Abstract

The optical constants of indium phosphide (InP) in the soft x-ray region of 50200Å are determined from angle-dependent reflectivity measurements. The measurements are carried out using the reflectivity beam line at the Indus-1 synchrotron source. The derived optical constants are compared with tabulated values of Henke et al. [At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181 (1993)]. Experimental values of δ and β are in close agreement with the tabulated values in the lower wavelength region of 50120Å. The experimental value indicates an edge shift of 0.4Å toward the lower wavelength side from the phosphorous L-edge value of 92Å. However, above the 120Å region, where the indium N2 edge falls at 160.7Å, there is a huge difference between experimental and tabulated values. Both delta and beta values are significantly higher. In contrast to tabulated values of the β/δ ratio, which is more than 1 above the 140Å region, the experimental measured ratio is found to be less than 1. This study presents the first reported experimental values of optical constants for InP in this wavelength range, to the best of our knowledge.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. E. Spiller, Soft X-Ray Optics (SPIE, 1994).
    [CrossRef]
  2. B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, and J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E=50–30000eV, Z=1–92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181–342 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  3. B. L. Henke, P. Lee, J. Tanaka, R. Shimabukuro, and B. Fujikawa, “Low energy x-ray diagnostics,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 27 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  4. F. Riesz, L. Ryc, J. Badziak, and M. Pfeifer, “Pulse response of GaAs and InP photoconductive detectors for the x-ray diagnostics of laser plasmas,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 474, 151–158 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. V. Nandedkar, K. J. S. Sawhney, G. S. Lodha, A. Verma, V. K. Raghuvanshi, A. K. Sinha, M. H. Modi, and M. Nayak, “First results on the reflectometry beamline on Indus-1,” Curr. Sci. 82, 298–304 (2002).
  6. D. Attwood, Soft X-Rays and Extreme Ultraviolet Radiation Principles and Applications (Cambridge U. Press, 1999), Chap. 3, pp. 55–97.
  7. E. M. Gullikson, P. Denham, S. Mrowka, and J. H. Underwood, “Absolute photoabsorption measurements of Mg, Al, and Si in the soft-x-ray region below the L2,3 edges,” Phys. Rev. B 49, 16283–16288 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  8. L. Nevot and P. Croce, “Characterization of surfaces by grazing incidence x-ray reflection. Application to the polishing study of several silicate glasses,” Rev. Phys. Appl. 15, 761–779 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. Soufli and E. M. Gullikson, “Reflectance measurements on clean surfaces for the determination of optical constants of silicon in the extreme ultraviolet-soft-x-ray region,” Appl. Opt. 36, 5499–5507 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. L. G. Parratt, “Surface studies of solids by total reflection of x-rays,” Phys. Rev. 95, 359–369 (1954).
    [CrossRef]
  11. G. S. Lodha, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, J. Yu, Y. Namba, and J. M. Bennett, “Effect of surface roughness and subsurface damage on grazing-incidence x-ray scattering and specular reflectance,” Appl. Opt. 37, 5239–5252(1998).
    [CrossRef]
  12. M. H. Modi, G. S. Lodha, M. K. Tiwari, S. K. Rai, C. Mukharjee, P. Magudapathy, K. G. M. Nair, and R. V. Nandedkar, “Ion irradiation damage on tin side surface of float glass,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 239, 383–390 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  13. D. Ksenzov, T. Panzer, C. Schlenper, C. Morawe, and U. Pietsch, “Optical properties of boron carbide near the boron K edge evaluated by soft x-ray reflectometry from a Ru/B4C multilayer,” Appl. Opt. 48, 6684–6690 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. P. Tripathi, G. S. Lodha, M. H. Modi, A. K. Sinha, K. J. S. Sawhney, and R. V. Nandedkar, “Optical constants of silicon and silicon dioxide using soft x-ray reflectance measurements,” Opt. Commun. 211, 215–223 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  15. G. S. Lodha, M. Nayak, M. H. Modi, A. K. Sinha, and R. V. Nandedkar, “Study of optical response near the absorption edge using vacuum ultraviolet/soft x-ray reflectivity beamline on Indus-1,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 80, 012031 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  16. E. Filatova, V. Lukyanov, C. Blessing, and J. Friedrich, “Reflection spectra and optical constants of noncrystalline SiO2 in the soft x-ray region,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 79, 63–66 (1996).
    [CrossRef]

2009 (1)

2007 (1)

G. S. Lodha, M. Nayak, M. H. Modi, A. K. Sinha, and R. V. Nandedkar, “Study of optical response near the absorption edge using vacuum ultraviolet/soft x-ray reflectivity beamline on Indus-1,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 80, 012031 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

M. H. Modi, G. S. Lodha, M. K. Tiwari, S. K. Rai, C. Mukharjee, P. Magudapathy, K. G. M. Nair, and R. V. Nandedkar, “Ion irradiation damage on tin side surface of float glass,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 239, 383–390 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

P. Tripathi, G. S. Lodha, M. H. Modi, A. K. Sinha, K. J. S. Sawhney, and R. V. Nandedkar, “Optical constants of silicon and silicon dioxide using soft x-ray reflectance measurements,” Opt. Commun. 211, 215–223 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. V. Nandedkar, K. J. S. Sawhney, G. S. Lodha, A. Verma, V. K. Raghuvanshi, A. K. Sinha, M. H. Modi, and M. Nayak, “First results on the reflectometry beamline on Indus-1,” Curr. Sci. 82, 298–304 (2002).

2001 (1)

F. Riesz, L. Ryc, J. Badziak, and M. Pfeifer, “Pulse response of GaAs and InP photoconductive detectors for the x-ray diagnostics of laser plasmas,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 474, 151–158 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

1997 (1)

1996 (1)

E. Filatova, V. Lukyanov, C. Blessing, and J. Friedrich, “Reflection spectra and optical constants of noncrystalline SiO2 in the soft x-ray region,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 79, 63–66 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

E. M. Gullikson, P. Denham, S. Mrowka, and J. H. Underwood, “Absolute photoabsorption measurements of Mg, Al, and Si in the soft-x-ray region below the L2,3 edges,” Phys. Rev. B 49, 16283–16288 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, and J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E=50–30000eV, Z=1–92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181–342 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

B. L. Henke, P. Lee, J. Tanaka, R. Shimabukuro, and B. Fujikawa, “Low energy x-ray diagnostics,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 27 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

L. Nevot and P. Croce, “Characterization of surfaces by grazing incidence x-ray reflection. Application to the polishing study of several silicate glasses,” Rev. Phys. Appl. 15, 761–779 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1954 (1)

L. G. Parratt, “Surface studies of solids by total reflection of x-rays,” Phys. Rev. 95, 359–369 (1954).
[CrossRef]

Attwood, D.

D. Attwood, Soft X-Rays and Extreme Ultraviolet Radiation Principles and Applications (Cambridge U. Press, 1999), Chap. 3, pp. 55–97.

Badziak, J.

F. Riesz, L. Ryc, J. Badziak, and M. Pfeifer, “Pulse response of GaAs and InP photoconductive detectors for the x-ray diagnostics of laser plasmas,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 474, 151–158 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bennett, J. M.

Blessing, C.

E. Filatova, V. Lukyanov, C. Blessing, and J. Friedrich, “Reflection spectra and optical constants of noncrystalline SiO2 in the soft x-ray region,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 79, 63–66 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Croce, P.

L. Nevot and P. Croce, “Characterization of surfaces by grazing incidence x-ray reflection. Application to the polishing study of several silicate glasses,” Rev. Phys. Appl. 15, 761–779 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Davis, J. C.

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, and J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E=50–30000eV, Z=1–92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181–342 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Denham, P.

E. M. Gullikson, P. Denham, S. Mrowka, and J. H. Underwood, “Absolute photoabsorption measurements of Mg, Al, and Si in the soft-x-ray region below the L2,3 edges,” Phys. Rev. B 49, 16283–16288 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Filatova, E.

E. Filatova, V. Lukyanov, C. Blessing, and J. Friedrich, “Reflection spectra and optical constants of noncrystalline SiO2 in the soft x-ray region,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 79, 63–66 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Friedrich, J.

E. Filatova, V. Lukyanov, C. Blessing, and J. Friedrich, “Reflection spectra and optical constants of noncrystalline SiO2 in the soft x-ray region,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 79, 63–66 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Fujikawa, B.

B. L. Henke, P. Lee, J. Tanaka, R. Shimabukuro, and B. Fujikawa, “Low energy x-ray diagnostics,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 27 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Gullikson, E. M.

R. Soufli and E. M. Gullikson, “Reflectance measurements on clean surfaces for the determination of optical constants of silicon in the extreme ultraviolet-soft-x-ray region,” Appl. Opt. 36, 5499–5507 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. M. Gullikson, P. Denham, S. Mrowka, and J. H. Underwood, “Absolute photoabsorption measurements of Mg, Al, and Si in the soft-x-ray region below the L2,3 edges,” Phys. Rev. B 49, 16283–16288 (1994).
[CrossRef]

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, and J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E=50–30000eV, Z=1–92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181–342 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Henke, B. L.

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, and J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E=50–30000eV, Z=1–92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181–342 (1993).
[CrossRef]

B. L. Henke, P. Lee, J. Tanaka, R. Shimabukuro, and B. Fujikawa, “Low energy x-ray diagnostics,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 27 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Ksenzov, D.

Kunieda, H.

Lee, P.

B. L. Henke, P. Lee, J. Tanaka, R. Shimabukuro, and B. Fujikawa, “Low energy x-ray diagnostics,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 27 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Lodha, G. S.

G. S. Lodha, M. Nayak, M. H. Modi, A. K. Sinha, and R. V. Nandedkar, “Study of optical response near the absorption edge using vacuum ultraviolet/soft x-ray reflectivity beamline on Indus-1,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 80, 012031 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Modi, G. S. Lodha, M. K. Tiwari, S. K. Rai, C. Mukharjee, P. Magudapathy, K. G. M. Nair, and R. V. Nandedkar, “Ion irradiation damage on tin side surface of float glass,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 239, 383–390 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. V. Nandedkar, K. J. S. Sawhney, G. S. Lodha, A. Verma, V. K. Raghuvanshi, A. K. Sinha, M. H. Modi, and M. Nayak, “First results on the reflectometry beamline on Indus-1,” Curr. Sci. 82, 298–304 (2002).

P. Tripathi, G. S. Lodha, M. H. Modi, A. K. Sinha, K. J. S. Sawhney, and R. V. Nandedkar, “Optical constants of silicon and silicon dioxide using soft x-ray reflectance measurements,” Opt. Commun. 211, 215–223 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Lodha, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, J. Yu, Y. Namba, and J. M. Bennett, “Effect of surface roughness and subsurface damage on grazing-incidence x-ray scattering and specular reflectance,” Appl. Opt. 37, 5239–5252(1998).
[CrossRef]

Lukyanov, V.

E. Filatova, V. Lukyanov, C. Blessing, and J. Friedrich, “Reflection spectra and optical constants of noncrystalline SiO2 in the soft x-ray region,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 79, 63–66 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Magudapathy, P.

M. H. Modi, G. S. Lodha, M. K. Tiwari, S. K. Rai, C. Mukharjee, P. Magudapathy, K. G. M. Nair, and R. V. Nandedkar, “Ion irradiation damage on tin side surface of float glass,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 239, 383–390 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Modi, M. H.

G. S. Lodha, M. Nayak, M. H. Modi, A. K. Sinha, and R. V. Nandedkar, “Study of optical response near the absorption edge using vacuum ultraviolet/soft x-ray reflectivity beamline on Indus-1,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 80, 012031 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Modi, G. S. Lodha, M. K. Tiwari, S. K. Rai, C. Mukharjee, P. Magudapathy, K. G. M. Nair, and R. V. Nandedkar, “Ion irradiation damage on tin side surface of float glass,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 239, 383–390 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. V. Nandedkar, K. J. S. Sawhney, G. S. Lodha, A. Verma, V. K. Raghuvanshi, A. K. Sinha, M. H. Modi, and M. Nayak, “First results on the reflectometry beamline on Indus-1,” Curr. Sci. 82, 298–304 (2002).

P. Tripathi, G. S. Lodha, M. H. Modi, A. K. Sinha, K. J. S. Sawhney, and R. V. Nandedkar, “Optical constants of silicon and silicon dioxide using soft x-ray reflectance measurements,” Opt. Commun. 211, 215–223 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Morawe, C.

Mrowka, S.

E. M. Gullikson, P. Denham, S. Mrowka, and J. H. Underwood, “Absolute photoabsorption measurements of Mg, Al, and Si in the soft-x-ray region below the L2,3 edges,” Phys. Rev. B 49, 16283–16288 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Mukharjee, C.

M. H. Modi, G. S. Lodha, M. K. Tiwari, S. K. Rai, C. Mukharjee, P. Magudapathy, K. G. M. Nair, and R. V. Nandedkar, “Ion irradiation damage on tin side surface of float glass,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 239, 383–390 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nair, K. G. M.

M. H. Modi, G. S. Lodha, M. K. Tiwari, S. K. Rai, C. Mukharjee, P. Magudapathy, K. G. M. Nair, and R. V. Nandedkar, “Ion irradiation damage on tin side surface of float glass,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 239, 383–390 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Namba, Y.

Nandedkar, R. V.

G. S. Lodha, M. Nayak, M. H. Modi, A. K. Sinha, and R. V. Nandedkar, “Study of optical response near the absorption edge using vacuum ultraviolet/soft x-ray reflectivity beamline on Indus-1,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 80, 012031 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Modi, G. S. Lodha, M. K. Tiwari, S. K. Rai, C. Mukharjee, P. Magudapathy, K. G. M. Nair, and R. V. Nandedkar, “Ion irradiation damage on tin side surface of float glass,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 239, 383–390 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Tripathi, G. S. Lodha, M. H. Modi, A. K. Sinha, K. J. S. Sawhney, and R. V. Nandedkar, “Optical constants of silicon and silicon dioxide using soft x-ray reflectance measurements,” Opt. Commun. 211, 215–223 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. V. Nandedkar, K. J. S. Sawhney, G. S. Lodha, A. Verma, V. K. Raghuvanshi, A. K. Sinha, M. H. Modi, and M. Nayak, “First results on the reflectometry beamline on Indus-1,” Curr. Sci. 82, 298–304 (2002).

Nayak, M.

G. S. Lodha, M. Nayak, M. H. Modi, A. K. Sinha, and R. V. Nandedkar, “Study of optical response near the absorption edge using vacuum ultraviolet/soft x-ray reflectivity beamline on Indus-1,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 80, 012031 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. V. Nandedkar, K. J. S. Sawhney, G. S. Lodha, A. Verma, V. K. Raghuvanshi, A. K. Sinha, M. H. Modi, and M. Nayak, “First results on the reflectometry beamline on Indus-1,” Curr. Sci. 82, 298–304 (2002).

Nevot, L.

L. Nevot and P. Croce, “Characterization of surfaces by grazing incidence x-ray reflection. Application to the polishing study of several silicate glasses,” Rev. Phys. Appl. 15, 761–779 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Panzer, T.

Parratt, L. G.

L. G. Parratt, “Surface studies of solids by total reflection of x-rays,” Phys. Rev. 95, 359–369 (1954).
[CrossRef]

Pfeifer, M.

F. Riesz, L. Ryc, J. Badziak, and M. Pfeifer, “Pulse response of GaAs and InP photoconductive detectors for the x-ray diagnostics of laser plasmas,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 474, 151–158 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Pietsch, U.

Raghuvanshi, V. K.

R. V. Nandedkar, K. J. S. Sawhney, G. S. Lodha, A. Verma, V. K. Raghuvanshi, A. K. Sinha, M. H. Modi, and M. Nayak, “First results on the reflectometry beamline on Indus-1,” Curr. Sci. 82, 298–304 (2002).

Rai, S. K.

M. H. Modi, G. S. Lodha, M. K. Tiwari, S. K. Rai, C. Mukharjee, P. Magudapathy, K. G. M. Nair, and R. V. Nandedkar, “Ion irradiation damage on tin side surface of float glass,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 239, 383–390 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Riesz, F.

F. Riesz, L. Ryc, J. Badziak, and M. Pfeifer, “Pulse response of GaAs and InP photoconductive detectors for the x-ray diagnostics of laser plasmas,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 474, 151–158 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ryc, L.

F. Riesz, L. Ryc, J. Badziak, and M. Pfeifer, “Pulse response of GaAs and InP photoconductive detectors for the x-ray diagnostics of laser plasmas,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 474, 151–158 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sawhney, K. J. S.

R. V. Nandedkar, K. J. S. Sawhney, G. S. Lodha, A. Verma, V. K. Raghuvanshi, A. K. Sinha, M. H. Modi, and M. Nayak, “First results on the reflectometry beamline on Indus-1,” Curr. Sci. 82, 298–304 (2002).

P. Tripathi, G. S. Lodha, M. H. Modi, A. K. Sinha, K. J. S. Sawhney, and R. V. Nandedkar, “Optical constants of silicon and silicon dioxide using soft x-ray reflectance measurements,” Opt. Commun. 211, 215–223 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Schlenper, C.

Shimabukuro, R.

B. L. Henke, P. Lee, J. Tanaka, R. Shimabukuro, and B. Fujikawa, “Low energy x-ray diagnostics,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 27 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Sinha, A. K.

G. S. Lodha, M. Nayak, M. H. Modi, A. K. Sinha, and R. V. Nandedkar, “Study of optical response near the absorption edge using vacuum ultraviolet/soft x-ray reflectivity beamline on Indus-1,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 80, 012031 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Tripathi, G. S. Lodha, M. H. Modi, A. K. Sinha, K. J. S. Sawhney, and R. V. Nandedkar, “Optical constants of silicon and silicon dioxide using soft x-ray reflectance measurements,” Opt. Commun. 211, 215–223 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. V. Nandedkar, K. J. S. Sawhney, G. S. Lodha, A. Verma, V. K. Raghuvanshi, A. K. Sinha, M. H. Modi, and M. Nayak, “First results on the reflectometry beamline on Indus-1,” Curr. Sci. 82, 298–304 (2002).

Soufli, R.

Spiller, E.

E. Spiller, Soft X-Ray Optics (SPIE, 1994).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, J.

B. L. Henke, P. Lee, J. Tanaka, R. Shimabukuro, and B. Fujikawa, “Low energy x-ray diagnostics,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 27 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Tawara, Y.

Tiwari, M. K.

M. H. Modi, G. S. Lodha, M. K. Tiwari, S. K. Rai, C. Mukharjee, P. Magudapathy, K. G. M. Nair, and R. V. Nandedkar, “Ion irradiation damage on tin side surface of float glass,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 239, 383–390 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tripathi, P.

P. Tripathi, G. S. Lodha, M. H. Modi, A. K. Sinha, K. J. S. Sawhney, and R. V. Nandedkar, “Optical constants of silicon and silicon dioxide using soft x-ray reflectance measurements,” Opt. Commun. 211, 215–223 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Underwood, J. H.

E. M. Gullikson, P. Denham, S. Mrowka, and J. H. Underwood, “Absolute photoabsorption measurements of Mg, Al, and Si in the soft-x-ray region below the L2,3 edges,” Phys. Rev. B 49, 16283–16288 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Verma, A.

R. V. Nandedkar, K. J. S. Sawhney, G. S. Lodha, A. Verma, V. K. Raghuvanshi, A. K. Sinha, M. H. Modi, and M. Nayak, “First results on the reflectometry beamline on Indus-1,” Curr. Sci. 82, 298–304 (2002).

Yamashita, K.

Yu, J.

Appl. Opt. (3)

At. Data Nucl. Data Tables (2)

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, and J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E=50–30000eV, Z=1–92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181–342 (1993).
[CrossRef]

B. L. Henke, P. Lee, J. Tanaka, R. Shimabukuro, and B. Fujikawa, “Low energy x-ray diagnostics,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 27 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Curr. Sci. (1)

R. V. Nandedkar, K. J. S. Sawhney, G. S. Lodha, A. Verma, V. K. Raghuvanshi, A. K. Sinha, M. H. Modi, and M. Nayak, “First results on the reflectometry beamline on Indus-1,” Curr. Sci. 82, 298–304 (2002).

J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. (1)

E. Filatova, V. Lukyanov, C. Blessing, and J. Friedrich, “Reflection spectra and optical constants of noncrystalline SiO2 in the soft x-ray region,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 79, 63–66 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Conf. Ser. (1)

G. S. Lodha, M. Nayak, M. H. Modi, A. K. Sinha, and R. V. Nandedkar, “Study of optical response near the absorption edge using vacuum ultraviolet/soft x-ray reflectivity beamline on Indus-1,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 80, 012031 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A (1)

F. Riesz, L. Ryc, J. Badziak, and M. Pfeifer, “Pulse response of GaAs and InP photoconductive detectors for the x-ray diagnostics of laser plasmas,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 474, 151–158 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B (1)

M. H. Modi, G. S. Lodha, M. K. Tiwari, S. K. Rai, C. Mukharjee, P. Magudapathy, K. G. M. Nair, and R. V. Nandedkar, “Ion irradiation damage on tin side surface of float glass,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 239, 383–390 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

P. Tripathi, G. S. Lodha, M. H. Modi, A. K. Sinha, K. J. S. Sawhney, and R. V. Nandedkar, “Optical constants of silicon and silicon dioxide using soft x-ray reflectance measurements,” Opt. Commun. 211, 215–223 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. (1)

L. G. Parratt, “Surface studies of solids by total reflection of x-rays,” Phys. Rev. 95, 359–369 (1954).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

E. M. Gullikson, P. Denham, S. Mrowka, and J. H. Underwood, “Absolute photoabsorption measurements of Mg, Al, and Si in the soft-x-ray region below the L2,3 edges,” Phys. Rev. B 49, 16283–16288 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Phys. Appl. (1)

L. Nevot and P. Croce, “Characterization of surfaces by grazing incidence x-ray reflection. Application to the polishing study of several silicate glasses,” Rev. Phys. Appl. 15, 761–779 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

E. Spiller, Soft X-Ray Optics (SPIE, 1994).
[CrossRef]

D. Attwood, Soft X-Rays and Extreme Ultraviolet Radiation Principles and Applications (Cambridge U. Press, 1999), Chap. 3, pp. 55–97.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

GIXR spectra of the InP bulk sample, measured using the Cu K α wavelength ( λ = 1.54 Å ), and their best fit are shown by open circles and the solid curve, respectively.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Soft x-ray angle-dependent reflectance curves measured at wavelengths of λ = 130 , 140, and 181 Å and their best fits are shown by the open circles and the solid curve, respectively. A representative model used for obtaining the best fit, where a surface layer is assumed on the bulk InP substrate, is shown.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Soft x-ray angle-dependent reflectance curves measured at wavelengths of λ = 70 , 80, and 95 Å and their best fits are shown by the open circles and the solid curve, respectively. Details of the model assumed for obtaining the best fit for all wavelengths below 95 Å are described in the text.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measured values of InP optical constants are shown as discrete points, along with the error bars. For comparison, Henke et al.’s data [2] are shown by solid curves. In the inset, the optical constant near the phosphorous L edge is shown, and measured data are in close agreement with Henke et al.’s values. Near the indium N 2 edge of 160.7 Å , a huge discrepancy between experimental and tabulated values is found. Details are given in the text.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Derived Optical Constants of InP in the 50 200 Å Wavelength Region, along with Henke’s Tabulated Values

Equations (6)

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[ 2 t 2 c 2 n 2 ( ω ) 2 ] E ( r , t ) = 0 ,
n = 1 δ + i β = 1 r e 2 π λ 2 n a f ,
δ = r e 2 π λ 2 n a f 1 , β = r e 2 π λ 2 n a f 2 .
f 1 ( ω ) z = 2 π 0 u f 2 ( u ) u 2 ω 2 d u ,
n = 1 δ + i β = 1 r e λ 2 2 π j n j ( f 1 j i f 2 j ) ,
r s = sin θ ( n 2 cos 2 θ ) 1 / 2 sin θ + ( n 2 cos 2 θ ) 1 / 2 .

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