptive Optics for Extremely Large Telescope Conference (EDP Sciences, 2010), 02007-p1–02007-p5, available online at http://ao4elt.edpsciences.org.

E. Diolaiti, J.-M. Conan, I. Foppiani, M. Lombini, C. Petit, C. Robert, L. Schreiber, P. Ciliegi, E. Marchetti, M. Bellazzini, L. Busoni, S. Esposito, T. Fusco, N. Hubin, F. Quiros-Pacheco, A. Baruffolo, S. D’Odorico, J. Farinato, B. Neichel, R. Ragazzoni, C. Arcidiacono, V. Biliotti, G. Bregoli, G. Cosentino, and G. Innocenti, “A preliminary overview of the multi-conjugate adaptive optics module for the E-ELT,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70150U (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bingen, C.

D. Fussen, F. Vanhellemont, C. Bingen, E. Kyrölä, J. Tamminen, V. Sofieva, S. Hassinen, A. Seppälä, P. Verronen, J.-L. Bertaux, A. Hauchecorne, F. Dalaudier, J.-B. Renard, R. Fraisse, O. F.d’Andon, G. Barrot, A. Mangin, B. Théodore, M. Guirlet, R. Koopman, P. Snoeij, and L. Saavedra, “Global measurement of the mesospheric sodium layer by the star occultation instrument GOMOS,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 31, L24110 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Boyer, C.

B. Ellerbroek, S. Adkins, D. Andersen, J. Atwood, C. Boyer, P. Byrnes, R. Conan, L. Gilles, G. Herriot, P. Hickson, E. Hileman, D. Joyce, B. Leckie, M. Liang, T. Pfrommer, J.-C. Sinquin, J.-P. Véran, L. Wang, and P. Welle, “Progress toward developing the TMT adaptive optical systems and their components,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70150R (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bradley, C.

R. Conan, O. Lardière, C. Bradley, G. Herriot, and K. Jackson, “Modeling the Thirty Meter Telescope matched filter based LGS wavefront sensing,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70154S (2008).
[CrossRef]

O. Lardiére, R. Conan, C. Bradley, G. Herriot, and K. Jackson, “Laser guide star wavefront sensing for TMT: Experimental results of the matched filtering,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70154T (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bregoli, G.

E. Diolaiti, J.-M. Conan, I. Foppiani, M. Lombini, E. Marchetti, C. Petit, C. Robert, L. Schreiber, A. Baruffolo, M. Bellazzini, G. Bregoli, P. Ciliego, G. Cosentino, V. Biliotti, S. D’Odorico, T. Fusco, N. Hubin, S. Meimon, and J.-F. Sauvage, “Towards the phase A review of MAORY, the multi-conjugate adaptive optics module for the E-ELT,” in First Adaptive Optics for Extremely Large Telescope Conference (EDP Sciences, 2010), 02007-p1–02007-p5, available online at http://ao4elt.edpsciences.org.

E. Diolaiti, J.-M. Conan, I. Foppiani, M. Lombini, C. Petit, C. Robert, L. Schreiber, P. Ciliegi, E. Marchetti, M. Bellazzini, L. Busoni, S. Esposito, T. Fusco, N. Hubin, F. Quiros-Pacheco, A. Baruffolo, S. D’Odorico, J. Farinato, B. Neichel, R. Ragazzoni, C. Arcidiacono, V. Biliotti, G. Bregoli, G. Cosentino, and G. Innocenti, “A preliminary overview of the multi-conjugate adaptive optics module for the E-ELT,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70150U (2008).
[CrossRef]

Budker, D.

R. Holzlöhner, S. M. Rochester, T. Pfrommer, D. B. Calia, D. Budker, J. M. Higbie, and W. Hackenberg, “Laser guide star return flux simulations based on observed sodium density profiles,” Proc. SPIE 7736, 77360V (2010).
[CrossRef]

Busoni, L.

E. Diolaiti, J.-M. Conan, I. Foppiani, M. Lombini, C. Petit, C. Robert, L. Schreiber, P. Ciliegi, E. Marchetti, M. Bellazzini, L. Busoni, S. Esposito, T. Fusco, N. Hubin, F. Quiros-Pacheco, A. Baruffolo, S. D’Odorico, J. Farinato, B. Neichel, R. Ragazzoni, C. Arcidiacono, V. Biliotti, G. Bregoli, G. Cosentino, and G. Innocenti, “A preliminary overview of the multi-conjugate adaptive optics module for the E-ELT,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70150U (2008).
[CrossRef]

Byrnes, P.

B. Ellerbroek, S. Adkins, D. Andersen, J. Atwood, C. Boyer, P. Byrnes, R. Conan, L. Gilles, G. Herriot, P. Hickson, E. Hileman, D. Joyce, B. Leckie, M. Liang, T. Pfrommer, J.-C. Sinquin, J.-P. Véran, L. Wang, and P. Welle, “Progress toward developing the TMT adaptive optical systems and their components,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70150R (2008).
[CrossRef]

Calia, D. B.

R. Holzlöhner, S. M. Rochester, T. Pfrommer, D. B. Calia, D. Budker, J. M. Higbie, and W. Hackenberg, “Laser guide star return flux simulations based on observed sodium density profiles,” Proc. SPIE 7736, 77360V (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ciliegi, P.

E. Diolaiti, J.-M. Conan, I. Foppiani, M. Lombini, C. Petit, C. Robert, L. Schreiber, P. Ciliegi, E. Marchetti, M. Bellazzini, L. Busoni, S. Esposito, T. Fusco, N. Hubin, F. Quiros-Pacheco, A. Baruffolo, S. D’Odorico, J. Farinato, B. Neichel, R. Ragazzoni, C. Arcidiacono, V. Biliotti, G. Bregoli, G. Cosentino, and G. Innocenti, “A preliminary overview of the multi-conjugate adaptive optics module for the E-ELT,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70150U (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ciliego, P.

E. Diolaiti, J.-M. Conan, I. Foppiani, M. Lombini, E. Marchetti, C. Petit, C. Robert, L. Schreiber, A. Baruffolo, M. Bellazzini, G. Bregoli, P. Ciliego, G. Cosentino, V. Biliotti, S. D’Odorico, T. Fusco, N. Hubin, S. Meimon, and J.-F. Sauvage, “Towards the phase A review of MAORY, the multi-conjugate adaptive optics module for the E-ELT,” in First Adaptive Optics for Extremely Large Telescope Conference (EDP Sciences, 2010), 02007-p1–02007-p5, available online at http://ao4elt.edpsciences.org.

Conan, J.-M.

E. Diolaiti, J.-M. Conan, I. Foppiani, M. Lombini, E. Marchetti, C. Petit, C. Robert, L. Schreiber, A. Baruffolo, M. Bellazzini, G. Bregoli, P. Ciliego, G. Cosentino, V. Biliotti, S. D’Odorico, T. Fusco, N. Hubin, S. Meimon, and J.-F. Sauvage, “Towards the phase A review of MAORY, the multi-conjugate adaptive optics module for the E-ELT,” in First Adaptive Optics for Extremely Large Telescope Conference (EDP Sciences, 2010), 02007-p1–02007-p5, available online at http://ao4elt.edpsciences.org.

C. Robert, J.-M. Conan, D. Gratadour, C. Petit, and T. Fusco, “Shack–Hartmann tomographic wavefront reconstruction using LGS: analysis of spot elongation and fratricide effect,” in First Adaptive Optics for Extremely Large Telescope Conference (EDP Sciences, 2010), 05010-p1–05010-p6, available online at http://ao4elt.edpsciences.org.

E. Diolaiti, J.-M. Conan, I. Foppiani, M. Lombini, C. Petit, C. Robert, L. Schreiber, P. Ciliegi, E. Marchetti, M. Bellazzini, L. Busoni, S. Esposito, T. Fusco, N. Hubin, F. Quiros-Pacheco, A. Baruffolo, S. D’Odorico, J. Farinato, B. Neichel, R. Ragazzoni, C. Arcidiacono, V. Biliotti, G. Bregoli, G. Cosentino, and G. Innocenti, “A preliminary overview of the multi-conjugate adaptive optics module for the E-ELT,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70150U (2008).
[CrossRef]

Conan, R.

B. Ellerbroek, S. Adkins, D. Andersen, J. Atwood, C. Boyer, P. Byrnes, R. Conan, L. Gilles, G. Herriot, P. Hickson, E. Hileman, D. Joyce, B. Leckie, M. Liang, T. Pfrommer, J.-C. Sinquin, J.-P. Véran, L. Wang, and P. Welle, “Progress toward developing the TMT adaptive optical systems and their components,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70150R (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Conan, O. Lardière, C. Bradley, G. Herriot, and K. Jackson, “Modeling the Thirty Meter Telescope matched filter based LGS wavefront sensing,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70154S (2008).
[CrossRef]

O. Lardiére, R. Conan, C. Bradley, G. Herriot, and K. Jackson, “Laser guide star wavefront sensing for TMT: Experimental results of the matched filtering,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70154T (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cosentino, G.

E. Diolaiti, J.-M. Conan, I. Foppiani, M. Lombini, E. Marchetti, C. Petit, C. Robert, L. Schreiber, A. Baruffolo, M. Bellazzini, G. Bregoli, P. Ciliego, G. Cosentino, V. Biliotti, S. D’Odorico, T. Fusco, N. Hubin, S. Meimon, and J.-F. Sauvage, “Towards the phase A review of MAORY, the multi-conjugate adaptive optics module for the E-ELT,” in First Adaptive Optics for Extremely Large Telescope Conference (EDP Sciences, 2010), 02007-p1–02007-p5, available online at http://ao4elt.edpsciences.org.

E. Diolaiti, J.-M. Conan, I. Foppiani, M. Lombini, C. Petit, C. Robert, L. Schreiber, P. Ciliegi, E. Marchetti, M. Bellazzini, L. Busoni, S. Esposito, T. Fusco, N. Hubin, F. Quiros-Pacheco, A. Baruffolo, S. D’Odorico, J. Farinato, B. Neichel, R. Ragazzoni, C. Arcidiacono, V. Biliotti, G. Bregoli, G. Cosentino, and G. Innocenti, “A preliminary overview of the multi-conjugate adaptive optics module for the E-ELT,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70150U (2008).
[CrossRef]

d’Andon, O. F.

D. Fussen, F. Vanhellemont, C. Bingen, E. Kyrölä, J. Tamminen, V. Sofieva, S. Hassinen, A. Seppälä, P. Verronen, J.-L. Bertaux, A. Hauchecorne, F. Dalaudier, J.-B. Renard, R. Fraisse, O. F.d’Andon, G. Barrot, A. Mangin, B. Théodore, M. Guirlet, R. Koopman, P. Snoeij, and L. Saavedra, “Global measurement of the mesospheric sodium layer by the star occultation instrument GOMOS,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 31, L24110 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D’Odorico, S.

E. Diolaiti, J.-M. Conan, I. Foppiani, M. Lombini, E. Marchetti, C. Petit, C. Robert, L. Schreiber, A. Baruffolo, M. Bellazzini, G. Bregoli, P. Ciliego, G. Cosentino, V. Biliotti, S. D’Odorico, T. Fusco, N. Hubin, S. Meimon, and J.-F. Sauvage, “Towards the phase A review of MAORY, the multi-conjugate adaptive optics module for the E-ELT,” in First Adaptive Optics for Extremely Large Telescope Conference (EDP Sciences, 2010), 02007-p1–02007-p5, available online at http://ao4elt.edpsciences.org.

E. Diolaiti, J.-M. Conan, I. Foppiani, M. Lombini, C. Petit, C. Robert, L. Schreiber, P. Ciliegi, E. Marchetti, M. Bellazzini, L. Busoni, S. Esposito, T. Fusco, N. Hubin, F. Quiros-Pacheco, A. Baruffolo, S. D’Odorico, J. Farinato, B. Neichel, R. Ragazzoni, C. Arcidiacono, V. Biliotti, G. Bregoli, G. Cosentino, and G. Innocenti, “A preliminary overview of the multi-conjugate adaptive optics module for the E-ELT,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70150U (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dalaudier, F.

D. Fussen, F. Vanhellemont, C. Bingen, E. Kyrölä, J. Tamminen, V. Sofieva, S. Hassinen, A. Seppälä, P. Verronen, J.-L. Bertaux, A. Hauchecorne, F. Dalaudier, J.-B. Renard, R. Fraisse, O. F.d’Andon, G. Barrot, A. Mangin, B. Théodore, M. Guirlet, R. Koopman, P. Snoeij, and L. Saavedra, “Global measurement of the mesospheric sodium layer by the star occultation instrument GOMOS,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 31, L24110 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Diolaiti, E.

E. Diolaiti, J.-M. Conan, I. Foppiani, M. Lombini, E. Marchetti, C. Petit, C. Robert, L. Schreiber, A. Baruffolo, M. Bellazzini, G. Bregoli, P. Ciliego, G. Cosentino, V. Biliotti, S. D’Odorico, T. Fusco, N. Hubin, S. Meimon, and J.-F. Sauvage, “Towards the phase A review of MAORY, the multi-conjugate adaptive optics module for the E-ELT,” in First Adaptive Optics for Extremely Large Telescope Conference (EDP Sciences, 2010), 02007-p1–02007-p5, available online at http://ao4elt.edpsciences.org.

E. Diolaiti, J.-M. Conan, I. Foppiani, M. Lombini, C. Petit, C. Robert, L. Schreiber, P. Ciliegi, E. Marchetti, M. Bellazzini, L. Busoni, S. Esposito, T. Fusco, N. Hubin, F. Quiros-Pacheco, A. Baruffolo, S. D’Odorico, J. Farinato, B. Neichel, R. Ragazzoni, C. Arcidiacono, V. Biliotti, G. Bregoli, G. Cosentino, and G. Innocenti, “A preliminary overview of the multi-conjugate adaptive optics module for the E-ELT,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70150U (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ellerbroek, B.

L. Wang, A. Otarola, and B. Ellerbroek, “Impact of sodium laser guide star fratricide on multi-conjugate adaptive optics systems,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 27, A19–A28 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Wang, A. Otarola, and B. Ellerbroek, “Impact of laser guide star fratricide on TMT MCAO system,” Proc. SPIE 7736, 77360G (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Gilles, L. Wang, and B. Ellerbroek, “Modeling update for the Thirty Meter Telescope laser guide star dual-conjugate adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 7736, 77360W(2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Gilles and B. Ellerbroek, “Constrained matched filtering for extended dynamic range and improved noise rejection for Shack–Hartmann wavefront sensing,” Opt. Lett. 33, 1159–1161 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Ellerbroek, S. Adkins, D. Andersen, J. Atwood, C. Boyer, P. Byrnes, R. Conan, L. Gilles, G. Herriot, P. Hickson, E. Hileman, D. Joyce, B. Leckie, M. Liang, T. Pfrommer, J.-C. Sinquin, J.-P. Véran, L. Wang, and P. Welle, “Progress toward developing the TMT adaptive optical systems and their components,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70150R (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Gilles and B. Ellerbroek, “Constrained matched filtering for extended dynamic range and improved noise rejection for Shack–Hartmann wavefront sensing,” Opt. Lett. 33, 1159–1161 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Gilles and B. Ellerbroek, “Shack–Hartmann wavefront sensing with elongated sodium laser beacons: Centroiding versus matched filtering,” Appl. Opt. 45, 6568–6576(2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Esposito, S.

E. Diolaiti, J.-M. Conan, I. Foppiani, M. Lombini, C. Petit, C. Robert, L. Schreiber, P. Ciliegi, E. Marchetti, M. Bellazzini, L. Busoni, S. Esposito, T. Fusco, N. Hubin, F. Quiros-Pacheco, A. Baruffolo, S. D’Odorico, J. Farinato, B. Neichel, R. Ragazzoni, C. Arcidiacono, V. Biliotti, G. Bregoli, G. Cosentino, and G. Innocenti, “A preliminary overview of the multi-conjugate adaptive optics module for the E-ELT,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70150U (2008).
[CrossRef]

Farinato, J.

E. Diolaiti, J.-M. Conan, I. Foppiani, M. Lombini, C. Petit, C. Robert, L. Schreiber, P. Ciliegi, E. Marchetti, M. Bellazzini, L. Busoni, S. Esposito, T. Fusco, N. Hubin, F. Quiros-Pacheco, A. Baruffolo, S. D’Odorico, J. Farinato, B. Neichel, R. Ragazzoni, C. Arcidiacono, V. Biliotti, G. Bregoli, G. Cosentino, and G. Innocenti, “A preliminary overview of the multi-conjugate adaptive optics module for the E-ELT,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70150U (2008).
[CrossRef]

Foppiani, I.

E. Diolaiti, J.-M. Conan, I. Foppiani, M. Lombini, E. Marchetti, C. Petit, C. Robert, L. Schreiber, A. Baruffolo, M. Bellazzini, G. Bregoli, P. Ciliego, G. Cosentino, V. Biliotti, S. D’Odorico, T. Fusco, N. Hubin, S. Meimon, and J.-F. Sauvage, “Towards the phase A review of MAORY, the multi-conjugate adaptive optics module for the E-ELT,” in First Adaptive Optics for Extremely Large Telescope Conference (EDP Sciences, 2010), 02007-p1–02007-p5, available online at http://ao4elt.edpsciences.org.

E. Diolaiti, J.-M. Conan, I. Foppiani, M. Lombini, C. Petit, C. Robert, L. Schreiber, P. Ciliegi, E. Marchetti, M. Bellazzini, L. Busoni, S. Esposito, T. Fusco, N. Hubin, F. Quiros-Pacheco, A. Baruffolo, S. D’Odorico, J. Farinato, B. Neichel, R. Ragazzoni, C. Arcidiacono, V. Biliotti, G. Bregoli, G. Cosentino, and G. Innocenti, “A preliminary overview of the multi-conjugate adaptive optics module for the E-ELT,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70150U (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fraisse, R.

D. Fussen, F. Vanhellemont, C. Bingen, E. Kyrölä, J. Tamminen, V. Sofieva, S. Hassinen, A. Seppälä, P. Verronen, J.-L. Bertaux, A. Hauchecorne, F. Dalaudier, J.-B. Renard, R. Fraisse, O. F.d’Andon, G. Barrot, A. Mangin, B. Théodore, M. Guirlet, R. Koopman, P. Snoeij, and L. Saavedra, “Global measurement of the mesospheric sodium layer by the star occultation instrument GOMOS,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 31, L24110 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fusco, T.

C. Robert, J.-M. Conan, D. Gratadour, C. Petit, and T. Fusco, “Shack–Hartmann tomographic wavefront reconstruction using LGS: analysis of spot elongation and fratricide effect,” in First Adaptive Optics for Extremely Large Telescope Conference (EDP Sciences, 2010), 05010-p1–05010-p6, available online at http://ao4elt.edpsciences.org.

E. Diolaiti, J.-M. Conan, I. Foppiani, M. Lombini, E. Marchetti, C. Petit, C. Robert, L. Schreiber, A. Baruffolo, M. Bellazzini, G. Bregoli, P. Ciliego, G. Cosentino, V. Biliotti, S. D’Odorico, T. Fusco, N. Hubin, S. Meimon, and J.-F. Sauvage, “Towards the phase A review of MAORY, the multi-conjugate adaptive optics module for the E-ELT,” in First Adaptive Optics for Extremely Large Telescope Conference (EDP Sciences, 2010), 02007-p1–02007-p5, available online at http://ao4elt.edpsciences.org.

E. Diolaiti, J.-M. Conan, I. Foppiani, M. Lombini, C. Petit, C. Robert, L. Schreiber, P. Ciliegi, E. Marchetti, M. Bellazzini, L. Busoni, S. Esposito, T. Fusco, N. Hubin, F. Quiros-Pacheco, A. Baruffolo, S. D’Odorico, J. Farinato, B. Neichel, R. Ragazzoni, C. Arcidiacono, V. Biliotti, G. Bregoli, G. Cosentino, and G. Innocenti, “A preliminary overview of the multi-conjugate adaptive optics module for the E-ELT,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70150U (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fussen, D.

D. Fussen, F. Vanhellemont, C. Bingen, E. Kyrölä, J. Tamminen, V. Sofieva, S. Hassinen, A. Seppälä, P. Verronen, J.-L. Bertaux, A. Hauchecorne, F. Dalaudier, J.-B. Renard, R. Fraisse, O. F.d’Andon, G. Barrot, A. Mangin, B. Théodore, M. Guirlet, R. Koopman, P. Snoeij, and L. Saavedra, “Global measurement of the mesospheric sodium layer by the star occultation instrument GOMOS,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 31, L24110 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gilles, L.

L. Gilles, L. Wang, and B. Ellerbroek, “Modeling update for the Thirty Meter Telescope laser guide star dual-conjugate adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 7736, 77360W(2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Gilles and B. Ellerbroek, “Constrained matched filtering for extended dynamic range and improved noise rejection for Shack–Hartmann wavefront sensing,” Opt. Lett. 33, 1159–1161 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Ellerbroek, S. Adkins, D. Andersen, J. Atwood, C. Boyer, P. Byrnes, R. Conan, L. Gilles, G. Herriot, P. Hickson, E. Hileman, D. Joyce, B. Leckie, M. Liang, T. Pfrommer, J.-C. Sinquin, J.-P. Véran, L. Wang, and P. Welle, “Progress toward developing the TMT adaptive optical systems and their components,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70150R (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Gilles and B. Ellerbroek, “Constrained matched filtering for extended dynamic range and improved noise rejection for Shack–Hartmann wavefront sensing,” Opt. Lett. 33, 1159–1161 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Gilles and B. Ellerbroek, “Shack–Hartmann wavefront sensing with elongated sodium laser beacons: Centroiding versus matched filtering,” Appl. Opt. 45, 6568–6576(2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gratadour, D.

C. Robert, J.-M. Conan, D. Gratadour, C. Petit, and T. Fusco, “Shack–Hartmann tomographic wavefront reconstruction using LGS: analysis of spot elongation and fratricide effect,” in First Adaptive Optics for Extremely Large Telescope Conference (EDP Sciences, 2010), 05010-p1–05010-p6, available online at http://ao4elt.edpsciences.org.

Guirlet, M.

D. Fussen, F. Vanhellemont, C. Bingen, E. Kyrölä, J. Tamminen, V. Sofieva, S. Hassinen, A. Seppälä, P. Verronen, J.-L. Bertaux, A. Hauchecorne, F. Dalaudier, J.-B. Renard, R. Fraisse, O. F.d’Andon, G. Barrot, A. Mangin, B. Théodore, M. Guirlet, R. Koopman, P. Snoeij, and L. Saavedra, “Global measurement of the mesospheric sodium layer by the star occultation instrument GOMOS,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 31, L24110 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hackenberg, W.

R. Holzlöhner, S. M. Rochester, T. Pfrommer, D. B. Calia, D. Budker, J. M. Higbie, and W. Hackenberg, “Laser guide star return flux simulations based on observed sodium density profiles,” Proc. SPIE 7736, 77360V (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hassinen, S.

D. Fussen, F. Vanhellemont, C. Bingen, E. Kyrölä, J. Tamminen, V. Sofieva, S. Hassinen, A. Seppälä, P. Verronen, J.-L. Bertaux, A. Hauchecorne, F. Dalaudier, J.-B. Renard, R. Fraisse, O. F.d’Andon, G. Barrot, A. Mangin, B. Théodore, M. Guirlet, R. Koopman, P. Snoeij, and L. Saavedra, “Global measurement of the mesospheric sodium layer by the star occultation instrument GOMOS,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 31, L24110 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hauchecorne, A.

D. Fussen, F. Vanhellemont, C. Bingen, E. Kyrölä, J. Tamminen, V. Sofieva, S. Hassinen, A. Seppälä, P. Verronen, J.-L. Bertaux, A. Hauchecorne, F. Dalaudier, J.-B. Renard, R. Fraisse, O. F.d’Andon, G. Barrot, A. Mangin, B. Théodore, M. Guirlet, R. Koopman, P. Snoeij, and L. Saavedra, “Global measurement of the mesospheric sodium layer by the star occultation instrument GOMOS,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 31, L24110 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Herriot, G.

O. Lardiére, R. Conan, C. Bradley, G. Herriot, and K. Jackson, “Laser guide star wavefront sensing for TMT: Experimental results of the matched filtering,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70154T (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Conan, O. Lardière, C. Bradley, G. Herriot, and K. Jackson, “Modeling the Thirty Meter Telescope matched filter based LGS wavefront sensing,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70154S (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Ellerbroek, S. Adkins, D. Andersen, J. Atwood, C. Boyer, P. Byrnes, R. Conan, L. Gilles, G. Herriot, P. Hickson, E. Hileman, D. Joyce, B. Leckie, M. Liang, T. Pfrommer, J.-C. Sinquin, J.-P. Véran, L. Wang, and P. Welle, “Progress toward developing the TMT adaptive optical systems and their components,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70150R (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hickson, P.

T. Pfrommer, P. Hickson, and C. Y. She, “A large-aperture sodium fluorescence lidar with very high resolution for mesopause dynamics and adaptive optics studies,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 36, L15831 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. Ellerbroek, S. Adkins, D. Andersen, J. Atwood, C. Boyer, P. Byrnes, R. Conan, L. Gilles, G. Herriot, P. Hickson, E. Hileman, D. Joyce, B. Leckie, M. Liang, T. Pfrommer, J.-C. Sinquin, J.-P. Véran, L. Wang, and P. Welle, “Progress toward developing the TMT adaptive optical systems and their components,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70150R (2008).
[CrossRef]

Higbie, J. M.

R. Holzlöhner, S. M. Rochester, T. Pfrommer, D. B. Calia, D. Budker, J. M. Higbie, and W. Hackenberg, “Laser guide star return flux simulations based on observed sodium density profiles,” Proc. SPIE 7736, 77360V (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hileman, E.

B. Ellerbroek, S. Adkins, D. Andersen, J. Atwood, C. Boyer, P. Byrnes, R. Conan, L. Gilles, G. Herriot, P. Hickson, E. Hileman, D. Joyce, B. Leckie, M. Liang, T. Pfrommer, J.-C. Sinquin, J.-P. Véran, L. Wang, and P. Welle, “Progress toward developing the TMT adaptive optical systems and their components,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70150R (2008).
[CrossRef]

Holzlöhner, R.

R. Holzlöhner, S. M. Rochester, T. Pfrommer, D. B. Calia, D. Budker, J. M. Higbie, and W. Hackenberg, “Laser guide star return flux simulations based on observed sodium density profiles,” Proc. SPIE 7736, 77360V (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hubin, N.

E. Diolaiti, J.-M. Conan, I. Foppiani, M. Lombini, E. Marchetti, C. Petit, C. Robert, L. Schreiber, A. Baruffolo, M. Bellazzini, G. Bregoli, P. Ciliego, G. Cosentino, V. Biliotti, S. D’Odorico, T. Fusco, N. Hubin, S. Meimon, and J.-F. Sauvage, “Towards the phase A review of MAORY, the multi-conjugate adaptive optics module for the E-ELT,” in First Adaptive Optics for Extremely Large Telescope Conference (EDP Sciences, 2010), 02007-p1–02007-p5, available online at http://ao4elt.edpsciences.org.

E. Diolaiti, J.-M. Conan, I. Foppiani, M. Lombini, C. Petit, C. Robert, L. Schreiber, P. Ciliegi, E. Marchetti, M. Bellazzini, L. Busoni, S. Esposito, T. Fusco, N. Hubin, F. Quiros-Pacheco, A. Baruffolo, S. D’Odorico, J. Farinato, B. Neichel, R. Ragazzoni, C. Arcidiacono, V. Biliotti, G. Bregoli, G. Cosentino, and G. Innocenti, “A preliminary overview of the multi-conjugate adaptive optics module for the E-ELT,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70150U (2008).
[CrossRef]

Innocenti, G.

E. Diolaiti, J.-M. Conan, I. Foppiani, M. Lombini, C. Petit, C. Robert, L. Schreiber, P. Ciliegi, E. Marchetti, M. Bellazzini, L. Busoni, S. Esposito, T. Fusco, N. Hubin, F. Quiros-Pacheco, A. Baruffolo, S. D’Odorico, J. Farinato, B. Neichel, R. Ragazzoni, C. Arcidiacono, V. Biliotti, G. Bregoli, G. Cosentino, and G. Innocenti, “A preliminary overview of the multi-conjugate adaptive optics module for the E-ELT,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70150U (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jackson, K.

R. Conan, O. Lardière, C. Bradley, G. Herriot, and K. Jackson, “Modeling the Thirty Meter Telescope matched filter based LGS wavefront sensing,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70154S (2008).
[CrossRef]

O. Lardiére, R. Conan, C. Bradley, G. Herriot, and K. Jackson, “Laser guide star wavefront sensing for TMT: Experimental results of the matched filtering,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70154T (2008).
[CrossRef]

Johns, M.

M. Johns, “Progress on the GMT,” Proc. SPIE 7012, 70121B (2008).
[CrossRef]

Joyce, D.

B. Ellerbroek, S. Adkins, D. Andersen, J. Atwood, C. Boyer, P. Byrnes, R. Conan, L. Gilles, G. Herriot, P. Hickson, E. Hileman, D. Joyce, B. Leckie, M. Liang, T. Pfrommer, J.-C. Sinquin, J.-P. Véran, L. Wang, and P. Welle, “Progress toward developing the TMT adaptive optical systems and their components,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70150R (2008).
[CrossRef]

Koopman, R.

D. Fussen, F. Vanhellemont, C. Bingen, E. Kyrölä, J. Tamminen, V. Sofieva, S. Hassinen, A. Seppälä, P. Verronen, J.-L. Bertaux, A. Hauchecorne, F. Dalaudier, J.-B. Renard, R. Fraisse, O. F.d’Andon, G. Barrot, A. Mangin, B. Théodore, M. Guirlet, R. Koopman, P. Snoeij, and L. Saavedra, “Global measurement of the mesospheric sodium layer by the star occultation instrument GOMOS,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 31, L24110 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, Y. B.

P. V.Prasanth, V. Sivakumar, S. Sridharan, Y.B. Kumar, H. Bencherif, and D.N. Rao, “Lidar observations of sodium layer over low latitude, Gadinki (13.5 °N, 79.2 °E): Seasonal and nocturnal variations,” Ann. Geophys. 27, 3811–3823(2009).
[CrossRef]

Kyrölä, E.

D. Fussen, F. Vanhellemont, C. Bingen, E. Kyrölä, J. Tamminen, V. Sofieva, S. Hassinen, A. Seppälä, P. Verronen, J.-L. Bertaux, A. Hauchecorne, F. Dalaudier, J.-B. Renard, R. Fraisse, O. F.d’Andon, G. Barrot, A. Mangin, B. Théodore, M. Guirlet, R. Koopman, P. Snoeij, and L. Saavedra, “Global measurement of the mesospheric sodium layer by the star occultation instrument GOMOS,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 31, L24110 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lardiére, O.

O. Lardiére, R. Conan, C. Bradley, G. Herriot, and K. Jackson, “Laser guide star wavefront sensing for TMT: Experimental results of the matched filtering,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70154T (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lardière, O.

R. Conan, O. Lardière, C. Bradley, G. Herriot, and K. Jackson, “Modeling the Thirty Meter Telescope matched filter based LGS wavefront sensing,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70154S (2008).
[CrossRef]

Leckie, B.

B. Ellerbroek, S. Adkins, D. Andersen, J. Atwood, C. Boyer, P. Byrnes, R. Conan, L. Gilles, G. Herriot, P. Hickson, E. Hileman, D. Joyce, B. Leckie, M. Liang, T. Pfrommer, J.-C. Sinquin, J.-P. Véran, L. Wang, and P. Welle, “Progress toward developing the TMT adaptive optical systems and their components,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70150R (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liang, M.

B. Ellerbroek, S. Adkins, D. Andersen, J. Atwood, C. Boyer, P. Byrnes, R. Conan, L. Gilles, G. Herriot, P. Hickson, E. Hileman, D. Joyce, B. Leckie, M. Liang, T. Pfrommer, J.-C. Sinquin, J.-P. Véran, L. Wang, and P. Welle, “Progress toward developing the TMT adaptive optical systems and their components,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70150R (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lombini, M.

E. Diolaiti, J.-M. Conan, I. Foppiani, M. Lombini, E. Marchetti, C. Petit, C. Robert, L. Schreiber, A. Baruffolo, M. Bellazzini, G. Bregoli, P. Ciliego, G. Cosentino, V. Biliotti, S. D’Odorico, T. Fusco, N. Hubin, S. Meimon, and J.-F. Sauvage, “Towards the phase A review of MAORY, the multi-conjugate adaptive optics module for the E-ELT,” in First Adaptive Optics for Extremely Large Telescope Conference (EDP Sciences, 2010), 02007-p1–02007-p5, available online at http://ao4elt.edpsciences.org.

E. Diolaiti, J.-M. Conan, I. Foppiani, M. Lombini, C. Petit, C. Robert, L. Schreiber, P. Ciliegi, E. Marchetti, M. Bellazzini, L. Busoni, S. Esposito, T. Fusco, N. Hubin, F. Quiros-Pacheco, A. Baruffolo, S. D’Odorico, J. Farinato, B. Neichel, R. Ragazzoni, C. Arcidiacono, V. Biliotti, G. Bregoli, G. Cosentino, and G. Innocenti, “A preliminary overview of the multi-conjugate adaptive optics module for the E-ELT,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70150U (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mangin, A.

D. Fussen, F. Vanhellemont, C. Bingen, E. Kyrölä, J. Tamminen, V. Sofieva, S. Hassinen, A. Seppälä, P. Verronen, J.-L. Bertaux, A. Hauchecorne, F. Dalaudier, J.-B. Renard, R. Fraisse, O. F.d’Andon, G. Barrot, A. Mangin, B. Théodore, M. Guirlet, R. Koopman, P. Snoeij, and L. Saavedra, “Global measurement of the mesospheric sodium layer by the star occultation instrument GOMOS,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 31, L24110 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Marchetti, E.

E. Diolaiti, J.-M. Conan, I. Foppiani, M. Lombini, E. Marchetti, C. Petit, C. Robert, L. Schreiber, A. Baruffolo, M. Bellazzini, G. Bregoli, P. Ciliego, G. Cosentino, V. Biliotti, S. D’Odorico, T. Fusco, N. Hubin, S. Meimon, and J.-F. Sauvage, “Towards the phase A review of MAORY, the multi-conjugate adaptive optics module for the E-ELT,” in First Adaptive Optics for Extremely Large Telescope Conference (EDP Sciences, 2010), 02007-p1–02007-p5, available online at http://ao4elt.edpsciences.org.

E. Diolaiti, J.-M. Conan, I. Foppiani, M. Lombini, C. Petit, C. Robert, L. Schreiber, P. Ciliegi, E. Marchetti, M. Bellazzini, L. Busoni, S. Esposito, T. Fusco, N. Hubin, F. Quiros-Pacheco, A. Baruffolo, S. D’Odorico, J. Farinato, B. Neichel, R. Ragazzoni, C. Arcidiacono, V. Biliotti, G. Bregoli, G. Cosentino, and G. Innocenti, “A preliminary overview of the multi-conjugate adaptive optics module for the E-ELT,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70150U (2008).
[CrossRef]

Meimon, S.

E. Diolaiti, J.-M. Conan, I. Foppiani, M. Lombini, E. Marchetti, C. Petit, C. Robert, L. Schreiber, A. Baruffolo, M. Bellazzini, G. Bregoli, P. Ciliego, G. Cosentino, V. Biliotti, S. D’Odorico, T. Fusco, N. Hubin, S. Meimon, and J.-F. Sauvage, “Towards the phase A review of MAORY, the multi-conjugate adaptive optics module for the E-ELT,” in First Adaptive Optics for Extremely Large Telescope Conference (EDP Sciences, 2010), 02007-p1–02007-p5, available online at http://ao4elt.edpsciences.org.

Mwangi, M. M.

Neichel, B.

E. Diolaiti, J.-M. Conan, I. Foppiani, M. Lombini, C. Petit, C. Robert, L. Schreiber, P. Ciliegi, E. Marchetti, M. Bellazzini, L. Busoni, S. Esposito, T. Fusco, N. Hubin, F. Quiros-Pacheco, A. Baruffolo, S. D’Odorico, J. Farinato, B. Neichel, R. Ragazzoni, C. Arcidiacono, V. Biliotti, G. Bregoli, G. Cosentino, and G. Innocenti, “A preliminary overview of the multi-conjugate adaptive optics module for the E-ELT,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70150U (2008).
[CrossRef]

Otarola, A.

L. Wang, A. Otarola, and B. Ellerbroek, “Impact of sodium laser guide star fratricide on multi-conjugate adaptive optics systems,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 27, A19–A28 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Wang, A. Otarola, and B. Ellerbroek, “Impact of laser guide star fratricide on TMT MCAO system,” Proc. SPIE 7736, 77360G (2010).
[CrossRef]

Petit, C.

C. Robert, J.-M. Conan, D. Gratadour, C. Petit, and T. Fusco, “Shack–Hartmann tomographic wavefront reconstruction using LGS: analysis of spot elongation and fratricide effect,” in First Adaptive Optics for Extremely Large Telescope Conference (EDP Sciences, 2010), 05010-p1–05010-p6, available online at http://ao4elt.edpsciences.org.

E. Diolaiti, J.-M. Conan, I. Foppiani, M. Lombini, E. Marchetti, C. Petit, C. Robert, L. Schreiber, A. Baruffolo, M. Bellazzini, G. Bregoli, P. Ciliego, G. Cosentino, V. Biliotti, S. D’Odorico, T. Fusco, N. Hubin, S. Meimon, and J.-F. Sauvage, “Towards the phase A review of MAORY, the multi-conjugate adaptive optics module for the E-ELT,” in First Adaptive Optics for Extremely Large Telescope Conference (EDP Sciences, 2010), 02007-p1–02007-p5, available online at http://ao4elt.edpsciences.org.

E. Diolaiti, J.-M. Conan, I. Foppiani, M. Lombini, C. Petit, C. Robert, L. Schreiber, P. Ciliegi, E. Marchetti, M. Bellazzini, L. Busoni, S. Esposito, T. Fusco, N. Hubin, F. Quiros-Pacheco, A. Baruffolo, S. D’Odorico, J. Farinato, B. Neichel, R. Ragazzoni, C. Arcidiacono, V. Biliotti, G. Bregoli, G. Cosentino, and G. Innocenti, “A preliminary overview of the multi-conjugate adaptive optics module for the E-ELT,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70150U (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pfrommer, T.

R. Holzlöhner, S. M. Rochester, T. Pfrommer, D. B. Calia, D. Budker, J. M. Higbie, and W. Hackenberg, “Laser guide star return flux simulations based on observed sodium density profiles,” Proc. SPIE 7736, 77360V (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Pfrommer, P. Hickson, and C. Y. She, “A large-aperture sodium fluorescence lidar with very high resolution for mesopause dynamics and adaptive optics studies,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 36, L15831 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. Ellerbroek, S. Adkins, D. Andersen, J. Atwood, C. Boyer, P. Byrnes, R. Conan, L. Gilles, G. Herriot, P. Hickson, E. Hileman, D. Joyce, B. Leckie, M. Liang, T. Pfrommer, J.-C. Sinquin, J.-P. Véran, L. Wang, and P. Welle, “Progress toward developing the TMT adaptive optical systems and their components,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70150R (2008).
[CrossRef]

Prasanth, P. V.

P. V.Prasanth, V. Sivakumar, S. Sridharan, Y.B. Kumar, H. Bencherif, and D.N. Rao, “Lidar observations of sodium layer over low latitude, Gadinki (13.5 °N, 79.2 °E): Seasonal and nocturnal variations,” Ann. Geophys. 27, 3811–3823(2009).
[CrossRef]

Quiros-Pacheco, F.

E. Diolaiti, J.-M. Conan, I. Foppiani, M. Lombini, C. Petit, C. Robert, L. Schreiber, P. Ciliegi, E. Marchetti, M. Bellazzini, L. Busoni, S. Esposito, T. Fusco, N. Hubin, F. Quiros-Pacheco, A. Baruffolo, S. D’Odorico, J. Farinato, B. Neichel, R. Ragazzoni, C. Arcidiacono, V. Biliotti, G. Bregoli, G. Cosentino, and G. Innocenti, “A preliminary overview of the multi-conjugate adaptive optics module for the E-ELT,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70150U (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ragazzoni, R.

E. Diolaiti, J.-M. Conan, I. Foppiani, M. Lombini, C. Petit, C. Robert, L. Schreiber, P. Ciliegi, E. Marchetti, M. Bellazzini, L. Busoni, S. Esposito, T. Fusco, N. Hubin, F. Quiros-Pacheco, A. Baruffolo, S. D’Odorico, J. Farinato, B. Neichel, R. Ragazzoni, C. Arcidiacono, V. Biliotti, G. Bregoli, G. Cosentino, and G. Innocenti, “A preliminary overview of the multi-conjugate adaptive optics module for the E-ELT,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70150U (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rao, D. N.

P. V.Prasanth, V. Sivakumar, S. Sridharan, Y.B. Kumar, H. Bencherif, and D.N. Rao, “Lidar observations of sodium layer over low latitude, Gadinki (13.5 °N, 79.2 °E): Seasonal and nocturnal variations,” Ann. Geophys. 27, 3811–3823(2009).
[CrossRef]

Renard, J.-B.

D. Fussen, F. Vanhellemont, C. Bingen, E. Kyrölä, J. Tamminen, V. Sofieva, S. Hassinen, A. Seppälä, P. Verronen, J.-L. Bertaux, A. Hauchecorne, F. Dalaudier, J.-B. Renard, R. Fraisse, O. F.d’Andon, G. Barrot, A. Mangin, B. Théodore, M. Guirlet, R. Koopman, P. Snoeij, and L. Saavedra, “Global measurement of the mesospheric sodium layer by the star occultation instrument GOMOS,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 31, L24110 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Robert, C.

C. Robert, J.-M. Conan, D. Gratadour, C. Petit, and T. Fusco, “Shack–Hartmann tomographic wavefront reconstruction using LGS: analysis of spot elongation and fratricide effect,” in First Adaptive Optics for Extremely Large Telescope Conference (EDP Sciences, 2010), 05010-p1–05010-p6, available online at http://ao4elt.edpsciences.org.

E. Diolaiti, J.-M. Conan, I. Foppiani, M. Lombini, E. Marchetti, C. Petit, C. Robert, L. Schreiber, A. Baruffolo, M. Bellazzini, G. Bregoli, P. Ciliego, G. Cosentino, V. Biliotti, S. D’Odorico, T. Fusco, N. Hubin, S. Meimon, and J.-F. Sauvage, “Towards the phase A review of MAORY, the multi-conjugate adaptive optics module for the E-ELT,” in First Adaptive Optics for Extremely Large Telescope Conference (EDP Sciences, 2010), 02007-p1–02007-p5, available online at http://ao4elt.edpsciences.org.

E. Diolaiti, J.-M. Conan, I. Foppiani, M. Lombini, C. Petit, C. Robert, L. Schreiber, P. Ciliegi, E. Marchetti, M. Bellazzini, L. Busoni, S. Esposito, T. Fusco, N. Hubin, F. Quiros-Pacheco, A. Baruffolo, S. D’Odorico, J. Farinato, B. Neichel, R. Ragazzoni, C. Arcidiacono, V. Biliotti, G. Bregoli, G. Cosentino, and G. Innocenti, “A preliminary overview of the multi-conjugate adaptive optics module for the E-ELT,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70150U (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rochester, S. M.

R. Holzlöhner, S. M. Rochester, T. Pfrommer, D. B. Calia, D. Budker, J. M. Higbie, and W. Hackenberg, “Laser guide star return flux simulations based on observed sodium density profiles,” Proc. SPIE 7736, 77360V (2010).
[CrossRef]

Saavedra, L.

D. Fussen, F. Vanhellemont, C. Bingen, E. Kyrölä, J. Tamminen, V. Sofieva, S. Hassinen, A. Seppälä, P. Verronen, J.-L. Bertaux, A. Hauchecorne, F. Dalaudier, J.-B. Renard, R. Fraisse, O. F.d’Andon, G. Barrot, A. Mangin, B. Théodore, M. Guirlet, R. Koopman, P. Snoeij, and L. Saavedra, “Global measurement of the mesospheric sodium layer by the star occultation instrument GOMOS,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 31, L24110 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sauvage, J.-F.

E. Diolaiti, J.-M. Conan, I. Foppiani, M. Lombini, E. Marchetti, C. Petit, C. Robert, L. Schreiber, A. Baruffolo, M. Bellazzini, G. Bregoli, P. Ciliego, G. Cosentino, V. Biliotti, S. D’Odorico, T. Fusco, N. Hubin, S. Meimon, and J.-F. Sauvage, “Towards the phase A review of MAORY, the multi-conjugate adaptive optics module for the E-ELT,” in First Adaptive Optics for Extremely Large Telescope Conference (EDP Sciences, 2010), 02007-p1–02007-p5, available online at http://ao4elt.edpsciences.org.

Schreiber, L.

E. Diolaiti, J.-M. Conan, I. Foppiani, M. Lombini, E. Marchetti, C. Petit, C. Robert, L. Schreiber, A. Baruffolo, M. Bellazzini, G. Bregoli, P. Ciliego, G. Cosentino, V. Biliotti, S. D’Odorico, T. Fusco, N. Hubin, S. Meimon, and J.-F. Sauvage, “Towards the phase A review of MAORY, the multi-conjugate adaptive optics module for the E-ELT,” in First Adaptive Optics for Extremely Large Telescope Conference (EDP Sciences, 2010), 02007-p1–02007-p5, available online at http://ao4elt.edpsciences.org.

E. Diolaiti, J.-M. Conan, I. Foppiani, M. Lombini, C. Petit, C. Robert, L. Schreiber, P. Ciliegi, E. Marchetti, M. Bellazzini, L. Busoni, S. Esposito, T. Fusco, N. Hubin, F. Quiros-Pacheco, A. Baruffolo, S. D’Odorico, J. Farinato, B. Neichel, R. Ragazzoni, C. Arcidiacono, V. Biliotti, G. Bregoli, G. Cosentino, and G. Innocenti, “A preliminary overview of the multi-conjugate adaptive optics module for the E-ELT,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70150U (2008).
[CrossRef]

Seppälä, A.

D. Fussen, F. Vanhellemont, C. Bingen, E. Kyrölä, J. Tamminen, V. Sofieva, S. Hassinen, A. Seppälä, P. Verronen, J.-L. Bertaux, A. Hauchecorne, F. Dalaudier, J.-B. Renard, R. Fraisse, O. F.d’Andon, G. Barrot, A. Mangin, B. Théodore, M. Guirlet, R. Koopman, P. Snoeij, and L. Saavedra, “Global measurement of the mesospheric sodium layer by the star occultation instrument GOMOS,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 31, L24110 (2004).
[CrossRef]

She, C. Y.

T. Pfrommer, P. Hickson, and C. Y. She, “A large-aperture sodium fluorescence lidar with very high resolution for mesopause dynamics and adaptive optics studies,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 36, L15831 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sica, R. J.

Sinquin, J.-C.

B. Ellerbroek, S. Adkins, D. Andersen, J. Atwood, C. Boyer, P. Byrnes, R. Conan, L. Gilles, G. Herriot, P. Hickson, E. Hileman, D. Joyce, B. Leckie, M. Liang, T. Pfrommer, J.-C. Sinquin, J.-P. Véran, L. Wang, and P. Welle, “Progress toward developing the TMT adaptive optical systems and their components,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70150R (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sivakumar, V.

P. V.Prasanth, V. Sivakumar, S. Sridharan, Y.B. Kumar, H. Bencherif, and D.N. Rao, “Lidar observations of sodium layer over low latitude, Gadinki (13.5 °N, 79.2 °E): Seasonal and nocturnal variations,” Ann. Geophys. 27, 3811–3823(2009).
[CrossRef]

Snoeij, P.

D. Fussen, F. Vanhellemont, C. Bingen, E. Kyrölä, J. Tamminen, V. Sofieva, S. Hassinen, A. Seppälä, P. Verronen, J.-L. Bertaux, A. Hauchecorne, F. Dalaudier, J.-B. Renard, R. Fraisse, O. F.d’Andon, G. Barrot, A. Mangin, B. Théodore, M. Guirlet, R. Koopman, P. Snoeij, and L. Saavedra, “Global measurement of the mesospheric sodium layer by the star occultation instrument GOMOS,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 31, L24110 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sofieva, V.

D. Fussen, F. Vanhellemont, C. Bingen, E. Kyrölä, J. Tamminen, V. Sofieva, S. Hassinen, A. Seppälä, P. Verronen, J.-L. Bertaux, A. Hauchecorne, F. Dalaudier, J.-B. Renard, R. Fraisse, O. F.d’Andon, G. Barrot, A. Mangin, B. Théodore, M. Guirlet, R. Koopman, P. Snoeij, and L. Saavedra, “Global measurement of the mesospheric sodium layer by the star occultation instrument GOMOS,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 31, L24110 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sridharan, S.

P. V.Prasanth, V. Sivakumar, S. Sridharan, Y.B. Kumar, H. Bencherif, and D.N. Rao, “Lidar observations of sodium layer over low latitude, Gadinki (13.5 °N, 79.2 °E): Seasonal and nocturnal variations,” Ann. Geophys. 27, 3811–3823(2009).
[CrossRef]

Tallon, M.

M. Tallon, I. Tallon-Bosc, C. Béchet, and E. Thiébaut, “Shack–Hartmann wavefront reconstruction with elongated sodium laser guide stars: Improvements with priors and noise correlations,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70151N (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tallon-Bosc, I.

M. Tallon, I. Tallon-Bosc, C. Béchet, and E. Thiébaut, “Shack–Hartmann wavefront reconstruction with elongated sodium laser guide stars: Improvements with priors and noise correlations,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70151N (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tamminen, J.

D. Fussen, F. Vanhellemont, C. Bingen, E. Kyrölä, J. Tamminen, V. Sofieva, S. Hassinen, A. Seppälä, P. Verronen, J.-L. Bertaux, A. Hauchecorne, F. Dalaudier, J.-B. Renard, R. Fraisse, O. F.d’Andon, G. Barrot, A. Mangin, B. Théodore, M. Guirlet, R. Koopman, P. Snoeij, and L. Saavedra, “Global measurement of the mesospheric sodium layer by the star occultation instrument GOMOS,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 31, L24110 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Théodore, B.

D. Fussen, F. Vanhellemont, C. Bingen, E. Kyrölä, J. Tamminen, V. Sofieva, S. Hassinen, A. Seppälä, P. Verronen, J.-L. Bertaux, A. Hauchecorne, F. Dalaudier, J.-B. Renard, R. Fraisse, O. F.d’Andon, G. Barrot, A. Mangin, B. Théodore, M. Guirlet, R. Koopman, P. Snoeij, and L. Saavedra, “Global measurement of the mesospheric sodium layer by the star occultation instrument GOMOS,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 31, L24110 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Thiébaut, E.

M. Tallon, I. Tallon-Bosc, C. Béchet, and E. Thiébaut, “Shack–Hartmann wavefront reconstruction with elongated sodium laser guide stars: Improvements with priors and noise correlations,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70151N (2008).
[CrossRef]

Vanhellemont, F.

D. Fussen, F. Vanhellemont, C. Bingen, E. Kyrölä, J. Tamminen, V. Sofieva, S. Hassinen, A. Seppälä, P. Verronen, J.-L. Bertaux, A. Hauchecorne, F. Dalaudier, J.-B. Renard, R. Fraisse, O. F.d’Andon, G. Barrot, A. Mangin, B. Théodore, M. Guirlet, R. Koopman, P. Snoeij, and L. Saavedra, “Global measurement of the mesospheric sodium layer by the star occultation instrument GOMOS,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 31, L24110 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Vassiliev, O.

Véran, J.-P.

B. Ellerbroek, S. Adkins, D. Andersen, J. Atwood, C. Boyer, P. Byrnes, R. Conan, L. Gilles, G. Herriot, P. Hickson, E. Hileman, D. Joyce, B. Leckie, M. Liang, T. Pfrommer, J.-C. Sinquin, J.-P. Véran, L. Wang, and P. Welle, “Progress toward developing the TMT adaptive optical systems and their components,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70150R (2008).
[CrossRef]

Verronen, P.

D. Fussen, F. Vanhellemont, C. Bingen, E. Kyrölä, J. Tamminen, V. Sofieva, S. Hassinen, A. Seppälä, P. Verronen, J.-L. Bertaux, A. Hauchecorne, F. Dalaudier, J.-B. Renard, R. Fraisse, O. F.d’Andon, G. Barrot, A. Mangin, B. Théodore, M. Guirlet, R. Koopman, P. Snoeij, and L. Saavedra, “Global measurement of the mesospheric sodium layer by the star occultation instrument GOMOS,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 31, L24110 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L.

L. Wang, A. Otarola, and B. Ellerbroek, “Impact of sodium laser guide star fratricide on multi-conjugate adaptive optics systems,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 27, A19–A28 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Wang, A. Otarola, and B. Ellerbroek, “Impact of laser guide star fratricide on TMT MCAO system,” Proc. SPIE 7736, 77360G (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Gilles, L. Wang, and B. Ellerbroek, “Modeling update for the Thirty Meter Telescope laser guide star dual-conjugate adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 7736, 77360W(2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Ellerbroek, S. Adkins, D. Andersen, J. Atwood, C. Boyer, P. Byrnes, R. Conan, L. Gilles, G. Herriot, P. Hickson, E. Hileman, D. Joyce, B. Leckie, M. Liang, T. Pfrommer, J.-C. Sinquin, J.-P. Véran, L. Wang, and P. Welle, “Progress toward developing the TMT adaptive optical systems and their components,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70150R (2008).
[CrossRef]

Welle, P.

B. Ellerbroek, S. Adkins, D. Andersen, J. Atwood, C. Boyer, P. Byrnes, R. Conan, L. Gilles, G. Herriot, P. Hickson, E. Hileman, D. Joyce, B. Leckie, M. Liang, T. Pfrommer, J.-C. Sinquin, J.-P. Véran, L. Wang, and P. Welle, “Progress toward developing the TMT adaptive optical systems and their components,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70150R (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ann. Geophys. (1)

P. V.Prasanth, V. Sivakumar, S. Sridharan, Y.B. Kumar, H. Bencherif, and D.N. Rao, “Lidar observations of sodium layer over low latitude, Gadinki (13.5 °N, 79.2 °E): Seasonal and nocturnal variations,” Ann. Geophys. 27, 3811–3823(2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Geophys. Res. Lett. (2)

D. Fussen, F. Vanhellemont, C. Bingen, E. Kyrölä, J. Tamminen, V. Sofieva, S. Hassinen, A. Seppälä, P. Verronen, J.-L. Bertaux, A. Hauchecorne, F. Dalaudier, J.-B. Renard, R. Fraisse, O. F.d’Andon, G. Barrot, A. Mangin, B. Théodore, M. Guirlet, R. Koopman, P. Snoeij, and L. Saavedra, “Global measurement of the mesospheric sodium layer by the star occultation instrument GOMOS,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 31, L24110 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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Proc. SPIE (9)

R. Conan, O. Lardière, C. Bradley, G. Herriot, and K. Jackson, “Modeling the Thirty Meter Telescope matched filter based LGS wavefront sensing,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70154S (2008).
[CrossRef]

O. Lardiére, R. Conan, C. Bradley, G. Herriot, and K. Jackson, “Laser guide star wavefront sensing for TMT: Experimental results of the matched filtering,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70154T (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. Diolaiti, J.-M. Conan, I. Foppiani, M. Lombini, C. Petit, C. Robert, L. Schreiber, P. Ciliegi, E. Marchetti, M. Bellazzini, L. Busoni, S. Esposito, T. Fusco, N. Hubin, F. Quiros-Pacheco, A. Baruffolo, S. D’Odorico, J. Farinato, B. Neichel, R. Ragazzoni, C. Arcidiacono, V. Biliotti, G. Bregoli, G. Cosentino, and G. Innocenti, “A preliminary overview of the multi-conjugate adaptive optics module for the E-ELT,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70150U (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Johns, “Progress on the GMT,” Proc. SPIE 7012, 70121B (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Ellerbroek, S. Adkins, D. Andersen, J. Atwood, C. Boyer, P. Byrnes, R. Conan, L. Gilles, G. Herriot, P. Hickson, E. Hileman, D. Joyce, B. Leckie, M. Liang, T. Pfrommer, J.-C. Sinquin, J.-P. Véran, L. Wang, and P. Welle, “Progress toward developing the TMT adaptive optical systems and their components,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70150R (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Tallon, I. Tallon-Bosc, C. Béchet, and E. Thiébaut, “Shack–Hartmann wavefront reconstruction with elongated sodium laser guide stars: Improvements with priors and noise correlations,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70151N (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Holzlöhner, S. M. Rochester, T. Pfrommer, D. B. Calia, D. Budker, J. M. Higbie, and W. Hackenberg, “Laser guide star return flux simulations based on observed sodium density profiles,” Proc. SPIE 7736, 77360V (2010).
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L. Wang, A. Otarola, and B. Ellerbroek, “Impact of laser guide star fratricide on TMT MCAO system,” Proc. SPIE 7736, 77360G (2010).
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Other (2)

C. Robert, J.-M. Conan, D. Gratadour, C. Petit, and T. Fusco, “Shack–Hartmann tomographic wavefront reconstruction using LGS: analysis of spot elongation and fratricide effect,” in First Adaptive Optics for Extremely Large Telescope Conference (EDP Sciences, 2010), 05010-p1–05010-p6, available online at http://ao4elt.edpsciences.org.

E. Diolaiti, J.-M. Conan, I. Foppiani, M. Lombini, E. Marchetti, C. Petit, C. Robert, L. Schreiber, A. Baruffolo, M. Bellazzini, G. Bregoli, P. Ciliego, G. Cosentino, V. Biliotti, S. D’Odorico, T. Fusco, N. Hubin, S. Meimon, and J.-F. Sauvage, “Towards the phase A review of MAORY, the multi-conjugate adaptive optics module for the E-ELT,” in First Adaptive Optics for Extremely Large Telescope Conference (EDP Sciences, 2010), 02007-p1–02007-p5, available online at http://ao4elt.edpsciences.org.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Median mesospheric sodium profile.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Illustration of the four realizable laser launch telescope (LLT) configurations investigated. Circles indicate the associated guide star (GS) asterism. Each GS is projected by the closest LLT, in all cases.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Wavefront error averaged over a 17 arcsec x 17 arcsec field for the different LLT configurations versus asterism diameter. Crosses indicate the amount of scatter as a function of atmospheric turbulence realization. From top to bottom, the curves represent Pent CL, HEX SL3I, HEX SL4I, and HEX SL6.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Spatial distribution of the open-loop wavefront variance due to LGS WFS noise.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Wavefront error averaged over a 17 arcsec x 17 arcsec field for the different LLT configurations versus LGS WFS signal level quoted as photodetected electrons per subaperture per 1.25 ms . From top to bottom, the curves represent Pent CL, HEX SL3I, HEX SL4I, and HEX SL6.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Incremental wavefront error in quadrature with respect the Pent CL case. From top to bottom, the curves represent HEX SL3I, HEX SL4I, and HEX SL6.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Median Mauna Kean Atmospheric Turbulence and Wind Profiles a

Tables Icon

Table 2 Theoretical rms WFE (nm) due to LGS WFS Noise for the Different LLT Configurations Investigated a

Equations (5)

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N pde = Φ A T AOS τ ,
Φ = ( P L T LGSF T BQ ) ( s C Na sec ( ψ ) ) ( T ATM sec ( ψ ) / h sec ( ψ ) ) 2 ,
σ 2 = ψ T W ψ = Tr [ ψ ψ T W ] = i σ i 2 ,
σ i 2 = [ H x E C η E T H x T W ] i i .
ξ = 1 / 2 1 / 2 | g ( z ) 1 + g ( z ) | 2 d x = β ( 2 β 2 + β 3 ) ( 2 2 β + β 2 ) ( β + 2 ) ( β 1 ) ,

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