Abstract

We propose a new method for measuring the refractive index of liquids with high precision; the method is based on use of the optical fiber end face. As an example, we investigated the refractive index of sugar solution under varying conditions tens of times. The results show that this method has the advantage of higher stability and repeatability. The concentration and the temperature-dependent refractive index of the sugar solution is also experimentally studied.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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  1. J.-Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S.-Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A.Smart, “Optical thin-film materials with low refractive index for broadband elimination of Fresnel reflection,”Nat. Photonics 1, 176–179 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  2. X. Wu, L. Liu, Y. Zhang, D. Li, W. Wang, and L. Xu, “Low electric power drived thermo-optic multimode interference switches with tapered heating electrodes,” Opt. Commun. 258, 135–143 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  3. G. Fishter, “Refractometry,” in Applied Optics and Optical Engineering, Volume IV, Optical Instruments—Part I, R.Kingslake, ed. (Academic, 1967), p.363
  4. K. Schmid and A. Penzkofer, “Refractive-index measurements with a Pellin–Broca prism apparatus,” Appl. Opt. 22, 1824–1827 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. W. M. b. M. Yunus and A. b. A. Rahman, “Refractive index of solutions at high concentrations,” Appl. Opt. 27, 3341–3343(1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. Y. Lu and A. Penzkofer, “Optical constants measurements of strongly absorbing media,” Appl. Opt. 25, 221–225 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. J. Chen, X. Chen, R. Xu, Y. Zhu, Y. Shi, and X. Zhu, “Refractive index of aqueous solution of CdTe quantum dots,” Opt. Commun. 281, 3578–3580 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  8. C.-B. Kim and C. B. Su, “Measurement of the refractive index of liquids at 1.3 and 1.5 micron using a fibre optic Fresnel ratio meter,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 15, 1683–1686 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  9. S. Pu, X. Chen, Y. Chen, W. Liao, L. Chen, and Y. Xia, “Measurement of the refractive index of a magnetic fluid by the retroreflection on the fiber-optic end face,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 171904 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. Schwartz and K. Berglund, “The use of Raman spectroscopy for in situ monitoring of lysozyme concentration during crystallization in a hanging drop,” J. Cryst. Growth 203, 599–603 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. Olesberg, M. Arnold, S. Hu, and J. Wiencek, “Temperature-insensitive near-infrared method for determination of protein concentration during protein crystal growth,” Anal. Chem. 72, 4985–4990 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. A. McPherson, A. Malkin, Y. Kuznetsov, S. Koszelak, M. Wells, G. Jenkins, J. Howard, and G. Lawson, “The effects of microgravity on protein crystallization: evidence for concentration gradients around growing crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 196, 572–586 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  13. S. Miyashita, H. Komatsu, Y. Suzuki, and T. Nakada, “Observation of the concentration distribution around a growing lysozyme crystal,” J. Cryst. Growth 141, 419–424 (1994).
    [CrossRef]

2008 (1)

J. Chen, X. Chen, R. Xu, Y. Zhu, Y. Shi, and X. Zhu, “Refractive index of aqueous solution of CdTe quantum dots,” Opt. Commun. 281, 3578–3580 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

J.-Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S.-Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A.Smart, “Optical thin-film materials with low refractive index for broadband elimination of Fresnel reflection,”Nat. Photonics 1, 176–179 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

X. Wu, L. Liu, Y. Zhang, D. Li, W. Wang, and L. Xu, “Low electric power drived thermo-optic multimode interference switches with tapered heating electrodes,” Opt. Commun. 258, 135–143 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

S. Pu, X. Chen, Y. Chen, W. Liao, L. Chen, and Y. Xia, “Measurement of the refractive index of a magnetic fluid by the retroreflection on the fiber-optic end face,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 171904 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

C.-B. Kim and C. B. Su, “Measurement of the refractive index of liquids at 1.3 and 1.5 micron using a fibre optic Fresnel ratio meter,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 15, 1683–1686 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

J. Olesberg, M. Arnold, S. Hu, and J. Wiencek, “Temperature-insensitive near-infrared method for determination of protein concentration during protein crystal growth,” Anal. Chem. 72, 4985–4990 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (2)

A. McPherson, A. Malkin, Y. Kuznetsov, S. Koszelak, M. Wells, G. Jenkins, J. Howard, and G. Lawson, “The effects of microgravity on protein crystallization: evidence for concentration gradients around growing crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 196, 572–586 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Schwartz and K. Berglund, “The use of Raman spectroscopy for in situ monitoring of lysozyme concentration during crystallization in a hanging drop,” J. Cryst. Growth 203, 599–603 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

S. Miyashita, H. Komatsu, Y. Suzuki, and T. Nakada, “Observation of the concentration distribution around a growing lysozyme crystal,” J. Cryst. Growth 141, 419–424 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

1986 (1)

1983 (1)

Arnold, M.

J. Olesberg, M. Arnold, S. Hu, and J. Wiencek, “Temperature-insensitive near-infrared method for determination of protein concentration during protein crystal growth,” Anal. Chem. 72, 4985–4990 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berglund, K.

A. Schwartz and K. Berglund, “The use of Raman spectroscopy for in situ monitoring of lysozyme concentration during crystallization in a hanging drop,” J. Cryst. Growth 203, 599–603 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J.

J. Chen, X. Chen, R. Xu, Y. Zhu, Y. Shi, and X. Zhu, “Refractive index of aqueous solution of CdTe quantum dots,” Opt. Commun. 281, 3578–3580 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L.

S. Pu, X. Chen, Y. Chen, W. Liao, L. Chen, and Y. Xia, “Measurement of the refractive index of a magnetic fluid by the retroreflection on the fiber-optic end face,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 171904 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chen, M.

J.-Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S.-Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A.Smart, “Optical thin-film materials with low refractive index for broadband elimination of Fresnel reflection,”Nat. Photonics 1, 176–179 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, X.

J. Chen, X. Chen, R. Xu, Y. Zhu, Y. Shi, and X. Zhu, “Refractive index of aqueous solution of CdTe quantum dots,” Opt. Commun. 281, 3578–3580 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Pu, X. Chen, Y. Chen, W. Liao, L. Chen, and Y. Xia, “Measurement of the refractive index of a magnetic fluid by the retroreflection on the fiber-optic end face,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 171904 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.

S. Pu, X. Chen, Y. Chen, W. Liao, L. Chen, and Y. Xia, “Measurement of the refractive index of a magnetic fluid by the retroreflection on the fiber-optic end face,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 171904 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fishter, G.

G. Fishter, “Refractometry,” in Applied Optics and Optical Engineering, Volume IV, Optical Instruments—Part I, R.Kingslake, ed. (Academic, 1967), p.363

Howard, J.

A. McPherson, A. Malkin, Y. Kuznetsov, S. Koszelak, M. Wells, G. Jenkins, J. Howard, and G. Lawson, “The effects of microgravity on protein crystallization: evidence for concentration gradients around growing crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 196, 572–586 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hu, S.

J. Olesberg, M. Arnold, S. Hu, and J. Wiencek, “Temperature-insensitive near-infrared method for determination of protein concentration during protein crystal growth,” Anal. Chem. 72, 4985–4990 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jenkins, G.

A. McPherson, A. Malkin, Y. Kuznetsov, S. Koszelak, M. Wells, G. Jenkins, J. Howard, and G. Lawson, “The effects of microgravity on protein crystallization: evidence for concentration gradients around growing crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 196, 572–586 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kim, C.-B.

C.-B. Kim and C. B. Su, “Measurement of the refractive index of liquids at 1.3 and 1.5 micron using a fibre optic Fresnel ratio meter,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 15, 1683–1686 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. K.

J.-Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S.-Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A.Smart, “Optical thin-film materials with low refractive index for broadband elimination of Fresnel reflection,”Nat. Photonics 1, 176–179 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Komatsu, H.

S. Miyashita, H. Komatsu, Y. Suzuki, and T. Nakada, “Observation of the concentration distribution around a growing lysozyme crystal,” J. Cryst. Growth 141, 419–424 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Koszelak, S.

A. McPherson, A. Malkin, Y. Kuznetsov, S. Koszelak, M. Wells, G. Jenkins, J. Howard, and G. Lawson, “The effects of microgravity on protein crystallization: evidence for concentration gradients around growing crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 196, 572–586 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kuznetsov, Y.

A. McPherson, A. Malkin, Y. Kuznetsov, S. Koszelak, M. Wells, G. Jenkins, J. Howard, and G. Lawson, “The effects of microgravity on protein crystallization: evidence for concentration gradients around growing crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 196, 572–586 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lawson, G.

A. McPherson, A. Malkin, Y. Kuznetsov, S. Koszelak, M. Wells, G. Jenkins, J. Howard, and G. Lawson, “The effects of microgravity on protein crystallization: evidence for concentration gradients around growing crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 196, 572–586 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Li, D.

X. Wu, L. Liu, Y. Zhang, D. Li, W. Wang, and L. Xu, “Low electric power drived thermo-optic multimode interference switches with tapered heating electrodes,” Opt. Commun. 258, 135–143 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Liao, W.

S. Pu, X. Chen, Y. Chen, W. Liao, L. Chen, and Y. Xia, “Measurement of the refractive index of a magnetic fluid by the retroreflection on the fiber-optic end face,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 171904 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lin, S.-Y.

J.-Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S.-Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A.Smart, “Optical thin-film materials with low refractive index for broadband elimination of Fresnel reflection,”Nat. Photonics 1, 176–179 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liu, L.

X. Wu, L. Liu, Y. Zhang, D. Li, W. Wang, and L. Xu, “Low electric power drived thermo-optic multimode interference switches with tapered heating electrodes,” Opt. Commun. 258, 135–143 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Liu, W.

J.-Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S.-Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A.Smart, “Optical thin-film materials with low refractive index for broadband elimination of Fresnel reflection,”Nat. Photonics 1, 176–179 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lu, Y.

Malkin, A.

A. McPherson, A. Malkin, Y. Kuznetsov, S. Koszelak, M. Wells, G. Jenkins, J. Howard, and G. Lawson, “The effects of microgravity on protein crystallization: evidence for concentration gradients around growing crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 196, 572–586 (1999).
[CrossRef]

McPherson, A.

A. McPherson, A. Malkin, Y. Kuznetsov, S. Koszelak, M. Wells, G. Jenkins, J. Howard, and G. Lawson, “The effects of microgravity on protein crystallization: evidence for concentration gradients around growing crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 196, 572–586 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Miyashita, S.

S. Miyashita, H. Komatsu, Y. Suzuki, and T. Nakada, “Observation of the concentration distribution around a growing lysozyme crystal,” J. Cryst. Growth 141, 419–424 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Nakada, T.

S. Miyashita, H. Komatsu, Y. Suzuki, and T. Nakada, “Observation of the concentration distribution around a growing lysozyme crystal,” J. Cryst. Growth 141, 419–424 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Olesberg, J.

J. Olesberg, M. Arnold, S. Hu, and J. Wiencek, “Temperature-insensitive near-infrared method for determination of protein concentration during protein crystal growth,” Anal. Chem. 72, 4985–4990 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Penzkofer, A.

Pu, S.

S. Pu, X. Chen, Y. Chen, W. Liao, L. Chen, and Y. Xia, “Measurement of the refractive index of a magnetic fluid by the retroreflection on the fiber-optic end face,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 171904 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rahman, A. b. A.

Schmid, K.

Schubert, E. F.

J.-Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S.-Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A.Smart, “Optical thin-film materials with low refractive index for broadband elimination of Fresnel reflection,”Nat. Photonics 1, 176–179 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schubert, M. F.

J.-Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S.-Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A.Smart, “Optical thin-film materials with low refractive index for broadband elimination of Fresnel reflection,”Nat. Photonics 1, 176–179 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schwartz, A.

A. Schwartz and K. Berglund, “The use of Raman spectroscopy for in situ monitoring of lysozyme concentration during crystallization in a hanging drop,” J. Cryst. Growth 203, 599–603 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Shi, Y.

J. Chen, X. Chen, R. Xu, Y. Zhu, Y. Shi, and X. Zhu, “Refractive index of aqueous solution of CdTe quantum dots,” Opt. Commun. 281, 3578–3580 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Smart, J. A.

J.-Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S.-Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A.Smart, “Optical thin-film materials with low refractive index for broadband elimination of Fresnel reflection,”Nat. Photonics 1, 176–179 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Su, C. B.

C.-B. Kim and C. B. Su, “Measurement of the refractive index of liquids at 1.3 and 1.5 micron using a fibre optic Fresnel ratio meter,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 15, 1683–1686 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, Y.

S. Miyashita, H. Komatsu, Y. Suzuki, and T. Nakada, “Observation of the concentration distribution around a growing lysozyme crystal,” J. Cryst. Growth 141, 419–424 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wang, W.

X. Wu, L. Liu, Y. Zhang, D. Li, W. Wang, and L. Xu, “Low electric power drived thermo-optic multimode interference switches with tapered heating electrodes,” Opt. Commun. 258, 135–143 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wells, M.

A. McPherson, A. Malkin, Y. Kuznetsov, S. Koszelak, M. Wells, G. Jenkins, J. Howard, and G. Lawson, “The effects of microgravity on protein crystallization: evidence for concentration gradients around growing crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 196, 572–586 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wiencek, J.

J. Olesberg, M. Arnold, S. Hu, and J. Wiencek, “Temperature-insensitive near-infrared method for determination of protein concentration during protein crystal growth,” Anal. Chem. 72, 4985–4990 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, X.

X. Wu, L. Liu, Y. Zhang, D. Li, W. Wang, and L. Xu, “Low electric power drived thermo-optic multimode interference switches with tapered heating electrodes,” Opt. Commun. 258, 135–143 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Xi, J.-Q.

J.-Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S.-Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A.Smart, “Optical thin-film materials with low refractive index for broadband elimination of Fresnel reflection,”Nat. Photonics 1, 176–179 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Xia, Y.

S. Pu, X. Chen, Y. Chen, W. Liao, L. Chen, and Y. Xia, “Measurement of the refractive index of a magnetic fluid by the retroreflection on the fiber-optic end face,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 171904 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Xu, L.

X. Wu, L. Liu, Y. Zhang, D. Li, W. Wang, and L. Xu, “Low electric power drived thermo-optic multimode interference switches with tapered heating electrodes,” Opt. Commun. 258, 135–143 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Xu, R.

J. Chen, X. Chen, R. Xu, Y. Zhu, Y. Shi, and X. Zhu, “Refractive index of aqueous solution of CdTe quantum dots,” Opt. Commun. 281, 3578–3580 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yunus, W. M. b. M.

Zhang, Y.

X. Wu, L. Liu, Y. Zhang, D. Li, W. Wang, and L. Xu, “Low electric power drived thermo-optic multimode interference switches with tapered heating electrodes,” Opt. Commun. 258, 135–143 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, X.

J. Chen, X. Chen, R. Xu, Y. Zhu, Y. Shi, and X. Zhu, “Refractive index of aqueous solution of CdTe quantum dots,” Opt. Commun. 281, 3578–3580 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, Y.

J. Chen, X. Chen, R. Xu, Y. Zhu, Y. Shi, and X. Zhu, “Refractive index of aqueous solution of CdTe quantum dots,” Opt. Commun. 281, 3578–3580 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Chem. (1)

J. Olesberg, M. Arnold, S. Hu, and J. Wiencek, “Temperature-insensitive near-infrared method for determination of protein concentration during protein crystal growth,” Anal. Chem. 72, 4985–4990 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

S. Pu, X. Chen, Y. Chen, W. Liao, L. Chen, and Y. Xia, “Measurement of the refractive index of a magnetic fluid by the retroreflection on the fiber-optic end face,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 171904 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Cryst. Growth (3)

A. Schwartz and K. Berglund, “The use of Raman spectroscopy for in situ monitoring of lysozyme concentration during crystallization in a hanging drop,” J. Cryst. Growth 203, 599–603 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. McPherson, A. Malkin, Y. Kuznetsov, S. Koszelak, M. Wells, G. Jenkins, J. Howard, and G. Lawson, “The effects of microgravity on protein crystallization: evidence for concentration gradients around growing crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 196, 572–586 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Miyashita, H. Komatsu, Y. Suzuki, and T. Nakada, “Observation of the concentration distribution around a growing lysozyme crystal,” J. Cryst. Growth 141, 419–424 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

C.-B. Kim and C. B. Su, “Measurement of the refractive index of liquids at 1.3 and 1.5 micron using a fibre optic Fresnel ratio meter,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 15, 1683–1686 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (1)

J.-Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S.-Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A.Smart, “Optical thin-film materials with low refractive index for broadband elimination of Fresnel reflection,”Nat. Photonics 1, 176–179 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (2)

X. Wu, L. Liu, Y. Zhang, D. Li, W. Wang, and L. Xu, “Low electric power drived thermo-optic multimode interference switches with tapered heating electrodes,” Opt. Commun. 258, 135–143 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Chen, X. Chen, R. Xu, Y. Zhu, Y. Shi, and X. Zhu, “Refractive index of aqueous solution of CdTe quantum dots,” Opt. Commun. 281, 3578–3580 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

G. Fishter, “Refractometry,” in Applied Optics and Optical Engineering, Volume IV, Optical Instruments—Part I, R.Kingslake, ed. (Academic, 1967), p.363

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Double-light-paths experimental setup to measure the RI of liquids.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Improved experimental setup to measure the RI of liquids.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

RI of sugar solution for different situations.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Concentration-dependent RI of sugar solution. (b) Residual of RI of sugar solution at 23 ° C .

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Temperature-dependent RIs of a sugar solution with different concentrations.

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

n f + Δ n f = ( 1 + ( k + Δ k ) 2 ) n fc 1 ( k + Δ k ) 2 ± ( ( 1 + ( k + Δ k ) 2 ) n fc 1 ( k + Δ k ) 2 ) 2 n fc 2 k f 2 ,
k = ( P f P 0 P air P 0 ) ( n fc n air n fc + n air ) ;
Δ k = ( P f + Δ P f P 0 Δ P 0 P air + Δ P air P 0 Δ P 0 ) ( n fc n air n fc + n air ) k ,
Δ P 0 = Δ P water M Δ P air 1 M ,
M = ( n fc n water n fc + n water ) 2 ( n fc n air n fc + n air ) 2 ,
n f = ( 1 + k 2 ) n fc 1 k 2 ± ( ( 1 + k 2 ) n fc 1 k 2 ) 2 n fc 2 k f 2 .

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