Abstract

We introduce a new optical interferometry system for fast areal surface measurement of microscale and nanoscale surfaces that are immune to environmental noise. Wavelength scanning interfero metry together with an acousto-optic tunable filtering technique is used to measure surfaces with large step heights. An active servo control system serves as a phase-compensating mechanism to eliminate the effects of environmental noise. The system can be used for online or in-process measurement on a shop floor. Measurement results from two step height standard samples and a structured surface of a semiconductor daughterboard are presented. In comparison with standard step height specimens, the system achieved nanometer measurement accuracy. The measurement results of the semiconductor daughterboard, under mechanical disturbance, showed that the system can withstand environmental noise.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

T. Anna, S. K. Dubey, C. Shakher, A. Roy, and D. S. Mehta, “Sinosoidal fringe projection system based on compact and non-mechanical scanning low-coherence Michelson interferometer for three-dimensional shape measurement,” Opt. Commun. 282, 1237–1242 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

2007

K. W. Lyons, “Integration, interoperability, and information management: what are the key issues for nano-manufacturing?,” Proc. SPIE 6648, 66480D (2007).

2006

2005

2004

2003

2002

M. North-Morris, J. VanDelden, and J. C. Wyant, “Phase-shifting birefringent scatterplate interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 41, 668–677 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Yamamoto and I. Yamaguchi, “Profilometry of sloped plane surfaces by wavelength scanning interferometry,” Opt. Rev. 9, 112–121 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. Hlubina, “Dispersive white-light spectral interferometry to measure distances and displacements,” Opt. Commun. 212, 65–70 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Hayes, “Dynamic interferometry handles vibration,” Laser Focus World 38(3), 109–113(2002).

2001

A. Hirai and H. Matsumoto, “High-sensitivity surface profile measurements by heterodyne white-light interferometer,” Opt. Eng. 40, 387–391 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Yamamoto, C. Kuo, K. Sunouchi, S. Wada, I. Yamaguchi, and H. Tashiro, “Surface shape measurement by wavelength scanning interferometry using an electronically tuned Ti:sapphire laser,” Opt. Rev. 8, 59–63 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Fleischer, R. Windecker, and H. J. Tiziani, “Theoretical limits of scanning white-light interferometry signal evaluation algorithms,” Appl. Opt. 40, 2815–2820 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. Ngoi, K. Venkatakrishnan, and N. Sivakumar, “Phase-shifting interferometry immune to vibration,” Appl. Opt. 40, 3211–3214 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

A. Yamamoto and I. Yamaguchi, “Surface profilometry by wavelength scanning Fizeau interferometer,” Opt. Laser Technol. 32, 261–266 (2000).
[CrossRef]

I. Yamaguchi, A. Yamamoto, and M. Yano, “Surface topography by wavelength scanning interferometry,” Opt. Eng. 39, 40–46 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

A. Hirai, K. Seta, and H. Matsumoto, “White-light interferometry using pseudo random-modulation for high-sensitivity and high-selectivity measurements,” Opt. Commun. 162, 11–15(1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

X. Dai and S. Katuo, “High-accuracy absolute distance measurement by means of wavelength scanning heterodyne interferometry,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 9, 1031–1035(1998).
[CrossRef]

B. Bowe and V. Toal, “White light interferometric surface profiler,” Opt. Eng. 37, 1796–1799 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

1996

U. Schnell, R. Dandliker, and S. Gray, “Dispersive white-light interferometry for absolute distance measurement with dielectric multilayer systems on the target,” Opt. Lett. 21, 528–530 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Sandoz, G. Tribillon, and H. Perrin, “High-resolution profilometry by using phase calculation algorithms for spectroscopic analysis of white-light interferograms,” J. Mod. Opt. 43, 701–708 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994

1992

1991

D. Su and L. Shyu, “Phase-shifting scatter plate interferometer using a polarization technique,” J. Mod. Opt. 38, 951–959 (1991).
[CrossRef]

C. Koliopoulos, “Simultaneous phase shift interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 1531, 119–127 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990

1988

J. Huang, T. Honda, N. Ohyama, and J. Tsuiiuchi, “Fringe scanning scatter plate interferometer using a polarized light,” Opt. Commun. 68, 235–238 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Anna, T.

T. Anna, S. K. Dubey, C. Shakher, A. Roy, and D. S. Mehta, “Sinosoidal fringe projection system based on compact and non-mechanical scanning low-coherence Michelson interferometer for three-dimensional shape measurement,” Opt. Commun. 282, 1237–1242 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bohn, C.

G. Häusler, P. Ettl, M. Schenk, C. Bohn, and I. Laszlo, “Limits of optical range sensors and how to exploit them,” in International Trends in Optics and Photonics ICO IV, T.Asakura, ed., Vol. 74 of Springer Series in Optical Sciences (Springer-Verlag, 1999), pp. 328–342.

Bowe, B.

B. Bowe and V. Toal, “White light interferometric surface profiler,” Opt. Eng. 37, 1796–1799 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Brock, N. J.

J. E. Millerd, N. J. Brock, J. B. Hayes, and J. C. Wyant, “Instantaneous phase-shift, point-diffraction interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 5531264–272 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Burke, J.

Chim, S. S. C.

Dai, X.

X. Dai and S. Katuo, “High-accuracy absolute distance measurement by means of wavelength scanning heterodyne interferometry,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 9, 1031–1035(1998).
[CrossRef]

Dandliker, R.

Dresel, T.

Dubey, S. K.

T. Anna, S. K. Dubey, C. Shakher, A. Roy, and D. S. Mehta, “Sinosoidal fringe projection system based on compact and non-mechanical scanning low-coherence Michelson interferometer for three-dimensional shape measurement,” Opt. Commun. 282, 1237–1242 (2009).
[CrossRef]

El-Fatatry, A.

H. Heeren and A. El-Fatatry, “Metrology and characterization for micro and nano technology,” presented at Design-for-Purpose Metrology Expert Workshop, Loughborough, UK, 19 May 2008.

Ettl, P.

G. Häusler, P. Ettl, M. Schenk, C. Bohn, and I. Laszlo, “Limits of optical range sensors and how to exploit them,” in International Trends in Optics and Photonics ICO IV, T.Asakura, ed., Vol. 74 of Springer Series in Optical Sciences (Springer-Verlag, 1999), pp. 328–342.

Fairman, P. S.

Fleischer, M.

Gray, S.

Hausler, G.

Häusler, G.

G. Häusler, P. Ettl, M. Schenk, C. Bohn, and I. Laszlo, “Limits of optical range sensors and how to exploit them,” in International Trends in Optics and Photonics ICO IV, T.Asakura, ed., Vol. 74 of Springer Series in Optical Sciences (Springer-Verlag, 1999), pp. 328–342.

Hayes, J.

J. Hayes, “Dynamic interferometry handles vibration,” Laser Focus World 38(3), 109–113(2002).

Hayes, J. B.

J. E. Millerd, N. J. Brock, J. B. Hayes, and J. C. Wyant, “Instantaneous phase-shift, point-diffraction interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 5531264–272 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Heeren, H.

H. Heeren and A. El-Fatatry, “Metrology and characterization for micro and nano technology,” presented at Design-for-Purpose Metrology Expert Workshop, Loughborough, UK, 19 May 2008.

Hibino, K.

Hinosugi, H.

Hirai, A.

A. Hirai and H. Matsumoto, “High-sensitivity surface profile measurements by heterodyne white-light interferometer,” Opt. Eng. 40, 387–391 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Hirai, K. Seta, and H. Matsumoto, “White-light interferometry using pseudo random-modulation for high-sensitivity and high-selectivity measurements,” Opt. Commun. 162, 11–15(1999).
[CrossRef]

Hlubina, P.

P. Hlubina, “Dispersive white-light spectral interferometry to measure distances and displacements,” Opt. Commun. 212, 65–70 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Honda, T.

J. Huang, T. Honda, N. Ohyama, and J. Tsuiiuchi, “Fringe scanning scatter plate interferometer using a polarized light,” Opt. Commun. 68, 235–238 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Huang, J.

J. Huang, T. Honda, N. Ohyama, and J. Tsuiiuchi, “Fringe scanning scatter plate interferometer using a polarized light,” Opt. Commun. 68, 235–238 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, X.

Joo, K.

Katuo, S.

X. Dai and S. Katuo, “High-accuracy absolute distance measurement by means of wavelength scanning heterodyne interferometry,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 9, 1031–1035(1998).
[CrossRef]

Kihm, H.

Kim, S.

Kino, G. S.

Koerner, K.

Koliopoulos, C.

C. Koliopoulos, “Simultaneous phase shift interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 1531, 119–127 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, C.

A. Yamamoto, C. Kuo, K. Sunouchi, S. Wada, I. Yamaguchi, and H. Tashiro, “Surface shape measurement by wavelength scanning interferometry using an electronically tuned Ti:sapphire laser,” Opt. Rev. 8, 59–63 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kurokawa, T.

Kuwamura, S.

Laszlo, I.

G. Häusler, P. Ettl, M. Schenk, C. Bohn, and I. Laszlo, “Limits of optical range sensors and how to exploit them,” in International Trends in Optics and Photonics ICO IV, T.Asakura, ed., Vol. 74 of Springer Series in Optical Sciences (Springer-Verlag, 1999), pp. 328–342.

Lee, W. B.

W. B. Lee, “Market trends and applications of ultra-precision freeform machining technology,” presented at the Workshop on Design and Fabrication of Freeform Optics for Photonics and Telecommunication Industries, Hong Kong, March 2005.

Liftin, G.

A. Siegel and G. Liftin, “Deutsche Agenda Optische Technologien fur das 21 Jarhundert, Lenkungskreis Optische Technologien fur des 21 Jarhundert” (2000).

Lyons, K. W.

K. W. Lyons, “Integration, interoperability, and information management: what are the key issues for nano-manufacturing?,” Proc. SPIE 6648, 66480D (2007).

Martin, H.

Matsumoto, H.

A. Hirai and H. Matsumoto, “High-sensitivity surface profile measurements by heterodyne white-light interferometer,” Opt. Eng. 40, 387–391 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Hirai, K. Seta, and H. Matsumoto, “White-light interferometry using pseudo random-modulation for high-sensitivity and high-selectivity measurements,” Opt. Commun. 162, 11–15(1999).
[CrossRef]

Mehta, D. S.

T. Anna, S. K. Dubey, C. Shakher, A. Roy, and D. S. Mehta, “Sinosoidal fringe projection system based on compact and non-mechanical scanning low-coherence Michelson interferometer for three-dimensional shape measurement,” Opt. Commun. 282, 1237–1242 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Mehta, S. Saito, H. Hinosugi, M. Takeda, and T. Kurokawa, “Spectral interference Mirau microscope with an acousto-optic tunable filter for three-dimensional surface profilometry,” Appl. Opt. 42, 1296–1305 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Millerd, J. E.

J. E. Millerd, N. J. Brock, J. B. Hayes, and J. C. Wyant, “Instantaneous phase-shift, point-diffraction interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 5531264–272 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ngoi, B.

North-Morris, M.

Ohyama, N.

J. Huang, T. Honda, N. Ohyama, and J. Tsuiiuchi, “Fringe scanning scatter plate interferometer using a polarized light,” Opt. Commun. 68, 235–238 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Oreb, B. F.

Osten, W.

Papastathopoulos, E.

Perrin, H.

P. Sandoz, G. Tribillon, and H. Perrin, “High-resolution profilometry by using phase calculation algorithms for spectroscopic analysis of white-light interferograms,” J. Mod. Opt. 43, 701–708 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Roy, A.

T. Anna, S. K. Dubey, C. Shakher, A. Roy, and D. S. Mehta, “Sinosoidal fringe projection system based on compact and non-mechanical scanning low-coherence Michelson interferometer for three-dimensional shape measurement,” Opt. Commun. 282, 1237–1242 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Saito, S.

Sandoz, P.

P. Sandoz, G. Tribillon, and H. Perrin, “High-resolution profilometry by using phase calculation algorithms for spectroscopic analysis of white-light interferograms,” J. Mod. Opt. 43, 701–708 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Schenk, M.

G. Häusler, P. Ettl, M. Schenk, C. Bohn, and I. Laszlo, “Limits of optical range sensors and how to exploit them,” in International Trends in Optics and Photonics ICO IV, T.Asakura, ed., Vol. 74 of Springer Series in Optical Sciences (Springer-Verlag, 1999), pp. 328–342.

Schnell, U.

Schwider, J.

Seta, K.

A. Hirai, K. Seta, and H. Matsumoto, “White-light interferometry using pseudo random-modulation for high-sensitivity and high-selectivity measurements,” Opt. Commun. 162, 11–15(1999).
[CrossRef]

Shakher, C.

T. Anna, S. K. Dubey, C. Shakher, A. Roy, and D. S. Mehta, “Sinosoidal fringe projection system based on compact and non-mechanical scanning low-coherence Michelson interferometer for three-dimensional shape measurement,” Opt. Commun. 282, 1237–1242 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shyu, L.

D. Su and L. Shyu, “Phase-shifting scatter plate interferometer using a polarization technique,” J. Mod. Opt. 38, 951–959 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Siegel, A.

A. Siegel and G. Liftin, “Deutsche Agenda Optische Technologien fur das 21 Jarhundert, Lenkungskreis Optische Technologien fur des 21 Jarhundert” (2000).

Sivakumar, N.

Su, D.

D. Su and L. Shyu, “Phase-shifting scatter plate interferometer using a polarization technique,” J. Mod. Opt. 38, 951–959 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Sunouchi, K.

A. Yamamoto, C. Kuo, K. Sunouchi, S. Wada, I. Yamaguchi, and H. Tashiro, “Surface shape measurement by wavelength scanning interferometry using an electronically tuned Ti:sapphire laser,” Opt. Rev. 8, 59–63 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Takeda, M.

Tashiro, H.

A. Yamamoto, C. Kuo, K. Sunouchi, S. Wada, I. Yamaguchi, and H. Tashiro, “Surface shape measurement by wavelength scanning interferometry using an electronically tuned Ti:sapphire laser,” Opt. Rev. 8, 59–63 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tiziani, H. J.

Toal, V.

B. Bowe and V. Toal, “White light interferometric surface profiler,” Opt. Eng. 37, 1796–1799 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tribillon, G.

P. Sandoz, G. Tribillon, and H. Perrin, “High-resolution profilometry by using phase calculation algorithms for spectroscopic analysis of white-light interferograms,” J. Mod. Opt. 43, 701–708 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tsuiiuchi, J.

J. Huang, T. Honda, N. Ohyama, and J. Tsuiiuchi, “Fringe scanning scatter plate interferometer using a polarized light,” Opt. Commun. 68, 235–238 (1988).
[CrossRef]

VanDelden, J.

Venkatakrishnan, K.

Venzke, H.

Wada, S.

A. Yamamoto, C. Kuo, K. Sunouchi, S. Wada, I. Yamaguchi, and H. Tashiro, “Surface shape measurement by wavelength scanning interferometry using an electronically tuned Ti:sapphire laser,” Opt. Rev. 8, 59–63 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wang, K.

Windecker, R.

Wyant, J. C.

J. E. Millerd, N. J. Brock, J. B. Hayes, and J. C. Wyant, “Instantaneous phase-shift, point-diffraction interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 5531264–272 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. North-Morris, J. VanDelden, and J. C. Wyant, “Phase-shifting birefringent scatterplate interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 41, 668–677 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yamaguchi, I.

A. Yamamoto and I. Yamaguchi, “Profilometry of sloped plane surfaces by wavelength scanning interferometry,” Opt. Rev. 9, 112–121 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Yamamoto, C. Kuo, K. Sunouchi, S. Wada, I. Yamaguchi, and H. Tashiro, “Surface shape measurement by wavelength scanning interferometry using an electronically tuned Ti:sapphire laser,” Opt. Rev. 8, 59–63 (2001).
[CrossRef]

I. Yamaguchi, A. Yamamoto, and M. Yano, “Surface topography by wavelength scanning interferometry,” Opt. Eng. 39, 40–46 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Yamamoto and I. Yamaguchi, “Surface profilometry by wavelength scanning Fizeau interferometer,” Opt. Laser Technol. 32, 261–266 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Kuwamura and I. Yamaguchi, “Wavelength scanning profilometry for real-time surface shape measurement microscope,” Appl. Opt. 36, 4473–4482 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yamamoto, A.

A. Yamamoto and I. Yamaguchi, “Profilometry of sloped plane surfaces by wavelength scanning interferometry,” Opt. Rev. 9, 112–121 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Yamamoto, C. Kuo, K. Sunouchi, S. Wada, I. Yamaguchi, and H. Tashiro, “Surface shape measurement by wavelength scanning interferometry using an electronically tuned Ti:sapphire laser,” Opt. Rev. 8, 59–63 (2001).
[CrossRef]

I. Yamaguchi, A. Yamamoto, and M. Yano, “Surface topography by wavelength scanning interferometry,” Opt. Eng. 39, 40–46 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Yamamoto and I. Yamaguchi, “Surface profilometry by wavelength scanning Fizeau interferometer,” Opt. Laser Technol. 32, 261–266 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, H.

Yano, M.

I. Yamaguchi, A. Yamamoto, and M. Yano, “Surface topography by wavelength scanning interferometry,” Opt. Eng. 39, 40–46 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, L.

Appl. Opt.

G. S. Kino and S. S. C. Chim, “Mirau correlation microscope,” Appl. Opt. 29, 3775–3783 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Takeda and H. Yamamoto, “Fourier-transform speckle profilometry: three-dimensional shape measurements of diffuse objects with large height steps and/or spatially isolated surfaces,” Appl. Opt. 33, 7829–7837 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Kuwamura and I. Yamaguchi, “Wavelength scanning profilometry for real-time surface shape measurement microscope,” Appl. Opt. 36, 4473–4482 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Dresel, G. Hausler, and H. Venzke, “Three-dimensional sensing of rough surfaces by coherence radar,” Appl. Opt. 31, 919–925 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Fleischer, R. Windecker, and H. J. Tiziani, “Theoretical limits of scanning white-light interferometry signal evaluation algorithms,” Appl. Opt. 40, 2815–2820 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. Ngoi, K. Venkatakrishnan, and N. Sivakumar, “Phase-shifting interferometry immune to vibration,” Appl. Opt. 40, 3211–3214 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. North-Morris, J. VanDelden, and J. C. Wyant, “Phase-shifting birefringent scatterplate interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 41, 668–677 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. S. Mehta, S. Saito, H. Hinosugi, M. Takeda, and T. Kurokawa, “Spectral interference Mirau microscope with an acousto-optic tunable filter for three-dimensional surface profilometry,” Appl. Opt. 42, 1296–1305 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Proposed surface measurement system: PD, photodiode; DAQ, data acquisition card.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Measured interference fringe and retrieved phase distribution: (a) intensity distribution for 300 interferograms captured by CCD pixels ( 100 , 100 ) , (b) retrieved phase discontinuities distribution, (c) phase continuity distribution.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measurement results of a 2.97 μm standard step: (a) measured surface and (b) cross-sectional profile.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measurement results of a 292 nm step height standard: (a) measured surface and (b) cross-sectional profile.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Measurement results of a semiconductor daughterboard sample without an induced mechanical disturbance: (a) measured surface and (b) cross-sectional profile.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Measurement results of a semiconductor daughterboard sample with a sinusoidal mechanical disturbance of 40 Hz : (a) measured surface and (b) cross-sectional profile.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Measurement results of a semiconductor daughterboard sample with vibration compensation: (a) measured surface and (b) cross-sectional profile.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Effect of vibration compensation on a 40 Hz and 400 nm peak-to-peak sinusoidal disturbance: (a) before stabilization and (b) after stabilization.

Equations (9)

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λ = Δ n α v a f a ,
I ( x , y ; k ) = a ( x , y ; k ) + b ( x , y ; k ) cos ( 2 π k h ( x , y ) ) ,
φ ( x , y ; k ) = 2 π k h ( x , y ) .
Δ φ ( x , y ; Δ k ) = 2 π Δ k h ( x , y ) .
h ( x , y ) = Δ φ ( x , y , Δ k ) 2 π Δ k .
I ( x , y ; k ) = a ( x , y ; k ) + 1 2 b ( x , y ; k ) exp [ 2 π i k h ( x , y ) ] + 1 2 b ( x , y ; k ) exp [ 2 π i k h ( x , y ) ] .
I ^ ( x , y ; ξ ) = A ( x , y ; ξ ) + B ( x , y ; ξ h ( x , y ) ) + B ( x , y ; ξ + h ( x y ) ) ,
IFFT ( B ( x , y ; ξ h ( x , y ) ) ) = 1 2 b ( x , y ; k ) exp [ i k h ( x , y ) ] .
log { 1 2 b ( x , y ; k ) exp [ 2 π i k h ( x , y ) ] } = log [ 1 2 b ( x , y ; k ) ] + i φ ( x , y ; k )

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