Abstract

The next generation of adaptive optics will depend on laser guide stars to increase sky coverage. However, there are a few limitations. The thickness of the sodium layer in the mesosphere at 90km causes spot elongation, which is more severe for large telescopes. Moreover, the outer-edge subaperture of such large telescopes will resolve variations of sodium atom density seen over the thick layer. We quan tify these density fluctuations using real data taken at Lick Observatory. We used the 1 m Nickel telescope to image the return flux due to laser-induced fluorescence from a dye laser launched from the nearby 3 m Shane telescope. This view was from the side allowing the resolution of the sodium return as a function of height. We used drift scanning of the 1 m telescope to provide resolution in time. We show qualitative images of the sodium distribution for different nights and quantitatively study the temporal power spectra of those fluctuations. We conclude that the sodium profiles have an average full width half-maximum of 10km. However, the extent beyond the nominal 10km thickness is important for accurate wavefront sensing. The variations in the height of the sodium layer occur on short enough time scales that AO systems for 30 m class telescopes will likely need focus updates on time scales shorter than 100ms.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. Nelson, “Thirty-Meter Telescope: progress and approaches,” Proc. SPIE 6986, 698602 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  2. B. Ellerbroek, M. Britton, R. D. Dekany, G. Gavel, G. Herriot, B. Macintosh, and J. Stoesz, “Adaptive optics for the Thirty Meter Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 5903, 20-31 (2005).
  3. R. Foy and A. Labeyrie, “Feasibility of adaptive telescope with laser probe,” Astron. Astrophys. 152, L29-L31 (1985).
  4. C. O'Sullivan, R. M. Redfern, N. Ageorges, H.-C. Holstenberg, W. Hackenberg, T. Ott, S. Rabien, R. Davies, and A. Eckart, “Short timescale variability of the mesospheric sodium layer,” Exp. Astron. 10, 147-156 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. D. Butler, I. R. Davies, M. R. Ageorges, N. Fews, and H. Redfern, “Measuring the absolute height and profile of the mesospheric sodium layer using a continuous wave laser,” Astron. Astrophys. 403, 775-785 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  6. D. S.Davis, P. Hickson, G. Herriot, and C.-Y. She, “Temporal variability of the telluric sodium layer,” Opt. Lett. 31, 3369-3371 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  7. G. Herriot, P. Hickson, B. Ellerbroek, J.-P. Véran, C.-Y. She, R. Clare, and D. Looze, “Focus errors from tracking sodium layer altitude variations with laser guide star adaptive optics for the Thirty Meter Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62721I(2006).
  8. T. Pfrommer, P. Hickson, and C.-Y. She, “A large-aperture sodium fluorescence lidar with very high resolution for mesopause dynamics and adaptive optics studies,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 36, L15831 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  9. D. Simonich, B. Clemesha, and P. P. Batista, “Sporadic sodium layers and the average vertical distribution of atmospheric sodium,” Adv. Space Res. 35, 1976-1980 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  10. E. C. Max, S. S. Olivier, W. H. Friedman, J. An, K. Avicola, V. B. Beeman, H. D. Bissinger, M. J. Brase, V. G. Erbert, T. D. Gavel, K. Kanz, C. M. Liu, B. Macintosh. P. K. Neeb, J. Patience, and E. K. Waltjen, “Image improvement from a sodium-layer laser guide star adaptive optics system,” Science 277, 1649-1652 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  11. C. d'Orgeville, F. Rigaut, and B. Ellerbroek, “Gemini Observatory preprint #55,” available online at www.gemini.edu/documentation/webdocs/preprints/gpre55.pdf (2000).
  12. J. S. Gavel, D. Thomas, S. Adkins, and R. Kibrick, “Analysis of on-sky sodium profile data and implications for LGS AO wavefront sensing,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70155L (2008).
  13. J. S. Adkins, S. Gavel, D. Thomas, T. Fusco, and V. Michau, “Study of optimal wavefront sensing with elongated laser guide stars,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 387, 173-187(2008).
    [CrossRef]
  14. R. Conan, O. Lardière, G. Herriot, C. Bradley, and K. Jackson, “Experimental assessment of the matched filter for laser guide star wavefront sensing,” Appl. Opt. 48, 1198-1211(2009).
    [CrossRef]

2009 (2)

T. Pfrommer, P. Hickson, and C.-Y. She, “A large-aperture sodium fluorescence lidar with very high resolution for mesopause dynamics and adaptive optics studies,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 36, L15831 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Conan, O. Lardière, G. Herriot, C. Bradley, and K. Jackson, “Experimental assessment of the matched filter for laser guide star wavefront sensing,” Appl. Opt. 48, 1198-1211(2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

J. S. Gavel, D. Thomas, S. Adkins, and R. Kibrick, “Analysis of on-sky sodium profile data and implications for LGS AO wavefront sensing,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70155L (2008).

J. S. Adkins, S. Gavel, D. Thomas, T. Fusco, and V. Michau, “Study of optimal wavefront sensing with elongated laser guide stars,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 387, 173-187(2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Nelson, “Thirty-Meter Telescope: progress and approaches,” Proc. SPIE 6986, 698602 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

G. Herriot, P. Hickson, B. Ellerbroek, J.-P. Véran, C.-Y. She, R. Clare, and D. Looze, “Focus errors from tracking sodium layer altitude variations with laser guide star adaptive optics for the Thirty Meter Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62721I(2006).

D. S.Davis, P. Hickson, G. Herriot, and C.-Y. She, “Temporal variability of the telluric sodium layer,” Opt. Lett. 31, 3369-3371 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

D. Simonich, B. Clemesha, and P. P. Batista, “Sporadic sodium layers and the average vertical distribution of atmospheric sodium,” Adv. Space Res. 35, 1976-1980 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. Ellerbroek, M. Britton, R. D. Dekany, G. Gavel, G. Herriot, B. Macintosh, and J. Stoesz, “Adaptive optics for the Thirty Meter Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 5903, 20-31 (2005).

2003 (1)

J. D. Butler, I. R. Davies, M. R. Ageorges, N. Fews, and H. Redfern, “Measuring the absolute height and profile of the mesospheric sodium layer using a continuous wave laser,” Astron. Astrophys. 403, 775-785 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

C. O'Sullivan, R. M. Redfern, N. Ageorges, H.-C. Holstenberg, W. Hackenberg, T. Ott, S. Rabien, R. Davies, and A. Eckart, “Short timescale variability of the mesospheric sodium layer,” Exp. Astron. 10, 147-156 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. d'Orgeville, F. Rigaut, and B. Ellerbroek, “Gemini Observatory preprint #55,” available online at www.gemini.edu/documentation/webdocs/preprints/gpre55.pdf (2000).

1997 (1)

E. C. Max, S. S. Olivier, W. H. Friedman, J. An, K. Avicola, V. B. Beeman, H. D. Bissinger, M. J. Brase, V. G. Erbert, T. D. Gavel, K. Kanz, C. M. Liu, B. Macintosh. P. K. Neeb, J. Patience, and E. K. Waltjen, “Image improvement from a sodium-layer laser guide star adaptive optics system,” Science 277, 1649-1652 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

R. Foy and A. Labeyrie, “Feasibility of adaptive telescope with laser probe,” Astron. Astrophys. 152, L29-L31 (1985).

Adkins, J. S.

J. S. Adkins, S. Gavel, D. Thomas, T. Fusco, and V. Michau, “Study of optimal wavefront sensing with elongated laser guide stars,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 387, 173-187(2008).
[CrossRef]

Adkins, S.

J. S. Gavel, D. Thomas, S. Adkins, and R. Kibrick, “Analysis of on-sky sodium profile data and implications for LGS AO wavefront sensing,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70155L (2008).

Ageorges, M. R.

J. D. Butler, I. R. Davies, M. R. Ageorges, N. Fews, and H. Redfern, “Measuring the absolute height and profile of the mesospheric sodium layer using a continuous wave laser,” Astron. Astrophys. 403, 775-785 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ageorges, N.

C. O'Sullivan, R. M. Redfern, N. Ageorges, H.-C. Holstenberg, W. Hackenberg, T. Ott, S. Rabien, R. Davies, and A. Eckart, “Short timescale variability of the mesospheric sodium layer,” Exp. Astron. 10, 147-156 (2000).
[CrossRef]

An, J.

E. C. Max, S. S. Olivier, W. H. Friedman, J. An, K. Avicola, V. B. Beeman, H. D. Bissinger, M. J. Brase, V. G. Erbert, T. D. Gavel, K. Kanz, C. M. Liu, B. Macintosh. P. K. Neeb, J. Patience, and E. K. Waltjen, “Image improvement from a sodium-layer laser guide star adaptive optics system,” Science 277, 1649-1652 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Avicola, K.

E. C. Max, S. S. Olivier, W. H. Friedman, J. An, K. Avicola, V. B. Beeman, H. D. Bissinger, M. J. Brase, V. G. Erbert, T. D. Gavel, K. Kanz, C. M. Liu, B. Macintosh. P. K. Neeb, J. Patience, and E. K. Waltjen, “Image improvement from a sodium-layer laser guide star adaptive optics system,” Science 277, 1649-1652 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Batista, P. P.

D. Simonich, B. Clemesha, and P. P. Batista, “Sporadic sodium layers and the average vertical distribution of atmospheric sodium,” Adv. Space Res. 35, 1976-1980 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Beeman, V. B.

E. C. Max, S. S. Olivier, W. H. Friedman, J. An, K. Avicola, V. B. Beeman, H. D. Bissinger, M. J. Brase, V. G. Erbert, T. D. Gavel, K. Kanz, C. M. Liu, B. Macintosh. P. K. Neeb, J. Patience, and E. K. Waltjen, “Image improvement from a sodium-layer laser guide star adaptive optics system,” Science 277, 1649-1652 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bissinger, H. D.

E. C. Max, S. S. Olivier, W. H. Friedman, J. An, K. Avicola, V. B. Beeman, H. D. Bissinger, M. J. Brase, V. G. Erbert, T. D. Gavel, K. Kanz, C. M. Liu, B. Macintosh. P. K. Neeb, J. Patience, and E. K. Waltjen, “Image improvement from a sodium-layer laser guide star adaptive optics system,” Science 277, 1649-1652 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bradley, C.

Brase, M. J.

E. C. Max, S. S. Olivier, W. H. Friedman, J. An, K. Avicola, V. B. Beeman, H. D. Bissinger, M. J. Brase, V. G. Erbert, T. D. Gavel, K. Kanz, C. M. Liu, B. Macintosh. P. K. Neeb, J. Patience, and E. K. Waltjen, “Image improvement from a sodium-layer laser guide star adaptive optics system,” Science 277, 1649-1652 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Britton, M.

B. Ellerbroek, M. Britton, R. D. Dekany, G. Gavel, G. Herriot, B. Macintosh, and J. Stoesz, “Adaptive optics for the Thirty Meter Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 5903, 20-31 (2005).

Butler, J. D.

J. D. Butler, I. R. Davies, M. R. Ageorges, N. Fews, and H. Redfern, “Measuring the absolute height and profile of the mesospheric sodium layer using a continuous wave laser,” Astron. Astrophys. 403, 775-785 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Clare, R.

G. Herriot, P. Hickson, B. Ellerbroek, J.-P. Véran, C.-Y. She, R. Clare, and D. Looze, “Focus errors from tracking sodium layer altitude variations with laser guide star adaptive optics for the Thirty Meter Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62721I(2006).

Clemesha, B.

D. Simonich, B. Clemesha, and P. P. Batista, “Sporadic sodium layers and the average vertical distribution of atmospheric sodium,” Adv. Space Res. 35, 1976-1980 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Conan, R.

Davies, I. R.

J. D. Butler, I. R. Davies, M. R. Ageorges, N. Fews, and H. Redfern, “Measuring the absolute height and profile of the mesospheric sodium layer using a continuous wave laser,” Astron. Astrophys. 403, 775-785 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Davies, R.

C. O'Sullivan, R. M. Redfern, N. Ageorges, H.-C. Holstenberg, W. Hackenberg, T. Ott, S. Rabien, R. Davies, and A. Eckart, “Short timescale variability of the mesospheric sodium layer,” Exp. Astron. 10, 147-156 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Davis, D. S.

Dekany, R. D.

B. Ellerbroek, M. Britton, R. D. Dekany, G. Gavel, G. Herriot, B. Macintosh, and J. Stoesz, “Adaptive optics for the Thirty Meter Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 5903, 20-31 (2005).

d'Orgeville, C.

C. d'Orgeville, F. Rigaut, and B. Ellerbroek, “Gemini Observatory preprint #55,” available online at www.gemini.edu/documentation/webdocs/preprints/gpre55.pdf (2000).

Eckart, A.

C. O'Sullivan, R. M. Redfern, N. Ageorges, H.-C. Holstenberg, W. Hackenberg, T. Ott, S. Rabien, R. Davies, and A. Eckart, “Short timescale variability of the mesospheric sodium layer,” Exp. Astron. 10, 147-156 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ellerbroek, B.

G. Herriot, P. Hickson, B. Ellerbroek, J.-P. Véran, C.-Y. She, R. Clare, and D. Looze, “Focus errors from tracking sodium layer altitude variations with laser guide star adaptive optics for the Thirty Meter Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62721I(2006).

B. Ellerbroek, M. Britton, R. D. Dekany, G. Gavel, G. Herriot, B. Macintosh, and J. Stoesz, “Adaptive optics for the Thirty Meter Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 5903, 20-31 (2005).

C. d'Orgeville, F. Rigaut, and B. Ellerbroek, “Gemini Observatory preprint #55,” available online at www.gemini.edu/documentation/webdocs/preprints/gpre55.pdf (2000).

Erbert, V. G.

E. C. Max, S. S. Olivier, W. H. Friedman, J. An, K. Avicola, V. B. Beeman, H. D. Bissinger, M. J. Brase, V. G. Erbert, T. D. Gavel, K. Kanz, C. M. Liu, B. Macintosh. P. K. Neeb, J. Patience, and E. K. Waltjen, “Image improvement from a sodium-layer laser guide star adaptive optics system,” Science 277, 1649-1652 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fews, N.

J. D. Butler, I. R. Davies, M. R. Ageorges, N. Fews, and H. Redfern, “Measuring the absolute height and profile of the mesospheric sodium layer using a continuous wave laser,” Astron. Astrophys. 403, 775-785 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Foy, R.

R. Foy and A. Labeyrie, “Feasibility of adaptive telescope with laser probe,” Astron. Astrophys. 152, L29-L31 (1985).

Friedman, W. H.

E. C. Max, S. S. Olivier, W. H. Friedman, J. An, K. Avicola, V. B. Beeman, H. D. Bissinger, M. J. Brase, V. G. Erbert, T. D. Gavel, K. Kanz, C. M. Liu, B. Macintosh. P. K. Neeb, J. Patience, and E. K. Waltjen, “Image improvement from a sodium-layer laser guide star adaptive optics system,” Science 277, 1649-1652 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fusco, T.

J. S. Adkins, S. Gavel, D. Thomas, T. Fusco, and V. Michau, “Study of optimal wavefront sensing with elongated laser guide stars,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 387, 173-187(2008).
[CrossRef]

Gavel, G.

B. Ellerbroek, M. Britton, R. D. Dekany, G. Gavel, G. Herriot, B. Macintosh, and J. Stoesz, “Adaptive optics for the Thirty Meter Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 5903, 20-31 (2005).

Gavel, J. S.

J. S. Gavel, D. Thomas, S. Adkins, and R. Kibrick, “Analysis of on-sky sodium profile data and implications for LGS AO wavefront sensing,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70155L (2008).

Gavel, S.

J. S. Adkins, S. Gavel, D. Thomas, T. Fusco, and V. Michau, “Study of optimal wavefront sensing with elongated laser guide stars,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 387, 173-187(2008).
[CrossRef]

Gavel, T. D.

E. C. Max, S. S. Olivier, W. H. Friedman, J. An, K. Avicola, V. B. Beeman, H. D. Bissinger, M. J. Brase, V. G. Erbert, T. D. Gavel, K. Kanz, C. M. Liu, B. Macintosh. P. K. Neeb, J. Patience, and E. K. Waltjen, “Image improvement from a sodium-layer laser guide star adaptive optics system,” Science 277, 1649-1652 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hackenberg, W.

C. O'Sullivan, R. M. Redfern, N. Ageorges, H.-C. Holstenberg, W. Hackenberg, T. Ott, S. Rabien, R. Davies, and A. Eckart, “Short timescale variability of the mesospheric sodium layer,” Exp. Astron. 10, 147-156 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Herriot, G.

R. Conan, O. Lardière, G. Herriot, C. Bradley, and K. Jackson, “Experimental assessment of the matched filter for laser guide star wavefront sensing,” Appl. Opt. 48, 1198-1211(2009).
[CrossRef]

D. S.Davis, P. Hickson, G. Herriot, and C.-Y. She, “Temporal variability of the telluric sodium layer,” Opt. Lett. 31, 3369-3371 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Herriot, P. Hickson, B. Ellerbroek, J.-P. Véran, C.-Y. She, R. Clare, and D. Looze, “Focus errors from tracking sodium layer altitude variations with laser guide star adaptive optics for the Thirty Meter Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62721I(2006).

B. Ellerbroek, M. Britton, R. D. Dekany, G. Gavel, G. Herriot, B. Macintosh, and J. Stoesz, “Adaptive optics for the Thirty Meter Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 5903, 20-31 (2005).

Hickson, P.

T. Pfrommer, P. Hickson, and C.-Y. She, “A large-aperture sodium fluorescence lidar with very high resolution for mesopause dynamics and adaptive optics studies,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 36, L15831 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. S.Davis, P. Hickson, G. Herriot, and C.-Y. She, “Temporal variability of the telluric sodium layer,” Opt. Lett. 31, 3369-3371 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Herriot, P. Hickson, B. Ellerbroek, J.-P. Véran, C.-Y. She, R. Clare, and D. Looze, “Focus errors from tracking sodium layer altitude variations with laser guide star adaptive optics for the Thirty Meter Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62721I(2006).

Holstenberg, H.-C.

C. O'Sullivan, R. M. Redfern, N. Ageorges, H.-C. Holstenberg, W. Hackenberg, T. Ott, S. Rabien, R. Davies, and A. Eckart, “Short timescale variability of the mesospheric sodium layer,” Exp. Astron. 10, 147-156 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jackson, K.

Kanz, K.

E. C. Max, S. S. Olivier, W. H. Friedman, J. An, K. Avicola, V. B. Beeman, H. D. Bissinger, M. J. Brase, V. G. Erbert, T. D. Gavel, K. Kanz, C. M. Liu, B. Macintosh. P. K. Neeb, J. Patience, and E. K. Waltjen, “Image improvement from a sodium-layer laser guide star adaptive optics system,” Science 277, 1649-1652 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kibrick, R.

J. S. Gavel, D. Thomas, S. Adkins, and R. Kibrick, “Analysis of on-sky sodium profile data and implications for LGS AO wavefront sensing,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70155L (2008).

Labeyrie, A.

R. Foy and A. Labeyrie, “Feasibility of adaptive telescope with laser probe,” Astron. Astrophys. 152, L29-L31 (1985).

Lardière, O.

Liu, C. M.

E. C. Max, S. S. Olivier, W. H. Friedman, J. An, K. Avicola, V. B. Beeman, H. D. Bissinger, M. J. Brase, V. G. Erbert, T. D. Gavel, K. Kanz, C. M. Liu, B. Macintosh. P. K. Neeb, J. Patience, and E. K. Waltjen, “Image improvement from a sodium-layer laser guide star adaptive optics system,” Science 277, 1649-1652 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Looze, D.

G. Herriot, P. Hickson, B. Ellerbroek, J.-P. Véran, C.-Y. She, R. Clare, and D. Looze, “Focus errors from tracking sodium layer altitude variations with laser guide star adaptive optics for the Thirty Meter Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62721I(2006).

Macintosh, B.

B. Ellerbroek, M. Britton, R. D. Dekany, G. Gavel, G. Herriot, B. Macintosh, and J. Stoesz, “Adaptive optics for the Thirty Meter Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 5903, 20-31 (2005).

E. C. Max, S. S. Olivier, W. H. Friedman, J. An, K. Avicola, V. B. Beeman, H. D. Bissinger, M. J. Brase, V. G. Erbert, T. D. Gavel, K. Kanz, C. M. Liu, B. Macintosh. P. K. Neeb, J. Patience, and E. K. Waltjen, “Image improvement from a sodium-layer laser guide star adaptive optics system,” Science 277, 1649-1652 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Max, E. C.

E. C. Max, S. S. Olivier, W. H. Friedman, J. An, K. Avicola, V. B. Beeman, H. D. Bissinger, M. J. Brase, V. G. Erbert, T. D. Gavel, K. Kanz, C. M. Liu, B. Macintosh. P. K. Neeb, J. Patience, and E. K. Waltjen, “Image improvement from a sodium-layer laser guide star adaptive optics system,” Science 277, 1649-1652 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Michau, V.

J. S. Adkins, S. Gavel, D. Thomas, T. Fusco, and V. Michau, “Study of optimal wavefront sensing with elongated laser guide stars,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 387, 173-187(2008).
[CrossRef]

Neeb, P. K.

E. C. Max, S. S. Olivier, W. H. Friedman, J. An, K. Avicola, V. B. Beeman, H. D. Bissinger, M. J. Brase, V. G. Erbert, T. D. Gavel, K. Kanz, C. M. Liu, B. Macintosh. P. K. Neeb, J. Patience, and E. K. Waltjen, “Image improvement from a sodium-layer laser guide star adaptive optics system,” Science 277, 1649-1652 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nelson, J.

J. Nelson, “Thirty-Meter Telescope: progress and approaches,” Proc. SPIE 6986, 698602 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Olivier, S. S.

E. C. Max, S. S. Olivier, W. H. Friedman, J. An, K. Avicola, V. B. Beeman, H. D. Bissinger, M. J. Brase, V. G. Erbert, T. D. Gavel, K. Kanz, C. M. Liu, B. Macintosh. P. K. Neeb, J. Patience, and E. K. Waltjen, “Image improvement from a sodium-layer laser guide star adaptive optics system,” Science 277, 1649-1652 (1997).
[CrossRef]

O'Sullivan, C.

C. O'Sullivan, R. M. Redfern, N. Ageorges, H.-C. Holstenberg, W. Hackenberg, T. Ott, S. Rabien, R. Davies, and A. Eckart, “Short timescale variability of the mesospheric sodium layer,” Exp. Astron. 10, 147-156 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ott, T.

C. O'Sullivan, R. M. Redfern, N. Ageorges, H.-C. Holstenberg, W. Hackenberg, T. Ott, S. Rabien, R. Davies, and A. Eckart, “Short timescale variability of the mesospheric sodium layer,” Exp. Astron. 10, 147-156 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Patience, J.

E. C. Max, S. S. Olivier, W. H. Friedman, J. An, K. Avicola, V. B. Beeman, H. D. Bissinger, M. J. Brase, V. G. Erbert, T. D. Gavel, K. Kanz, C. M. Liu, B. Macintosh. P. K. Neeb, J. Patience, and E. K. Waltjen, “Image improvement from a sodium-layer laser guide star adaptive optics system,” Science 277, 1649-1652 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Pfrommer, T.

T. Pfrommer, P. Hickson, and C.-Y. She, “A large-aperture sodium fluorescence lidar with very high resolution for mesopause dynamics and adaptive optics studies,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 36, L15831 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rabien, S.

C. O'Sullivan, R. M. Redfern, N. Ageorges, H.-C. Holstenberg, W. Hackenberg, T. Ott, S. Rabien, R. Davies, and A. Eckart, “Short timescale variability of the mesospheric sodium layer,” Exp. Astron. 10, 147-156 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Redfern, H.

J. D. Butler, I. R. Davies, M. R. Ageorges, N. Fews, and H. Redfern, “Measuring the absolute height and profile of the mesospheric sodium layer using a continuous wave laser,” Astron. Astrophys. 403, 775-785 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Redfern, R. M.

C. O'Sullivan, R. M. Redfern, N. Ageorges, H.-C. Holstenberg, W. Hackenberg, T. Ott, S. Rabien, R. Davies, and A. Eckart, “Short timescale variability of the mesospheric sodium layer,” Exp. Astron. 10, 147-156 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rigaut, F.

C. d'Orgeville, F. Rigaut, and B. Ellerbroek, “Gemini Observatory preprint #55,” available online at www.gemini.edu/documentation/webdocs/preprints/gpre55.pdf (2000).

She, C.-Y.

T. Pfrommer, P. Hickson, and C.-Y. She, “A large-aperture sodium fluorescence lidar with very high resolution for mesopause dynamics and adaptive optics studies,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 36, L15831 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. S.Davis, P. Hickson, G. Herriot, and C.-Y. She, “Temporal variability of the telluric sodium layer,” Opt. Lett. 31, 3369-3371 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Herriot, P. Hickson, B. Ellerbroek, J.-P. Véran, C.-Y. She, R. Clare, and D. Looze, “Focus errors from tracking sodium layer altitude variations with laser guide star adaptive optics for the Thirty Meter Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62721I(2006).

Simonich, D.

D. Simonich, B. Clemesha, and P. P. Batista, “Sporadic sodium layers and the average vertical distribution of atmospheric sodium,” Adv. Space Res. 35, 1976-1980 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Stoesz, J.

B. Ellerbroek, M. Britton, R. D. Dekany, G. Gavel, G. Herriot, B. Macintosh, and J. Stoesz, “Adaptive optics for the Thirty Meter Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 5903, 20-31 (2005).

Thomas, D.

J. S. Adkins, S. Gavel, D. Thomas, T. Fusco, and V. Michau, “Study of optimal wavefront sensing with elongated laser guide stars,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 387, 173-187(2008).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Gavel, D. Thomas, S. Adkins, and R. Kibrick, “Analysis of on-sky sodium profile data and implications for LGS AO wavefront sensing,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70155L (2008).

Véran, J.-P.

G. Herriot, P. Hickson, B. Ellerbroek, J.-P. Véran, C.-Y. She, R. Clare, and D. Looze, “Focus errors from tracking sodium layer altitude variations with laser guide star adaptive optics for the Thirty Meter Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62721I(2006).

Waltjen, E. K.

E. C. Max, S. S. Olivier, W. H. Friedman, J. An, K. Avicola, V. B. Beeman, H. D. Bissinger, M. J. Brase, V. G. Erbert, T. D. Gavel, K. Kanz, C. M. Liu, B. Macintosh. P. K. Neeb, J. Patience, and E. K. Waltjen, “Image improvement from a sodium-layer laser guide star adaptive optics system,” Science 277, 1649-1652 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Space Res. (1)

D. Simonich, B. Clemesha, and P. P. Batista, “Sporadic sodium layers and the average vertical distribution of atmospheric sodium,” Adv. Space Res. 35, 1976-1980 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Astron. Astrophys. (2)

J. D. Butler, I. R. Davies, M. R. Ageorges, N. Fews, and H. Redfern, “Measuring the absolute height and profile of the mesospheric sodium layer using a continuous wave laser,” Astron. Astrophys. 403, 775-785 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Foy and A. Labeyrie, “Feasibility of adaptive telescope with laser probe,” Astron. Astrophys. 152, L29-L31 (1985).

Exp. Astron. (1)

C. O'Sullivan, R. M. Redfern, N. Ageorges, H.-C. Holstenberg, W. Hackenberg, T. Ott, S. Rabien, R. Davies, and A. Eckart, “Short timescale variability of the mesospheric sodium layer,” Exp. Astron. 10, 147-156 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Geophys. Res. Lett. (1)

T. Pfrommer, P. Hickson, and C.-Y. She, “A large-aperture sodium fluorescence lidar with very high resolution for mesopause dynamics and adaptive optics studies,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 36, L15831 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. (1)

J. S. Adkins, S. Gavel, D. Thomas, T. Fusco, and V. Michau, “Study of optimal wavefront sensing with elongated laser guide stars,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 387, 173-187(2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. SPIE (4)

J. S. Gavel, D. Thomas, S. Adkins, and R. Kibrick, “Analysis of on-sky sodium profile data and implications for LGS AO wavefront sensing,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70155L (2008).

J. Nelson, “Thirty-Meter Telescope: progress and approaches,” Proc. SPIE 6986, 698602 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Ellerbroek, M. Britton, R. D. Dekany, G. Gavel, G. Herriot, B. Macintosh, and J. Stoesz, “Adaptive optics for the Thirty Meter Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 5903, 20-31 (2005).

G. Herriot, P. Hickson, B. Ellerbroek, J.-P. Véran, C.-Y. She, R. Clare, and D. Looze, “Focus errors from tracking sodium layer altitude variations with laser guide star adaptive optics for the Thirty Meter Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62721I(2006).

Science (1)

E. C. Max, S. S. Olivier, W. H. Friedman, J. An, K. Avicola, V. B. Beeman, H. D. Bissinger, M. J. Brase, V. G. Erbert, T. D. Gavel, K. Kanz, C. M. Liu, B. Macintosh. P. K. Neeb, J. Patience, and E. K. Waltjen, “Image improvement from a sodium-layer laser guide star adaptive optics system,” Science 277, 1649-1652 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

C. d'Orgeville, F. Rigaut, and B. Ellerbroek, “Gemini Observatory preprint #55,” available online at www.gemini.edu/documentation/webdocs/preprints/gpre55.pdf (2000).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Left: Geometry of the sodium layer observations. Right: Laser guide star image, with a 1 s exposure time. The SNR of this image is approximately 57 at the peak.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Typical drift scan image from 9 February 2006. The lower altitude is on the left of image, and the field of view of the camera in altitude is 27 km .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Example of profiles taken on 10 October 2006. The top set of data was taken at 1:18 am and the bottom one at 4:56 am.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Series of examples from 11 September 2006 [(a) 3:09 am, (b) 4:53 am], 9 February 9 2006 [(c) 12:30 am, (d) 1:25 am, (e) 2:45 am] and 9 October 9 2006 [(f) 1:39 am, (g) 3:57 am, (h) 4:38 am]. Each sample shows a drift scan of about 250 s . The images for each night are shown in chronological order.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Power spectrum of the fluctuations in the altitude of the sodium layer peak for observations from 9 February 2006 on the left and 11 September 2006 on the right. The dotted lines are fits to the power spectrum curve, and the dashed lines are the power spectrum of the motions of a background star. In both cases, the slope of the curve is 1.7 . This is representative of all nights.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Power spectra of the fluctuations in the altitude of the sodium layer peak for observations from 10 October 2006. The slopes of the curves are 2.2 and 2.3 for the left and right, respectively.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Left: Maximum time between focus adjustments required to maintain the focus error less than 1 m for all observations. Right: A histogram (using 25 ms bins) of the occurrence of a given focusing time required to maintain the error < 1 m .

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Standard deviation of the error in calculating the centroid of the profile as a function of the thickness of the profile for all the nights.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Evolution of the Average Center of Mass During the Night a

Tables Icon

Table 2 Summary of the Centroid Error and Energy Percentage Found Using 10, 15, and 18 km Thicknesses for all Nights a

Metrics