Abstract

Temporally and spatially resolved measurements of the number density of water droplets in an intermittent aerosol were experimentally demonstrated by a laser-induced breakdown technique. The temporal number density distribution is clearly explained by temporal variations in the air pressure at the nozzle caused by an electric valve, the number density of droplets in the steady-state aerosol as a function of air pressure applied to the nozzle, and the steady-state air flow speed as a function of the air pressure applied to the nozzle. The spatial resolutions in the radial and axial directions are also discussed; they were determined from the breakdown threshold intensities of water droplets and air.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. J. Swithenbank, J. Beer, D. S. Taylor, D. Abbott, and C. O. McCreath, A Laser Diagnostic technique for the measurement of droplet and particle size distribution, Prog. Astronaut. Aeronaut. 53, 421447 (1977).
  2. W. D. Bachalo and M. J. Hause, Laser/Doppler spray analyzer for simultaneous measurements of drop size and velocity distributions, Opt. Eng . 23, 583590 (1984).
  3. M. Raffel, C. E. Willert, and J. Kompenhans, Particle Image Velocimetry (Springer-Verlag, 1998).
  4. K. Nishida, N. Murakami, and H. Hiroyasu, Holographic measurement of evaporating diesel sprays at high pressure and temperature, JSME Int. J. 30, 107115 (1987).
  5. Y. H. Won, T. Kamimoto, and H. Kosaka, A study on soot formation in unsteady spray flames via 2-D soot imaging, in SAE 1992 Transactions (Society of Automotive Engineers, 1992), Vol. 101, pp. 89100.
  6. K. Kawamura, A. Saitoh, and Y. Tanasawa, Measurement of fuel concentration in sprays by laser light computed tomography, in Proceedings of 4th International Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems (1988), pp. 311316.
  7. M. Shiratani, H. Kawasaki, T. Fukuzawa, and Y. Watanabe, In situ Polarization-sensitive laser-lights-scattering method for simultaneous measurements of two-Dimensional spatial size and density distributions of particles in plasmas, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 14, 603607 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  8. H. Yashiro, F. Sasaki, M. Kakehata, S. Shimada, T. Kimura, M. Mori, K. Torizuka, and H. Kimura, Japan patent application 122876 (2008).
  9. R. G. Pinnick, P. Chylek, M. Jazembski, E. Creegan, V. Srivastava, G. Fernandez, J. D. Pendleton, and A. Biswwas, Aerosol-induced laser breakdown thresholds: wavelength dependence, Appl. Opt. 27987996 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. H. Yashiro, F. Sasaki, and M. Kakehata, Measurement of number density of water droplets in aerosol by laser-induced breakdown, Appl. Phys. Express 3, 036601 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  11. H. Yashiro, F. Sasaki, and M. Kakehata, Appropriate laser focusing configuration for number density measurement of Water droplets in an aerosol by laser-induced breakdown method, to be published in Jpn. J. Appl. Phys..
  12. P. Chylek, M. A. Jarzembski, V. Srivastava, and R. G. Pinnick, Pressure dependence of the laser-induced breakdown thresholds of gases and droplets, Appl. Opt. 29, 23032306 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. A. Musing, U. Riedel, J. Waranatz, W. Herden, and H. Ridderbuch, Laser-induced breakdown in air and behind droplets: a detailed Monte-Carlo simulation, Proc. Combust. Inst. 31, 3007 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  14. H. Yashiro, F. Sasaki, and H. Furutani, Measurement of laser-induced breakdown threshold intensities of high-pressure gases and water droplets to determine the number density of an aerosol, to be published in Opt. Commun.

2010 (1)

H. Yashiro, F. Sasaki, and M. Kakehata, Measurement of number density of water droplets in aerosol by laser-induced breakdown, Appl. Phys. Express 3, 036601 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

A. Musing, U. Riedel, J. Waranatz, W. Herden, and H. Ridderbuch, Laser-induced breakdown in air and behind droplets: a detailed Monte-Carlo simulation, Proc. Combust. Inst. 31, 3007 (2007).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

M. Shiratani, H. Kawasaki, T. Fukuzawa, and Y. Watanabe, In situ Polarization-sensitive laser-lights-scattering method for simultaneous measurements of two-Dimensional spatial size and density distributions of particles in plasmas, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 14, 603607 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

1988 (1)

1987 (1)

K. Nishida, N. Murakami, and H. Hiroyasu, Holographic measurement of evaporating diesel sprays at high pressure and temperature, JSME Int. J. 30, 107115 (1987).

1984 (1)

W. D. Bachalo and M. J. Hause, Laser/Doppler spray analyzer for simultaneous measurements of drop size and velocity distributions, Opt. Eng . 23, 583590 (1984).

1977 (1)

J. Swithenbank, J. Beer, D. S. Taylor, D. Abbott, and C. O. McCreath, A Laser Diagnostic technique for the measurement of droplet and particle size distribution, Prog. Astronaut. Aeronaut. 53, 421447 (1977).

Abbott, D.

J. Swithenbank, J. Beer, D. S. Taylor, D. Abbott, and C. O. McCreath, A Laser Diagnostic technique for the measurement of droplet and particle size distribution, Prog. Astronaut. Aeronaut. 53, 421447 (1977).

Bachalo, W. D.

W. D. Bachalo and M. J. Hause, Laser/Doppler spray analyzer for simultaneous measurements of drop size and velocity distributions, Opt. Eng . 23, 583590 (1984).

Beer, J.

J. Swithenbank, J. Beer, D. S. Taylor, D. Abbott, and C. O. McCreath, A Laser Diagnostic technique for the measurement of droplet and particle size distribution, Prog. Astronaut. Aeronaut. 53, 421447 (1977).

Biswwas, A.

Chylek, P.

Creegan, E.

Fernandez, G.

Fukuzawa, T.

M. Shiratani, H. Kawasaki, T. Fukuzawa, and Y. Watanabe, In situ Polarization-sensitive laser-lights-scattering method for simultaneous measurements of two-Dimensional spatial size and density distributions of particles in plasmas, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 14, 603607 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Furutani, H.

H. Yashiro, F. Sasaki, and H. Furutani, Measurement of laser-induced breakdown threshold intensities of high-pressure gases and water droplets to determine the number density of an aerosol, to be published in Opt. Commun.

Hause, M. J.

W. D. Bachalo and M. J. Hause, Laser/Doppler spray analyzer for simultaneous measurements of drop size and velocity distributions, Opt. Eng . 23, 583590 (1984).

Herden, W.

A. Musing, U. Riedel, J. Waranatz, W. Herden, and H. Ridderbuch, Laser-induced breakdown in air and behind droplets: a detailed Monte-Carlo simulation, Proc. Combust. Inst. 31, 3007 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hiroyasu, H.

K. Nishida, N. Murakami, and H. Hiroyasu, Holographic measurement of evaporating diesel sprays at high pressure and temperature, JSME Int. J. 30, 107115 (1987).

Jarzembski, M. A.

Jazembski, M.

Kakehata, M.

H. Yashiro, F. Sasaki, and M. Kakehata, Measurement of number density of water droplets in aerosol by laser-induced breakdown, Appl. Phys. Express 3, 036601 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Yashiro, F. Sasaki, and M. Kakehata, Appropriate laser focusing configuration for number density measurement of Water droplets in an aerosol by laser-induced breakdown method, to be published in Jpn. J. Appl. Phys..

H. Yashiro, F. Sasaki, M. Kakehata, S. Shimada, T. Kimura, M. Mori, K. Torizuka, and H. Kimura, Japan patent application 122876 (2008).

Kamimoto, T.

Y. H. Won, T. Kamimoto, and H. Kosaka, A study on soot formation in unsteady spray flames via 2-D soot imaging, in SAE 1992 Transactions (Society of Automotive Engineers, 1992), Vol. 101, pp. 89100.

Kawamura, K.

K. Kawamura, A. Saitoh, and Y. Tanasawa, Measurement of fuel concentration in sprays by laser light computed tomography, in Proceedings of 4th International Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems (1988), pp. 311316.

Kawasaki, H.

M. Shiratani, H. Kawasaki, T. Fukuzawa, and Y. Watanabe, In situ Polarization-sensitive laser-lights-scattering method for simultaneous measurements of two-Dimensional spatial size and density distributions of particles in plasmas, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 14, 603607 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kimura, H.

H. Yashiro, F. Sasaki, M. Kakehata, S. Shimada, T. Kimura, M. Mori, K. Torizuka, and H. Kimura, Japan patent application 122876 (2008).

Kimura, T.

H. Yashiro, F. Sasaki, M. Kakehata, S. Shimada, T. Kimura, M. Mori, K. Torizuka, and H. Kimura, Japan patent application 122876 (2008).

Kompenhans, J.

M. Raffel, C. E. Willert, and J. Kompenhans, Particle Image Velocimetry (Springer-Verlag, 1998).

Kosaka, H.

Y. H. Won, T. Kamimoto, and H. Kosaka, A study on soot formation in unsteady spray flames via 2-D soot imaging, in SAE 1992 Transactions (Society of Automotive Engineers, 1992), Vol. 101, pp. 89100.

McCreath, C. O.

J. Swithenbank, J. Beer, D. S. Taylor, D. Abbott, and C. O. McCreath, A Laser Diagnostic technique for the measurement of droplet and particle size distribution, Prog. Astronaut. Aeronaut. 53, 421447 (1977).

Mori, M.

H. Yashiro, F. Sasaki, M. Kakehata, S. Shimada, T. Kimura, M. Mori, K. Torizuka, and H. Kimura, Japan patent application 122876 (2008).

Murakami, N.

K. Nishida, N. Murakami, and H. Hiroyasu, Holographic measurement of evaporating diesel sprays at high pressure and temperature, JSME Int. J. 30, 107115 (1987).

Musing, A.

A. Musing, U. Riedel, J. Waranatz, W. Herden, and H. Ridderbuch, Laser-induced breakdown in air and behind droplets: a detailed Monte-Carlo simulation, Proc. Combust. Inst. 31, 3007 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nishida, K.

K. Nishida, N. Murakami, and H. Hiroyasu, Holographic measurement of evaporating diesel sprays at high pressure and temperature, JSME Int. J. 30, 107115 (1987).

Pendleton, J. D.

Pinnick, R. G.

Raffel, M.

M. Raffel, C. E. Willert, and J. Kompenhans, Particle Image Velocimetry (Springer-Verlag, 1998).

Ridderbuch, H.

A. Musing, U. Riedel, J. Waranatz, W. Herden, and H. Ridderbuch, Laser-induced breakdown in air and behind droplets: a detailed Monte-Carlo simulation, Proc. Combust. Inst. 31, 3007 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Riedel, U.

A. Musing, U. Riedel, J. Waranatz, W. Herden, and H. Ridderbuch, Laser-induced breakdown in air and behind droplets: a detailed Monte-Carlo simulation, Proc. Combust. Inst. 31, 3007 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Saitoh, A.

K. Kawamura, A. Saitoh, and Y. Tanasawa, Measurement of fuel concentration in sprays by laser light computed tomography, in Proceedings of 4th International Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems (1988), pp. 311316.

Sasaki, F.

H. Yashiro, F. Sasaki, and M. Kakehata, Measurement of number density of water droplets in aerosol by laser-induced breakdown, Appl. Phys. Express 3, 036601 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Yashiro, F. Sasaki, M. Kakehata, S. Shimada, T. Kimura, M. Mori, K. Torizuka, and H. Kimura, Japan patent application 122876 (2008).

H. Yashiro, F. Sasaki, and M. Kakehata, Appropriate laser focusing configuration for number density measurement of Water droplets in an aerosol by laser-induced breakdown method, to be published in Jpn. J. Appl. Phys..

H. Yashiro, F. Sasaki, and H. Furutani, Measurement of laser-induced breakdown threshold intensities of high-pressure gases and water droplets to determine the number density of an aerosol, to be published in Opt. Commun.

Shimada, S.

H. Yashiro, F. Sasaki, M. Kakehata, S. Shimada, T. Kimura, M. Mori, K. Torizuka, and H. Kimura, Japan patent application 122876 (2008).

Shiratani, M.

M. Shiratani, H. Kawasaki, T. Fukuzawa, and Y. Watanabe, In situ Polarization-sensitive laser-lights-scattering method for simultaneous measurements of two-Dimensional spatial size and density distributions of particles in plasmas, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 14, 603607 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Srivastava, V.

Swithenbank, J.

J. Swithenbank, J. Beer, D. S. Taylor, D. Abbott, and C. O. McCreath, A Laser Diagnostic technique for the measurement of droplet and particle size distribution, Prog. Astronaut. Aeronaut. 53, 421447 (1977).

Tanasawa, Y.

K. Kawamura, A. Saitoh, and Y. Tanasawa, Measurement of fuel concentration in sprays by laser light computed tomography, in Proceedings of 4th International Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems (1988), pp. 311316.

Taylor, D. S.

J. Swithenbank, J. Beer, D. S. Taylor, D. Abbott, and C. O. McCreath, A Laser Diagnostic technique for the measurement of droplet and particle size distribution, Prog. Astronaut. Aeronaut. 53, 421447 (1977).

Torizuka, K.

H. Yashiro, F. Sasaki, M. Kakehata, S. Shimada, T. Kimura, M. Mori, K. Torizuka, and H. Kimura, Japan patent application 122876 (2008).

Waranatz, J.

A. Musing, U. Riedel, J. Waranatz, W. Herden, and H. Ridderbuch, Laser-induced breakdown in air and behind droplets: a detailed Monte-Carlo simulation, Proc. Combust. Inst. 31, 3007 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, Y.

M. Shiratani, H. Kawasaki, T. Fukuzawa, and Y. Watanabe, In situ Polarization-sensitive laser-lights-scattering method for simultaneous measurements of two-Dimensional spatial size and density distributions of particles in plasmas, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 14, 603607 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Willert, C. E.

M. Raffel, C. E. Willert, and J. Kompenhans, Particle Image Velocimetry (Springer-Verlag, 1998).

Won, Y. H.

Y. H. Won, T. Kamimoto, and H. Kosaka, A study on soot formation in unsteady spray flames via 2-D soot imaging, in SAE 1992 Transactions (Society of Automotive Engineers, 1992), Vol. 101, pp. 89100.

Yashiro, H.

H. Yashiro, F. Sasaki, and M. Kakehata, Measurement of number density of water droplets in aerosol by laser-induced breakdown, Appl. Phys. Express 3, 036601 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Yashiro, F. Sasaki, and M. Kakehata, Appropriate laser focusing configuration for number density measurement of Water droplets in an aerosol by laser-induced breakdown method, to be published in Jpn. J. Appl. Phys..

H. Yashiro, F. Sasaki, and H. Furutani, Measurement of laser-induced breakdown threshold intensities of high-pressure gases and water droplets to determine the number density of an aerosol, to be published in Opt. Commun.

H. Yashiro, F. Sasaki, M. Kakehata, S. Shimada, T. Kimura, M. Mori, K. Torizuka, and H. Kimura, Japan patent application 122876 (2008).

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Express (1)

H. Yashiro, F. Sasaki, and M. Kakehata, Measurement of number density of water droplets in aerosol by laser-induced breakdown, Appl. Phys. Express 3, 036601 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A (1)

M. Shiratani, H. Kawasaki, T. Fukuzawa, and Y. Watanabe, In situ Polarization-sensitive laser-lights-scattering method for simultaneous measurements of two-Dimensional spatial size and density distributions of particles in plasmas, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 14, 603607 (1996).
[CrossRef]

JSME Int. J. (1)

K. Nishida, N. Murakami, and H. Hiroyasu, Holographic measurement of evaporating diesel sprays at high pressure and temperature, JSME Int. J. 30, 107115 (1987).

Opt. Eng (1)

W. D. Bachalo and M. J. Hause, Laser/Doppler spray analyzer for simultaneous measurements of drop size and velocity distributions, Opt. Eng . 23, 583590 (1984).

Proc. Combust. Inst. (1)

A. Musing, U. Riedel, J. Waranatz, W. Herden, and H. Ridderbuch, Laser-induced breakdown in air and behind droplets: a detailed Monte-Carlo simulation, Proc. Combust. Inst. 31, 3007 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Prog. Astronaut. Aeronaut. (1)

J. Swithenbank, J. Beer, D. S. Taylor, D. Abbott, and C. O. McCreath, A Laser Diagnostic technique for the measurement of droplet and particle size distribution, Prog. Astronaut. Aeronaut. 53, 421447 (1977).

Other (6)

H. Yashiro, F. Sasaki, and H. Furutani, Measurement of laser-induced breakdown threshold intensities of high-pressure gases and water droplets to determine the number density of an aerosol, to be published in Opt. Commun.

M. Raffel, C. E. Willert, and J. Kompenhans, Particle Image Velocimetry (Springer-Verlag, 1998).

Y. H. Won, T. Kamimoto, and H. Kosaka, A study on soot formation in unsteady spray flames via 2-D soot imaging, in SAE 1992 Transactions (Society of Automotive Engineers, 1992), Vol. 101, pp. 89100.

K. Kawamura, A. Saitoh, and Y. Tanasawa, Measurement of fuel concentration in sprays by laser light computed tomography, in Proceedings of 4th International Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems (1988), pp. 311316.

H. Yashiro, F. Sasaki, M. Kakehata, S. Shimada, T. Kimura, M. Mori, K. Torizuka, and H. Kimura, Japan patent application 122876 (2008).

H. Yashiro, F. Sasaki, and M. Kakehata, Appropriate laser focusing configuration for number density measurement of Water droplets in an aerosol by laser-induced breakdown method, to be published in Jpn. J. Appl. Phys..

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of experimental arrangement.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Temporal variation of number density of water droplets in an intermittent aerosol at (0, 0, 100) (solid curve). The dotted curve shows the temporal distribution of the air pressure to an atomizing nozzle.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Number density of water droplets as a function of air pressure to the atomizing nozzle in a steady-state configuration.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Air flow speed at (0, 0, 100) as a function of air pressure to the atomizing nozzle.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Calculated number density of water droplets (dashed curve), which was evaluated from the temporal variation of the air pressure to the atomizing nozzle (dotted curve). The solid curve is the same experimental result as that shown in Fig. 2.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Spatial distributions of number density of water droplets in an intermittent aerosol. (a) Vertical and (b) horizontal spatial distributions. The result for (0, 0, 100) is the same result as that shown in Fig. 2.

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

N ( p , θ ) d V = I ( p , θ ) d ω d l v ( p ) ,
d V = L 2 d ω d l .
N ( p , θ ) = I ( p , θ ) L 2 v ( p ) .
t f = L / v ( t ) .
N ( t , θ ) = I ( t - t f , θ ) L 2 v ( t ) .

Metrics