Abstract

We present a novel method for remote sensing of crosswind using a passive imaging device, such as a video recorder. The method is based on spatial and temporal correlations of the intensity fluctuations of a naturally illuminated scene induced by atmospheric turbulence. Adaptable spatial filtering, taking into account variations of the dominant spatial scales of the turbulence (due to changes in meteorological conditions, such as turbulence strength, or imaging device performance, such as frame rate or spatial resolution), is incorporated into this method. Experimental comparison with independent wind measurement using anemometers shows good agreement.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  9. L. C. Andrews and R. L. Phillips, Laser Beam Propagation through Random Media (SPIE, 1998).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  17. R. B. Holmes, “Passive optical wind profilometer,” U.S. patent 5,469,250 (21 November 1995).
  18. A. Berdja, J. Borgnino, and A. Irbah, “Fresnel diffraction and polychromatic effects on angle-of-arrival fluctuations,” J. Opt. A Pure Appl. Opt. 8, 244–251 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  19. S. Zamek and Y. Yitzhaky, “Turbulence strength estimation from an arbitrary set of atmospherically degraded images,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 3106–3113 (2006).
    [CrossRef]

2010

J. Shapira, O. Porat, M. Livneh, Z. Wies, D. Heflinger, Y. Glick, and A. Engel, “Atmospheric cross-wind and turbulence measurements using turbulence—induced scintillations,” Proc. SPIE 768476841L (2010).
[CrossRef]

2007

2006

A. Berdja, J. Borgnino, and A. Irbah, “Fresnel diffraction and polychromatic effects on angle-of-arrival fluctuations,” J. Opt. A Pure Appl. Opt. 8, 244–251 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Zamek and Y. Yitzhaky, “Turbulence strength estimation from an arbitrary set of atmospherically degraded images,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 3106–3113 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2000

L. P. Poggio, M. Furger, A. S. H. Prevot, and W. K. Graber, “Scintillometer wind measurements over complex terrain,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 17, 17–26 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

1981

1977

1975

1972

1950

B. H. Briggs, J. Phillips, and D. H. Shinn, “The analysis of observation on spaced receivers of the fading of radio signals,” Proc. Phys. Soc. London 63, 106–121 (1950).
[CrossRef]

AI-Habash, M. A.

Andrews, L. C.

L. C. Andrews, R. L. Phillips, C. Y. Hopen, and M. A. AI-Habash, “Theory of optical scintillation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16, 1417–1429 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. C. Andrews, R. L. Phillips, and C. Y. Hopen, Laser Beam Scintillation with Applications (SPIE, 2001).

L. C. Andrews and R. L. Phillips, Laser Beam Propagation through Random Media (SPIE, 1998).

Banakh, V. A.

Berdja, A.

A. Berdja, J. Borgnino, and A. Irbah, “Fresnel diffraction and polychromatic effects on angle-of-arrival fluctuations,” J. Opt. A Pure Appl. Opt. 8, 244–251 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Borgnino, J.

A. Berdja, J. Borgnino, and A. Irbah, “Fresnel diffraction and polychromatic effects on angle-of-arrival fluctuations,” J. Opt. A Pure Appl. Opt. 8, 244–251 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Briggs, B. H.

B. H. Briggs, J. Phillips, and D. H. Shinn, “The analysis of observation on spaced receivers of the fading of radio signals,” Proc. Phys. Soc. London 63, 106–121 (1950).
[CrossRef]

Clifford, S. F.

Engel, A.

J. Shapira, O. Porat, M. Livneh, Z. Wies, D. Heflinger, Y. Glick, and A. Engel, “Atmospheric cross-wind and turbulence measurements using turbulence—induced scintillations,” Proc. SPIE 768476841L (2010).
[CrossRef]

Furger, M.

L. P. Poggio, M. Furger, A. S. H. Prevot, and W. K. Graber, “Scintillometer wind measurements over complex terrain,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 17, 17–26 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Glick, Y.

J. Shapira, O. Porat, M. Livneh, Z. Wies, D. Heflinger, Y. Glick, and A. Engel, “Atmospheric cross-wind and turbulence measurements using turbulence—induced scintillations,” Proc. SPIE 768476841L (2010).
[CrossRef]

Graber, W. K.

L. P. Poggio, M. Furger, A. S. H. Prevot, and W. K. Graber, “Scintillometer wind measurements over complex terrain,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 17, 17–26 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Heflinger, D.

J. Shapira, O. Porat, M. Livneh, Z. Wies, D. Heflinger, Y. Glick, and A. Engel, “Atmospheric cross-wind and turbulence measurements using turbulence—induced scintillations,” Proc. SPIE 768476841L (2010).
[CrossRef]

Holmes, R. B.

R. B. Holmes, “Passive optical wind profilometer,” U.S. patent 5,469,250 (21 November 1995).

Hopen, C. Y.

L. C. Andrews, R. L. Phillips, C. Y. Hopen, and M. A. AI-Habash, “Theory of optical scintillation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16, 1417–1429 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. C. Andrews, R. L. Phillips, and C. Y. Hopen, Laser Beam Scintillation with Applications (SPIE, 2001).

Irbah, A.

A. Berdja, J. Borgnino, and A. Irbah, “Fresnel diffraction and polychromatic effects on angle-of-arrival fluctuations,” J. Opt. A Pure Appl. Opt. 8, 244–251 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ishimaru, I. A.

V. Tatarski, I. A. Ishimaru, and V. U. Zavorotny, Wave Propagation in Random Media (Scintillation) (SPIE and Institute of Physics, 1993).

Lawrence, R. S.

Livneh, M.

J. Shapira, O. Porat, M. Livneh, Z. Wies, D. Heflinger, Y. Glick, and A. Engel, “Atmospheric cross-wind and turbulence measurements using turbulence—induced scintillations,” Proc. SPIE 768476841L (2010).
[CrossRef]

lshimaru, A.

A. lshimaru, Wave Propagation and Scattering in Random Media (Academic, 1978), Vol. 2.

Marakasov, D. A.

Ochs, G. R.

Phillips, J.

B. H. Briggs, J. Phillips, and D. H. Shinn, “The analysis of observation on spaced receivers of the fading of radio signals,” Proc. Phys. Soc. London 63, 106–121 (1950).
[CrossRef]

Phillips, R. L.

L. C. Andrews, R. L. Phillips, C. Y. Hopen, and M. A. AI-Habash, “Theory of optical scintillation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16, 1417–1429 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. C. Andrews and R. L. Phillips, Laser Beam Propagation through Random Media (SPIE, 1998).

L. C. Andrews, R. L. Phillips, and C. Y. Hopen, Laser Beam Scintillation with Applications (SPIE, 2001).

Poggio, L. P.

L. P. Poggio, M. Furger, A. S. H. Prevot, and W. K. Graber, “Scintillometer wind measurements over complex terrain,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 17, 17–26 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Porat, O.

J. Shapira, O. Porat, M. Livneh, Z. Wies, D. Heflinger, Y. Glick, and A. Engel, “Atmospheric cross-wind and turbulence measurements using turbulence—induced scintillations,” Proc. SPIE 768476841L (2010).
[CrossRef]

Prevot, A. S. H.

L. P. Poggio, M. Furger, A. S. H. Prevot, and W. K. Graber, “Scintillometer wind measurements over complex terrain,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 17, 17–26 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Shapira, J.

J. Shapira, O. Porat, M. Livneh, Z. Wies, D. Heflinger, Y. Glick, and A. Engel, “Atmospheric cross-wind and turbulence measurements using turbulence—induced scintillations,” Proc. SPIE 768476841L (2010).
[CrossRef]

Shinn, D. H.

B. H. Briggs, J. Phillips, and D. H. Shinn, “The analysis of observation on spaced receivers of the fading of radio signals,” Proc. Phys. Soc. London 63, 106–121 (1950).
[CrossRef]

Smith, F. G.

F. G. Smith, Atmospheric propagation of radiation, in The Infrared and Electro-Optical Systems Handbook (SPIE Press, 1993), Vol. 2, pp. 176–201.

Strohbehn, J. W.

J. W. Strohbehn, Laser Beam Propagation in the Atmosphere, Vol. 25 of Topics in Applied Physics (Springer-Verlag, 1978)..

Tatarski, V.

V. Tatarski, I. A. Ishimaru, and V. U. Zavorotny, Wave Propagation in Random Media (Scintillation) (SPIE and Institute of Physics, 1993).

Tatarski, V. I.

V. I. Tatarski, Wave Propagation in a Turbulent Medium (McGraw-Hill, 1961).

Vorontsov, M. A.

Walters, D. L.

Wang, T.

Wies, Z.

J. Shapira, O. Porat, M. Livneh, Z. Wies, D. Heflinger, Y. Glick, and A. Engel, “Atmospheric cross-wind and turbulence measurements using turbulence—induced scintillations,” Proc. SPIE 768476841L (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yitzhaky, Y.

Zamek, S.

Zavorotny, V. U.

V. Tatarski, I. A. Ishimaru, and V. U. Zavorotny, Wave Propagation in Random Media (Scintillation) (SPIE and Institute of Physics, 1993).

Appl. Opt.

J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol.

L. P. Poggio, M. Furger, A. S. H. Prevot, and W. K. Graber, “Scintillometer wind measurements over complex terrain,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 17, 17–26 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A Pure Appl. Opt.

A. Berdja, J. Borgnino, and A. Irbah, “Fresnel diffraction and polychromatic effects on angle-of-arrival fluctuations,” J. Opt. A Pure Appl. Opt. 8, 244–251 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

Proc. Phys. Soc. London

B. H. Briggs, J. Phillips, and D. H. Shinn, “The analysis of observation on spaced receivers of the fading of radio signals,” Proc. Phys. Soc. London 63, 106–121 (1950).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

J. Shapira, O. Porat, M. Livneh, Z. Wies, D. Heflinger, Y. Glick, and A. Engel, “Atmospheric cross-wind and turbulence measurements using turbulence—induced scintillations,” Proc. SPIE 768476841L (2010).
[CrossRef]

Other

L. C. Andrews and R. L. Phillips, Laser Beam Propagation through Random Media (SPIE, 1998).

L. C. Andrews, R. L. Phillips, and C. Y. Hopen, Laser Beam Scintillation with Applications (SPIE, 2001).

A. lshimaru, Wave Propagation and Scattering in Random Media (Academic, 1978), Vol. 2.

F. G. Smith, Atmospheric propagation of radiation, in The Infrared and Electro-Optical Systems Handbook (SPIE Press, 1993), Vol. 2, pp. 176–201.

V. Tatarski, I. A. Ishimaru, and V. U. Zavorotny, Wave Propagation in Random Media (Scintillation) (SPIE and Institute of Physics, 1993).

R. B. Holmes, “Passive optical wind profilometer,” U.S. patent 5,469,250 (21 November 1995).

V. I. Tatarski, Wave Propagation in a Turbulent Medium (McGraw-Hill, 1961).

J. W. Strohbehn, Laser Beam Propagation in the Atmosphere, Vol. 25 of Topics in Applied Physics (Springer-Verlag, 1978)..

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