Abstract

Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has been applied to the elemental characterization of unprocessed cotton. This research is important in forensic and fraud detection applications to establish an elemental fingerprint of U.S. cotton by region, which can be used to determine the source of the cotton. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a LIBS method for the elemental analysis of cotton. The experimental setup consists of a Nd:YAG laser that operates at the fundamental wavelength as the LIBS excitation source and an echelle spectrometer equipped with an intensified CCD camera. The relative concentrations of elements Al, Ba, Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, and Sr from both nutrients and environmental contributions were determined by LIBS. Principal component analysis was used to visualize the differences between cotton samples based on the elemental composition by region in the U.S. Linear discriminant analysis of the LIBS data resulted in the correct classification of >97% of the cotton samples by U.S. region and >81% correct classification by state of origin.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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2009

J. M. Gallo and J. R. Almirall, “Elemental analysis of white cotton fiber evidence using solution ICP-MS and laser ablation ICP-MS (LA-ICP-MS),” Forensic Sci. Int. 190, 52-57 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. C. Trevizan, D. Santos, Jr., R. E. Samad, N. D. Vieira, Jr., C. S. Nomura, L. C. Nunes, I. A. Rufini, and F. J. Krug, “Evaluation of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy for the determination of micronutrients in plant materials,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 64, 369-377 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. C. Nunes, G. A. de Silva, L. C. Trevizan, D. S. Júnior, R. J. Poppi, and F. J. Krug, “Simultaneous optimization by neuro-genetic approach for analysis of plant materials by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 64, 565-572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Kaiser, M. Galiová, K. Novotny, R. Cervenka, L. Reale, J. Novotny, M. Liska, O. Samek, V. Kanicky, A. Hrdlicka, K. Stejskal, V. Adam, and R. Kizek, “Mapping of lead, magnesium and copper accumulation in plant tissues by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and laser-ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 64, 67-73 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Ohta, M. Ito, T. Kotani, and T. Hattori, “Emission enhancement of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy by localized surface plasmon resonance for analyzing plant nutrients,” Appl. Spectrosc. 63, 555-558 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

C. Barnett, E. Cahoon, and J. R. Almirall, “Wavelength dependence on the elemental analysis of glass by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 63, 1016-1023 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. Juvé, R. Portelli, M. Boueri, M. Baudelet, and J. Yu, “Space-resolved analysis of trace elements in fresh vegetables using ultraviolet nanosecond laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 63, 1047-1053 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. C. Trevizan, D. Santos, Jr., R. E. Samad, N. D. Vieira, Jr., C. S. Nomura, L. C. Nunes, I. A. Rufini, and F. J. Krug, “Evaluation of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy for the determination of macronutrients in plant materials,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 63, 1151-1158 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. E. Naes, S. Umpierrez, S. Ryland, C. Barnett, and J. R. Almirall, “Comparison of laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, micro x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, and laser induced breakdown spectroscopy for the discrimination of automotive glass,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 63, 1145-1150 (2008)
[CrossRef]

2007

D. Michaud, R. Lecleric, and E. Proulx, “Influence of particle size and mineral phases in the analysis of iron ore slurries by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 62, 1575-1581 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Kaiser, O. Samek, L. Reale, M. Liska, R. Malina, A. Ritucci, A. Poma, A. Tucci, F. Flora, A. Lai, L. Mancini, G. Tromba, F. Zanini, A. Faenov, T. Pikuz, and G. Cinque, “Monitoring of the heavy-metal hyperaccumulation in vegetal tissues by x-ray radiography and by femto-second laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Microsc. Res. Tech. 70, 147-153 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Galiová, J. Kaiser, K. Novotny, O. Samek, L. Reale, R. Malina, K. Páleníková, M. Liska, V. Cudek, V. Kanicky, V. Otruba, A. Poma, and A. Tucci, “Utilization of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy for the investigation of the metal accumulation in vegetal tissues,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 62, 1597-1605 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Pranaityte, A. Padaraukas, and E. Naujalis, “Application of ICP-MS for the determination of trace metals in textiles,” Chemija / Lietuvos Mokslu akademija 18, 16-19 (2007).

I. Rezic and I. Steffan, “ICP-OES determination of metals present in textile materials,” Microchem. J. 85, 46-51 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2004

V. Angelova, R. Ivanova, V. Delibaltova, and K. Ivanov, “Bio-accumulation and distribution of heavy metals in fibre crops (flax, cotton and hemp),” Ind. Crops Prod. 19, 197-205 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

S. Saracoglu, U. Divrikli, M. Soylak, L. Elci, and M. Dogan, “Determination of trace elements of some textiles by atomic absorption spectrometry,” J. Trace Microprobe Tech. 21, 389-396 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. R. Boyain-Goitia, D. C. S. Beddows, B. C. Griffiths, and H. H. Telle, “Single-pollen analysis by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and Raman microscopy,” Appl. Opt. 42, 6119-6132 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

M. Dogan, M. Soylak, L. Elci, and A. von Bohlen, “Application of total reflection x-ray fluorescence spectrometry in the textile industry,” Mikrochim. Acta 138, 77-82 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1999

Q. Sun, M. Tran, B. W. Smith, and J. D. Winefordner, “Direct determination of P, Al, Ca, Cu, Me, Zn, Mg, and Fe in plant materials by laser-induced plasma spectroscopy,” Can. J. Anal. Sci. Spectrosc. 44, 164-170 (1999).

1994

D. E. Brushwood and H. H. Perkins, Jr., “Determining the metal content of cotton,” Text. Chem. Color. 26, 32-35 (1994).

1985

J. E. Watson, I. L. Pepper, M. Unger, and W. H. Fuller, “Yields and leaf elemental composition of cotton grown on sludge-amended soil,” J. Environ. Qual. 14, 174-177 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Adams, G.

G. Adams, S. Boyd, D. Cougot, and M. Huffman, “The Economic Outlook for U. S. Cotton 2009,” in Economic Services, NCC Annual Meeting (National Cotton Council, 12-16 February 2009).

Almirall, J. R.

C. Barnett, E. Cahoon, and J. R. Almirall, “Wavelength dependence on the elemental analysis of glass by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 63, 1016-1023 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Baudelet, M.

V. Juvé, R. Portelli, M. Boueri, M. Baudelet, and J. Yu, “Space-resolved analysis of trace elements in fresh vegetables using ultraviolet nanosecond laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 63, 1047-1053 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Beddows, D. C. S.

Boyd, S.

G. Adams, S. Boyd, D. Cougot, and M. Huffman, “The Economic Outlook for U. S. Cotton 2009,” in Economic Services, NCC Annual Meeting (National Cotton Council, 12-16 February 2009).

Brushwood, D. E.

D. E. Brushwood and H. H. Perkins, Jr., “Determining the metal content of cotton,” Text. Chem. Color. 26, 32-35 (1994).

Cahoon, E.

C. Barnett, E. Cahoon, and J. R. Almirall, “Wavelength dependence on the elemental analysis of glass by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 63, 1016-1023 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cougot, D.

G. Adams, S. Boyd, D. Cougot, and M. Huffman, “The Economic Outlook for U. S. Cotton 2009,” in Economic Services, NCC Annual Meeting (National Cotton Council, 12-16 February 2009).

Cudek, V.

M. Galiová, J. Kaiser, K. Novotny, O. Samek, L. Reale, R. Malina, K. Páleníková, M. Liska, V. Cudek, V. Kanicky, V. Otruba, A. Poma, and A. Tucci, “Utilization of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy for the investigation of the metal accumulation in vegetal tissues,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 62, 1597-1605 (2007).
[CrossRef]

de Silva, G. A.

L. C. Nunes, G. A. de Silva, L. C. Trevizan, D. S. Júnior, R. J. Poppi, and F. J. Krug, “Simultaneous optimization by neuro-genetic approach for analysis of plant materials by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 64, 565-572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Delibaltova, V.

V. Angelova, R. Ivanova, V. Delibaltova, and K. Ivanov, “Bio-accumulation and distribution of heavy metals in fibre crops (flax, cotton and hemp),” Ind. Crops Prod. 19, 197-205 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Divrikli, U.

S. Saracoglu, U. Divrikli, M. Soylak, L. Elci, and M. Dogan, “Determination of trace elements of some textiles by atomic absorption spectrometry,” J. Trace Microprobe Tech. 21, 389-396 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dogan, M.

S. Saracoglu, U. Divrikli, M. Soylak, L. Elci, and M. Dogan, “Determination of trace elements of some textiles by atomic absorption spectrometry,” J. Trace Microprobe Tech. 21, 389-396 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Elci, L.

M. Dogan, M. Soylak, L. Elci, and A. von Bohlen, “Application of total reflection x-ray fluorescence spectrometry in the textile industry,” Mikrochim. Acta 138, 77-82 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Flora, F.

J. Kaiser, O. Samek, L. Reale, M. Liska, R. Malina, A. Ritucci, A. Poma, A. Tucci, F. Flora, A. Lai, L. Mancini, G. Tromba, F. Zanini, A. Faenov, T. Pikuz, and G. Cinque, “Monitoring of the heavy-metal hyperaccumulation in vegetal tissues by x-ray radiography and by femto-second laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Microsc. Res. Tech. 70, 147-153 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Galiová, M.

J. Kaiser, M. Galiová, K. Novotny, R. Cervenka, L. Reale, J. Novotny, M. Liska, O. Samek, V. Kanicky, A. Hrdlicka, K. Stejskal, V. Adam, and R. Kizek, “Mapping of lead, magnesium and copper accumulation in plant tissues by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and laser-ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 64, 67-73 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Galiová, J. Kaiser, K. Novotny, O. Samek, L. Reale, R. Malina, K. Páleníková, M. Liska, V. Cudek, V. Kanicky, V. Otruba, A. Poma, and A. Tucci, “Utilization of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy for the investigation of the metal accumulation in vegetal tissues,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 62, 1597-1605 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Griffiths, B. C.

Ivanova, R.

V. Angelova, R. Ivanova, V. Delibaltova, and K. Ivanov, “Bio-accumulation and distribution of heavy metals in fibre crops (flax, cotton and hemp),” Ind. Crops Prod. 19, 197-205 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kanicky, V.

M. Galiová, J. Kaiser, K. Novotny, O. Samek, L. Reale, R. Malina, K. Páleníková, M. Liska, V. Cudek, V. Kanicky, V. Otruba, A. Poma, and A. Tucci, “Utilization of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy for the investigation of the metal accumulation in vegetal tissues,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 62, 1597-1605 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Krug, F. J.

L. C. Nunes, G. A. de Silva, L. C. Trevizan, D. S. Júnior, R. J. Poppi, and F. J. Krug, “Simultaneous optimization by neuro-genetic approach for analysis of plant materials by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 64, 565-572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Krug, F. J.

L. C. Trevizan, D. Santos, Jr., R. E. Samad, N. D. Vieira, Jr., C. S. Nomura, L. C. Nunes, I. A. Rufini, and F. J. Krug, “Evaluation of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy for the determination of macronutrients in plant materials,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 63, 1151-1158 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liska, M.

J. Kaiser, M. Galiová, K. Novotny, R. Cervenka, L. Reale, J. Novotny, M. Liska, O. Samek, V. Kanicky, A. Hrdlicka, K. Stejskal, V. Adam, and R. Kizek, “Mapping of lead, magnesium and copper accumulation in plant tissues by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and laser-ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 64, 67-73 (2009).
[CrossRef]

McAlister, D. D.

P. Wakelyn, N. R. Bertoniere, A. D. French, D. P. Thibodeaux, B. A. Triplett, M. A. Rousselle, W. R. Goynes, Jr., J. V. Edwards, L. Hunter, D. D. McAlister, and G. R. Gamble, Cotton Fiber Chemistry and Technology (CRC Press, 2007).

Naujalis, E.

B. Pranaityte, A. Padaraukas, and E. Naujalis, “Application of ICP-MS for the determination of trace metals in textiles,” Chemija / Lietuvos Mokslu akademija 18, 16-19 (2007).

Nomura, C. S.

L. C. Trevizan, D. Santos, Jr., R. E. Samad, N. D. Vieira, Jr., C. S. Nomura, L. C. Nunes, I. A. Rufini, and F. J. Krug, “Evaluation of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy for the determination of macronutrients in plant materials,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 63, 1151-1158 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Novotny, J.

J. Kaiser, M. Galiová, K. Novotny, R. Cervenka, L. Reale, J. Novotny, M. Liska, O. Samek, V. Kanicky, A. Hrdlicka, K. Stejskal, V. Adam, and R. Kizek, “Mapping of lead, magnesium and copper accumulation in plant tissues by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and laser-ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 64, 67-73 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nunes, L. C.

L. C. Trevizan, D. Santos, Jr., R. E. Samad, N. D. Vieira, Jr., C. S. Nomura, L. C. Nunes, I. A. Rufini, and F. J. Krug, “Evaluation of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy for the determination of macronutrients in plant materials,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 63, 1151-1158 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nunes, L. C.

L. C. Nunes, G. A. de Silva, L. C. Trevizan, D. S. Júnior, R. J. Poppi, and F. J. Krug, “Simultaneous optimization by neuro-genetic approach for analysis of plant materials by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 64, 565-572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Otruba, V.

M. Galiová, J. Kaiser, K. Novotny, O. Samek, L. Reale, R. Malina, K. Páleníková, M. Liska, V. Cudek, V. Kanicky, V. Otruba, A. Poma, and A. Tucci, “Utilization of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy for the investigation of the metal accumulation in vegetal tissues,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 62, 1597-1605 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Poppi, R. J.

L. C. Nunes, G. A. de Silva, L. C. Trevizan, D. S. Júnior, R. J. Poppi, and F. J. Krug, “Simultaneous optimization by neuro-genetic approach for analysis of plant materials by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 64, 565-572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rousselle, M. A.

P. Wakelyn, N. R. Bertoniere, A. D. French, D. P. Thibodeaux, B. A. Triplett, M. A. Rousselle, W. R. Goynes, Jr., J. V. Edwards, L. Hunter, D. D. McAlister, and G. R. Gamble, Cotton Fiber Chemistry and Technology (CRC Press, 2007).

Samek, O.

J. Kaiser, O. Samek, L. Reale, M. Liska, R. Malina, A. Ritucci, A. Poma, A. Tucci, F. Flora, A. Lai, L. Mancini, G. Tromba, F. Zanini, A. Faenov, T. Pikuz, and G. Cinque, “Monitoring of the heavy-metal hyperaccumulation in vegetal tissues by x-ray radiography and by femto-second laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Microsc. Res. Tech. 70, 147-153 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Samek, O.

M. Galiová, J. Kaiser, K. Novotny, O. Samek, L. Reale, R. Malina, K. Páleníková, M. Liska, V. Cudek, V. Kanicky, V. Otruba, A. Poma, and A. Tucci, “Utilization of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy for the investigation of the metal accumulation in vegetal tissues,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 62, 1597-1605 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Smith, B. W.

Q. Sun, M. Tran, B. W. Smith, and J. D. Winefordner, “Direct determination of P, Al, Ca, Cu, Me, Zn, Mg, and Fe in plant materials by laser-induced plasma spectroscopy,” Can. J. Anal. Sci. Spectrosc. 44, 164-170 (1999).

Soylak, M.

M. Dogan, M. Soylak, L. Elci, and A. von Bohlen, “Application of total reflection x-ray fluorescence spectrometry in the textile industry,” Mikrochim. Acta 138, 77-82 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Soylak, M.

S. Saracoglu, U. Divrikli, M. Soylak, L. Elci, and M. Dogan, “Determination of trace elements of some textiles by atomic absorption spectrometry,” J. Trace Microprobe Tech. 21, 389-396 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Suschny, O.

L. Pszonick, A. N. Hanna, and O. Suschny, “Intercomparison of the determination of trace elements in cotton cellulose, IAEA/RL/97 Report” (International Atomic Energy Agency, 1983).

Telle, H. H.

Thibodeaux, D. P.

P. Wakelyn, N. R. Bertoniere, A. D. French, D. P. Thibodeaux, B. A. Triplett, M. A. Rousselle, W. R. Goynes, Jr., J. V. Edwards, L. Hunter, D. D. McAlister, and G. R. Gamble, Cotton Fiber Chemistry and Technology (CRC Press, 2007).

Trevizan, L. C.

L. C. Trevizan, D. Santos, Jr., R. E. Samad, N. D. Vieira, Jr., C. S. Nomura, L. C. Nunes, I. A. Rufini, and F. J. Krug, “Evaluation of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy for the determination of macronutrients in plant materials,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 63, 1151-1158 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Triplett, B. A.

P. Wakelyn, N. R. Bertoniere, A. D. French, D. P. Thibodeaux, B. A. Triplett, M. A. Rousselle, W. R. Goynes, Jr., J. V. Edwards, L. Hunter, D. D. McAlister, and G. R. Gamble, Cotton Fiber Chemistry and Technology (CRC Press, 2007).

Tromba, G.

J. Kaiser, O. Samek, L. Reale, M. Liska, R. Malina, A. Ritucci, A. Poma, A. Tucci, F. Flora, A. Lai, L. Mancini, G. Tromba, F. Zanini, A. Faenov, T. Pikuz, and G. Cinque, “Monitoring of the heavy-metal hyperaccumulation in vegetal tissues by x-ray radiography and by femto-second laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Microsc. Res. Tech. 70, 147-153 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tucci, A.

J. Kaiser, O. Samek, L. Reale, M. Liska, R. Malina, A. Ritucci, A. Poma, A. Tucci, F. Flora, A. Lai, L. Mancini, G. Tromba, F. Zanini, A. Faenov, T. Pikuz, and G. Cinque, “Monitoring of the heavy-metal hyperaccumulation in vegetal tissues by x-ray radiography and by femto-second laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Microsc. Res. Tech. 70, 147-153 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Galiová, J. Kaiser, K. Novotny, O. Samek, L. Reale, R. Malina, K. Páleníková, M. Liska, V. Cudek, V. Kanicky, V. Otruba, A. Poma, and A. Tucci, “Utilization of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy for the investigation of the metal accumulation in vegetal tissues,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 62, 1597-1605 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Vieira, N. D.

L. C. Trevizan, D. Santos, Jr., R. E. Samad, N. D. Vieira, Jr., C. S. Nomura, L. C. Nunes, I. A. Rufini, and F. J. Krug, “Evaluation of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy for the determination of macronutrients in plant materials,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 63, 1151-1158 (2008).
[CrossRef]

von Bohlen, A.

M. Dogan, M. Soylak, L. Elci, and A. von Bohlen, “Application of total reflection x-ray fluorescence spectrometry in the textile industry,” Mikrochim. Acta 138, 77-82 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wakelyn, P.

P. Wakelyn, N. R. Bertoniere, A. D. French, D. P. Thibodeaux, B. A. Triplett, M. A. Rousselle, W. R. Goynes, Jr., J. V. Edwards, L. Hunter, D. D. McAlister, and G. R. Gamble, Cotton Fiber Chemistry and Technology (CRC Press, 2007).

Watson, J. E.

J. E. Watson, I. L. Pepper, M. Unger, and W. H. Fuller, “Yields and leaf elemental composition of cotton grown on sludge-amended soil,” J. Environ. Qual. 14, 174-177 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Winefordner, J. D.

Q. Sun, M. Tran, B. W. Smith, and J. D. Winefordner, “Direct determination of P, Al, Ca, Cu, Me, Zn, Mg, and Fe in plant materials by laser-induced plasma spectroscopy,” Can. J. Anal. Sci. Spectrosc. 44, 164-170 (1999).

Adam, V.

J. Kaiser, M. Galiová, K. Novotny, R. Cervenka, L. Reale, J. Novotny, M. Liska, O. Samek, V. Kanicky, A. Hrdlicka, K. Stejskal, V. Adam, and R. Kizek, “Mapping of lead, magnesium and copper accumulation in plant tissues by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and laser-ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 64, 67-73 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Almirall, J. R.

B. E. Naes, S. Umpierrez, S. Ryland, C. Barnett, and J. R. Almirall, “Comparison of laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, micro x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, and laser induced breakdown spectroscopy for the discrimination of automotive glass,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 63, 1145-1150 (2008)
[CrossRef]

Almirall, J. R.

J. M. Gallo and J. R. Almirall, “Elemental analysis of white cotton fiber evidence using solution ICP-MS and laser ablation ICP-MS (LA-ICP-MS),” Forensic Sci. Int. 190, 52-57 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Angelova, V.

V. Angelova, R. Ivanova, V. Delibaltova, and K. Ivanov, “Bio-accumulation and distribution of heavy metals in fibre crops (flax, cotton and hemp),” Ind. Crops Prod. 19, 197-205 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Baldwin, D.

D. Baldwin, “Statement of Commissioner Dan Baldwin, Office of International Trade, U. S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland Security Before the House Committee Subcommittee on Rural Development, Entrepreneurship and Trade Regarding Textile Enforcement: Is the Playing Field Level for American Businesses?,” http://www.house.gov/smbiz/hearings/hearing-6-18-09-textile-import-enforcement/Baldwin.pdf.

Barnett, C.

B. E. Naes, S. Umpierrez, S. Ryland, C. Barnett, and J. R. Almirall, “Comparison of laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, micro x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, and laser induced breakdown spectroscopy for the discrimination of automotive glass,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 63, 1145-1150 (2008)
[CrossRef]

Barnett, C.

C. Barnett, E. Cahoon, and J. R. Almirall, “Wavelength dependence on the elemental analysis of glass by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 63, 1016-1023 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bertoniere, N. R.

P. Wakelyn, N. R. Bertoniere, A. D. French, D. P. Thibodeaux, B. A. Triplett, M. A. Rousselle, W. R. Goynes, Jr., J. V. Edwards, L. Hunter, D. D. McAlister, and G. R. Gamble, Cotton Fiber Chemistry and Technology (CRC Press, 2007).

Boueri, M.

V. Juvé, R. Portelli, M. Boueri, M. Baudelet, and J. Yu, “Space-resolved analysis of trace elements in fresh vegetables using ultraviolet nanosecond laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 63, 1047-1053 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Boyain-Goitia, A. R.

Brushwood, D. E.

D. E. Brushwood, “Survey of metals found in non-domestic raw cottons,” in Proceedings of the Beltwide Cotton Conference (National Cotton Council, 2000), pp. 1546-1549.

Burmester, C. H.

G. L. Mullins and C. H. Burmester, “Cotton accumulates small amounts of copper, iron, manganese, and zinc,” Better Crops, 6-7 (Fall 1991).

Cervenka, , R.

J. Kaiser, M. Galiová, K. Novotny, R. Cervenka, L. Reale, J. Novotny, M. Liska, O. Samek, V. Kanicky, A. Hrdlicka, K. Stejskal, V. Adam, and R. Kizek, “Mapping of lead, magnesium and copper accumulation in plant tissues by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and laser-ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 64, 67-73 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cinque, G.

J. Kaiser, O. Samek, L. Reale, M. Liska, R. Malina, A. Ritucci, A. Poma, A. Tucci, F. Flora, A. Lai, L. Mancini, G. Tromba, F. Zanini, A. Faenov, T. Pikuz, and G. Cinque, “Monitoring of the heavy-metal hyperaccumulation in vegetal tissues by x-ray radiography and by femto-second laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Microsc. Res. Tech. 70, 147-153 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dogan, M.

M. Dogan, M. Soylak, L. Elci, and A. von Bohlen, “Application of total reflection x-ray fluorescence spectrometry in the textile industry,” Mikrochim. Acta 138, 77-82 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Edwards, J. V.

P. Wakelyn, N. R. Bertoniere, A. D. French, D. P. Thibodeaux, B. A. Triplett, M. A. Rousselle, W. R. Goynes, Jr., J. V. Edwards, L. Hunter, D. D. McAlister, and G. R. Gamble, Cotton Fiber Chemistry and Technology (CRC Press, 2007).

Elci, L.

S. Saracoglu, U. Divrikli, M. Soylak, L. Elci, and M. Dogan, “Determination of trace elements of some textiles by atomic absorption spectrometry,” J. Trace Microprobe Tech. 21, 389-396 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Faenov, A.

J. Kaiser, O. Samek, L. Reale, M. Liska, R. Malina, A. Ritucci, A. Poma, A. Tucci, F. Flora, A. Lai, L. Mancini, G. Tromba, F. Zanini, A. Faenov, T. Pikuz, and G. Cinque, “Monitoring of the heavy-metal hyperaccumulation in vegetal tissues by x-ray radiography and by femto-second laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Microsc. Res. Tech. 70, 147-153 (2007).
[CrossRef]

French, A. D.

P. Wakelyn, N. R. Bertoniere, A. D. French, D. P. Thibodeaux, B. A. Triplett, M. A. Rousselle, W. R. Goynes, Jr., J. V. Edwards, L. Hunter, D. D. McAlister, and G. R. Gamble, Cotton Fiber Chemistry and Technology (CRC Press, 2007).

Fuller, W. H.

J. E. Watson, I. L. Pepper, M. Unger, and W. H. Fuller, “Yields and leaf elemental composition of cotton grown on sludge-amended soil,” J. Environ. Qual. 14, 174-177 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Gallo, J. M.

J. M. Gallo and J. R. Almirall, “Elemental analysis of white cotton fiber evidence using solution ICP-MS and laser ablation ICP-MS (LA-ICP-MS),” Forensic Sci. Int. 190, 52-57 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gamble, G. R.

P. Wakelyn, N. R. Bertoniere, A. D. French, D. P. Thibodeaux, B. A. Triplett, M. A. Rousselle, W. R. Goynes, Jr., J. V. Edwards, L. Hunter, D. D. McAlister, and G. R. Gamble, Cotton Fiber Chemistry and Technology (CRC Press, 2007).

Goynes, Jr., W. R.

P. Wakelyn, N. R. Bertoniere, A. D. French, D. P. Thibodeaux, B. A. Triplett, M. A. Rousselle, W. R. Goynes, Jr., J. V. Edwards, L. Hunter, D. D. McAlister, and G. R. Gamble, Cotton Fiber Chemistry and Technology (CRC Press, 2007).

Hanna, A. N.

L. Pszonick, A. N. Hanna, and O. Suschny, “Intercomparison of the determination of trace elements in cotton cellulose, IAEA/RL/97 Report” (International Atomic Energy Agency, 1983).

Hattori, T.

Hrdlicka, A.

J. Kaiser, M. Galiová, K. Novotny, R. Cervenka, L. Reale, J. Novotny, M. Liska, O. Samek, V. Kanicky, A. Hrdlicka, K. Stejskal, V. Adam, and R. Kizek, “Mapping of lead, magnesium and copper accumulation in plant tissues by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and laser-ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 64, 67-73 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Huffman, M.

G. Adams, S. Boyd, D. Cougot, and M. Huffman, “The Economic Outlook for U. S. Cotton 2009,” in Economic Services, NCC Annual Meeting (National Cotton Council, 12-16 February 2009).

Hunter, L.

P. Wakelyn, N. R. Bertoniere, A. D. French, D. P. Thibodeaux, B. A. Triplett, M. A. Rousselle, W. R. Goynes, Jr., J. V. Edwards, L. Hunter, D. D. McAlister, and G. R. Gamble, Cotton Fiber Chemistry and Technology (CRC Press, 2007).

Ito, M.

Ivanov, K.

V. Angelova, R. Ivanova, V. Delibaltova, and K. Ivanov, “Bio-accumulation and distribution of heavy metals in fibre crops (flax, cotton and hemp),” Ind. Crops Prod. 19, 197-205 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Júnior, D. S.

L. C. Nunes, G. A. de Silva, L. C. Trevizan, D. S. Júnior, R. J. Poppi, and F. J. Krug, “Simultaneous optimization by neuro-genetic approach for analysis of plant materials by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 64, 565-572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Juvé, V.

V. Juvé, R. Portelli, M. Boueri, M. Baudelet, and J. Yu, “Space-resolved analysis of trace elements in fresh vegetables using ultraviolet nanosecond laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 63, 1047-1053 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kaiser, J.

J. Kaiser, M. Galiová, K. Novotny, R. Cervenka, L. Reale, J. Novotny, M. Liska, O. Samek, V. Kanicky, A. Hrdlicka, K. Stejskal, V. Adam, and R. Kizek, “Mapping of lead, magnesium and copper accumulation in plant tissues by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and laser-ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 64, 67-73 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Kaiser, O. Samek, L. Reale, M. Liska, R. Malina, A. Ritucci, A. Poma, A. Tucci, F. Flora, A. Lai, L. Mancini, G. Tromba, F. Zanini, A. Faenov, T. Pikuz, and G. Cinque, “Monitoring of the heavy-metal hyperaccumulation in vegetal tissues by x-ray radiography and by femto-second laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Microsc. Res. Tech. 70, 147-153 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Galiová, J. Kaiser, K. Novotny, O. Samek, L. Reale, R. Malina, K. Páleníková, M. Liska, V. Cudek, V. Kanicky, V. Otruba, A. Poma, and A. Tucci, “Utilization of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy for the investigation of the metal accumulation in vegetal tissues,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 62, 1597-1605 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kanicky, V.

J. Kaiser, M. Galiová, K. Novotny, R. Cervenka, L. Reale, J. Novotny, M. Liska, O. Samek, V. Kanicky, A. Hrdlicka, K. Stejskal, V. Adam, and R. Kizek, “Mapping of lead, magnesium and copper accumulation in plant tissues by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and laser-ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 64, 67-73 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kizek, R.

J. Kaiser, M. Galiová, K. Novotny, R. Cervenka, L. Reale, J. Novotny, M. Liska, O. Samek, V. Kanicky, A. Hrdlicka, K. Stejskal, V. Adam, and R. Kizek, “Mapping of lead, magnesium and copper accumulation in plant tissues by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and laser-ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 64, 67-73 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kotani, T.

Krug, F. J.

L. C. Trevizan, D. Santos, Jr., R. E. Samad, N. D. Vieira, Jr., C. S. Nomura, L. C. Nunes, I. A. Rufini, and F. J. Krug, “Evaluation of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy for the determination of micronutrients in plant materials,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 64, 369-377 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lai, A.

J. Kaiser, O. Samek, L. Reale, M. Liska, R. Malina, A. Ritucci, A. Poma, A. Tucci, F. Flora, A. Lai, L. Mancini, G. Tromba, F. Zanini, A. Faenov, T. Pikuz, and G. Cinque, “Monitoring of the heavy-metal hyperaccumulation in vegetal tissues by x-ray radiography and by femto-second laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Microsc. Res. Tech. 70, 147-153 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lecleric, R.

D. Michaud, R. Lecleric, and E. Proulx, “Influence of particle size and mineral phases in the analysis of iron ore slurries by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 62, 1575-1581 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liska, M.

J. Kaiser, O. Samek, L. Reale, M. Liska, R. Malina, A. Ritucci, A. Poma, A. Tucci, F. Flora, A. Lai, L. Mancini, G. Tromba, F. Zanini, A. Faenov, T. Pikuz, and G. Cinque, “Monitoring of the heavy-metal hyperaccumulation in vegetal tissues by x-ray radiography and by femto-second laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Microsc. Res. Tech. 70, 147-153 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liska, M.

M. Galiová, J. Kaiser, K. Novotny, O. Samek, L. Reale, R. Malina, K. Páleníková, M. Liska, V. Cudek, V. Kanicky, V. Otruba, A. Poma, and A. Tucci, “Utilization of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy for the investigation of the metal accumulation in vegetal tissues,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 62, 1597-1605 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Malina, R.

M. Galiová, J. Kaiser, K. Novotny, O. Samek, L. Reale, R. Malina, K. Páleníková, M. Liska, V. Cudek, V. Kanicky, V. Otruba, A. Poma, and A. Tucci, “Utilization of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy for the investigation of the metal accumulation in vegetal tissues,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 62, 1597-1605 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Kaiser, O. Samek, L. Reale, M. Liska, R. Malina, A. Ritucci, A. Poma, A. Tucci, F. Flora, A. Lai, L. Mancini, G. Tromba, F. Zanini, A. Faenov, T. Pikuz, and G. Cinque, “Monitoring of the heavy-metal hyperaccumulation in vegetal tissues by x-ray radiography and by femto-second laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Microsc. Res. Tech. 70, 147-153 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mancini, L.

J. Kaiser, O. Samek, L. Reale, M. Liska, R. Malina, A. Ritucci, A. Poma, A. Tucci, F. Flora, A. Lai, L. Mancini, G. Tromba, F. Zanini, A. Faenov, T. Pikuz, and G. Cinque, “Monitoring of the heavy-metal hyperaccumulation in vegetal tissues by x-ray radiography and by femto-second laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Microsc. Res. Tech. 70, 147-153 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Michaud, D.

D. Michaud, R. Lecleric, and E. Proulx, “Influence of particle size and mineral phases in the analysis of iron ore slurries by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 62, 1575-1581 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mullins, G. L.

G. L. Mullins and C. H. Burmester, “Cotton accumulates small amounts of copper, iron, manganese, and zinc,” Better Crops, 6-7 (Fall 1991).

Naes, B. E.

B. E. Naes, S. Umpierrez, S. Ryland, C. Barnett, and J. R. Almirall, “Comparison of laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, micro x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, and laser induced breakdown spectroscopy for the discrimination of automotive glass,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 63, 1145-1150 (2008)
[CrossRef]

Nomura, C. S.

L. C. Trevizan, D. Santos, Jr., R. E. Samad, N. D. Vieira, Jr., C. S. Nomura, L. C. Nunes, I. A. Rufini, and F. J. Krug, “Evaluation of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy for the determination of micronutrients in plant materials,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 64, 369-377 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Novotny, K.

J. Kaiser, M. Galiová, K. Novotny, R. Cervenka, L. Reale, J. Novotny, M. Liska, O. Samek, V. Kanicky, A. Hrdlicka, K. Stejskal, V. Adam, and R. Kizek, “Mapping of lead, magnesium and copper accumulation in plant tissues by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and laser-ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 64, 67-73 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Galiová, J. Kaiser, K. Novotny, O. Samek, L. Reale, R. Malina, K. Páleníková, M. Liska, V. Cudek, V. Kanicky, V. Otruba, A. Poma, and A. Tucci, “Utilization of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy for the investigation of the metal accumulation in vegetal tissues,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 62, 1597-1605 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nunes, L. C.

L. C. Trevizan, D. Santos, Jr., R. E. Samad, N. D. Vieira, Jr., C. S. Nomura, L. C. Nunes, I. A. Rufini, and F. J. Krug, “Evaluation of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy for the determination of micronutrients in plant materials,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 64, 369-377 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ohta, T.

Padaraukas, A.

B. Pranaityte, A. Padaraukas, and E. Naujalis, “Application of ICP-MS for the determination of trace metals in textiles,” Chemija / Lietuvos Mokslu akademija 18, 16-19 (2007).

Páleníková, K.

M. Galiová, J. Kaiser, K. Novotny, O. Samek, L. Reale, R. Malina, K. Páleníková, M. Liska, V. Cudek, V. Kanicky, V. Otruba, A. Poma, and A. Tucci, “Utilization of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy for the investigation of the metal accumulation in vegetal tissues,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 62, 1597-1605 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pepper, I. L.

J. E. Watson, I. L. Pepper, M. Unger, and W. H. Fuller, “Yields and leaf elemental composition of cotton grown on sludge-amended soil,” J. Environ. Qual. 14, 174-177 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Perkins, H. H.

D. E. Brushwood and H. H. Perkins, Jr., “Determining the metal content of cotton,” Text. Chem. Color. 26, 32-35 (1994).

Pikuz, T.

J. Kaiser, O. Samek, L. Reale, M. Liska, R. Malina, A. Ritucci, A. Poma, A. Tucci, F. Flora, A. Lai, L. Mancini, G. Tromba, F. Zanini, A. Faenov, T. Pikuz, and G. Cinque, “Monitoring of the heavy-metal hyperaccumulation in vegetal tissues by x-ray radiography and by femto-second laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Microsc. Res. Tech. 70, 147-153 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Poma, A.

J. Kaiser, O. Samek, L. Reale, M. Liska, R. Malina, A. Ritucci, A. Poma, A. Tucci, F. Flora, A. Lai, L. Mancini, G. Tromba, F. Zanini, A. Faenov, T. Pikuz, and G. Cinque, “Monitoring of the heavy-metal hyperaccumulation in vegetal tissues by x-ray radiography and by femto-second laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Microsc. Res. Tech. 70, 147-153 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Galiová, J. Kaiser, K. Novotny, O. Samek, L. Reale, R. Malina, K. Páleníková, M. Liska, V. Cudek, V. Kanicky, V. Otruba, A. Poma, and A. Tucci, “Utilization of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy for the investigation of the metal accumulation in vegetal tissues,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 62, 1597-1605 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Portelli, R.

V. Juvé, R. Portelli, M. Boueri, M. Baudelet, and J. Yu, “Space-resolved analysis of trace elements in fresh vegetables using ultraviolet nanosecond laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 63, 1047-1053 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pranaityte, B.

B. Pranaityte, A. Padaraukas, and E. Naujalis, “Application of ICP-MS for the determination of trace metals in textiles,” Chemija / Lietuvos Mokslu akademija 18, 16-19 (2007).

Proulx, E.

D. Michaud, R. Lecleric, and E. Proulx, “Influence of particle size and mineral phases in the analysis of iron ore slurries by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 62, 1575-1581 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pszonick, L.

L. Pszonick, A. N. Hanna, and O. Suschny, “Intercomparison of the determination of trace elements in cotton cellulose, IAEA/RL/97 Report” (International Atomic Energy Agency, 1983).

Reale, L.

J. Kaiser, M. Galiová, K. Novotny, R. Cervenka, L. Reale, J. Novotny, M. Liska, O. Samek, V. Kanicky, A. Hrdlicka, K. Stejskal, V. Adam, and R. Kizek, “Mapping of lead, magnesium and copper accumulation in plant tissues by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and laser-ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 64, 67-73 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Kaiser, O. Samek, L. Reale, M. Liska, R. Malina, A. Ritucci, A. Poma, A. Tucci, F. Flora, A. Lai, L. Mancini, G. Tromba, F. Zanini, A. Faenov, T. Pikuz, and G. Cinque, “Monitoring of the heavy-metal hyperaccumulation in vegetal tissues by x-ray radiography and by femto-second laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Microsc. Res. Tech. 70, 147-153 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Galiová, J. Kaiser, K. Novotny, O. Samek, L. Reale, R. Malina, K. Páleníková, M. Liska, V. Cudek, V. Kanicky, V. Otruba, A. Poma, and A. Tucci, “Utilization of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy for the investigation of the metal accumulation in vegetal tissues,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 62, 1597-1605 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rezic, I.

I. Rezic and I. Steffan, “ICP-OES determination of metals present in textile materials,” Microchem. J. 85, 46-51 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ritucci, A.

J. Kaiser, O. Samek, L. Reale, M. Liska, R. Malina, A. Ritucci, A. Poma, A. Tucci, F. Flora, A. Lai, L. Mancini, G. Tromba, F. Zanini, A. Faenov, T. Pikuz, and G. Cinque, “Monitoring of the heavy-metal hyperaccumulation in vegetal tissues by x-ray radiography and by femto-second laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Microsc. Res. Tech. 70, 147-153 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rufini, I. A.

L. C. Trevizan, D. Santos, Jr., R. E. Samad, N. D. Vieira, Jr., C. S. Nomura, L. C. Nunes, I. A. Rufini, and F. J. Krug, “Evaluation of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy for the determination of micronutrients in plant materials,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 64, 369-377 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rufini, I. A.

L. C. Trevizan, D. Santos, Jr., R. E. Samad, N. D. Vieira, Jr., C. S. Nomura, L. C. Nunes, I. A. Rufini, and F. J. Krug, “Evaluation of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy for the determination of macronutrients in plant materials,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 63, 1151-1158 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ryland, S.

B. E. Naes, S. Umpierrez, S. Ryland, C. Barnett, and J. R. Almirall, “Comparison of laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, micro x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, and laser induced breakdown spectroscopy for the discrimination of automotive glass,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 63, 1145-1150 (2008)
[CrossRef]

Samad, R. E.

L. C. Trevizan, D. Santos, Jr., R. E. Samad, N. D. Vieira, Jr., C. S. Nomura, L. C. Nunes, I. A. Rufini, and F. J. Krug, “Evaluation of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy for the determination of macronutrients in plant materials,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 63, 1151-1158 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Samad, R. E.

L. C. Trevizan, D. Santos, Jr., R. E. Samad, N. D. Vieira, Jr., C. S. Nomura, L. C. Nunes, I. A. Rufini, and F. J. Krug, “Evaluation of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy for the determination of micronutrients in plant materials,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 64, 369-377 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Samek, O.

J. Kaiser, M. Galiová, K. Novotny, R. Cervenka, L. Reale, J. Novotny, M. Liska, O. Samek, V. Kanicky, A. Hrdlicka, K. Stejskal, V. Adam, and R. Kizek, “Mapping of lead, magnesium and copper accumulation in plant tissues by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and laser-ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 64, 67-73 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Santos, D.

L. C. Trevizan, D. Santos, Jr., R. E. Samad, N. D. Vieira, Jr., C. S. Nomura, L. C. Nunes, I. A. Rufini, and F. J. Krug, “Evaluation of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy for the determination of macronutrients in plant materials,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 63, 1151-1158 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Santos, , D.

L. C. Trevizan, D. Santos, Jr., R. E. Samad, N. D. Vieira, Jr., C. S. Nomura, L. C. Nunes, I. A. Rufini, and F. J. Krug, “Evaluation of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy for the determination of micronutrients in plant materials,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 64, 369-377 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Saracoglu, S.

S. Saracoglu, U. Divrikli, M. Soylak, L. Elci, and M. Dogan, “Determination of trace elements of some textiles by atomic absorption spectrometry,” J. Trace Microprobe Tech. 21, 389-396 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Steffan, I.

I. Rezic and I. Steffan, “ICP-OES determination of metals present in textile materials,” Microchem. J. 85, 46-51 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Stejskal, K.

J. Kaiser, M. Galiová, K. Novotny, R. Cervenka, L. Reale, J. Novotny, M. Liska, O. Samek, V. Kanicky, A. Hrdlicka, K. Stejskal, V. Adam, and R. Kizek, “Mapping of lead, magnesium and copper accumulation in plant tissues by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and laser-ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 64, 67-73 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Stowe, D. H.

D. H. Stowe, “Testimony of D. Harding Stowe, CEO of R. L. Stowes Mills, Before the House of Representatives Small Business Subcommittee on Rural Development, Entrepreneurship and Trade,” http://www.house.gov/smbiz/hearings/hearing-6-18-09-textile-import-enforcement/Stowe.pdf.

Sun, Q.

Q. Sun, M. Tran, B. W. Smith, and J. D. Winefordner, “Direct determination of P, Al, Ca, Cu, Me, Zn, Mg, and Fe in plant materials by laser-induced plasma spectroscopy,” Can. J. Anal. Sci. Spectrosc. 44, 164-170 (1999).

Tran, M.

Q. Sun, M. Tran, B. W. Smith, and J. D. Winefordner, “Direct determination of P, Al, Ca, Cu, Me, Zn, Mg, and Fe in plant materials by laser-induced plasma spectroscopy,” Can. J. Anal. Sci. Spectrosc. 44, 164-170 (1999).

Trevizan, L. C.

L. C. Nunes, G. A. de Silva, L. C. Trevizan, D. S. Júnior, R. J. Poppi, and F. J. Krug, “Simultaneous optimization by neuro-genetic approach for analysis of plant materials by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 64, 565-572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Trevizan, L. C.

L. C. Trevizan, D. Santos, Jr., R. E. Samad, N. D. Vieira, Jr., C. S. Nomura, L. C. Nunes, I. A. Rufini, and F. J. Krug, “Evaluation of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy for the determination of micronutrients in plant materials,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 64, 369-377 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Umpierrez, S.

B. E. Naes, S. Umpierrez, S. Ryland, C. Barnett, and J. R. Almirall, “Comparison of laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, micro x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, and laser induced breakdown spectroscopy for the discrimination of automotive glass,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 63, 1145-1150 (2008)
[CrossRef]

Unger, M.

J. E. Watson, I. L. Pepper, M. Unger, and W. H. Fuller, “Yields and leaf elemental composition of cotton grown on sludge-amended soil,” J. Environ. Qual. 14, 174-177 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Vieira, N. D.

L. C. Trevizan, D. Santos, Jr., R. E. Samad, N. D. Vieira, Jr., C. S. Nomura, L. C. Nunes, I. A. Rufini, and F. J. Krug, “Evaluation of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy for the determination of micronutrients in plant materials,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 64, 369-377 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Womach, J.

J. Womach, “CRS Report for Congress: Cotton Production and Support in the United States. Report: RL32442. The Library of Congress, 2004,” http://www.nationalaglawcenter.org/assets/crs/RL32442.pdf.

Yu, J.

V. Juvé, R. Portelli, M. Boueri, M. Baudelet, and J. Yu, “Space-resolved analysis of trace elements in fresh vegetables using ultraviolet nanosecond laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 63, 1047-1053 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zanini, F.

J. Kaiser, O. Samek, L. Reale, M. Liska, R. Malina, A. Ritucci, A. Poma, A. Tucci, F. Flora, A. Lai, L. Mancini, G. Tromba, F. Zanini, A. Faenov, T. Pikuz, and G. Cinque, “Monitoring of the heavy-metal hyperaccumulation in vegetal tissues by x-ray radiography and by femto-second laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Microsc. Res. Tech. 70, 147-153 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Spectrosc.

Better Crops,

G. L. Mullins and C. H. Burmester, “Cotton accumulates small amounts of copper, iron, manganese, and zinc,” Better Crops, 6-7 (Fall 1991).

Can. J. Anal. Sci. Spectrosc.

Q. Sun, M. Tran, B. W. Smith, and J. D. Winefordner, “Direct determination of P, Al, Ca, Cu, Me, Zn, Mg, and Fe in plant materials by laser-induced plasma spectroscopy,” Can. J. Anal. Sci. Spectrosc. 44, 164-170 (1999).

Chemija / Lietuvos Mokslu akademija

B. Pranaityte, A. Padaraukas, and E. Naujalis, “Application of ICP-MS for the determination of trace metals in textiles,” Chemija / Lietuvos Mokslu akademija 18, 16-19 (2007).

Forensic Sci. Int.

J. M. Gallo and J. R. Almirall, “Elemental analysis of white cotton fiber evidence using solution ICP-MS and laser ablation ICP-MS (LA-ICP-MS),” Forensic Sci. Int. 190, 52-57 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ind. Crops Prod.

V. Angelova, R. Ivanova, V. Delibaltova, and K. Ivanov, “Bio-accumulation and distribution of heavy metals in fibre crops (flax, cotton and hemp),” Ind. Crops Prod. 19, 197-205 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Environ. Qual.

J. E. Watson, I. L. Pepper, M. Unger, and W. H. Fuller, “Yields and leaf elemental composition of cotton grown on sludge-amended soil,” J. Environ. Qual. 14, 174-177 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. Trace Microprobe Tech.

S. Saracoglu, U. Divrikli, M. Soylak, L. Elci, and M. Dogan, “Determination of trace elements of some textiles by atomic absorption spectrometry,” J. Trace Microprobe Tech. 21, 389-396 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Microchem. J.

I. Rezic and I. Steffan, “ICP-OES determination of metals present in textile materials,” Microchem. J. 85, 46-51 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Microsc. Res. Tech.

J. Kaiser, O. Samek, L. Reale, M. Liska, R. Malina, A. Ritucci, A. Poma, A. Tucci, F. Flora, A. Lai, L. Mancini, G. Tromba, F. Zanini, A. Faenov, T. Pikuz, and G. Cinque, “Monitoring of the heavy-metal hyperaccumulation in vegetal tissues by x-ray radiography and by femto-second laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Microsc. Res. Tech. 70, 147-153 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mikrochim. Acta

M. Dogan, M. Soylak, L. Elci, and A. von Bohlen, “Application of total reflection x-ray fluorescence spectrometry in the textile industry,” Mikrochim. Acta 138, 77-82 (2002).
[CrossRef]

National Cotton Council

“U. S. and World Cotton Economic Outlook September 2009,” National Cotton Council , http://www.cotton.org/econ/reports/outlook.cfm.

Spectrochim. Acta Part B

M. Galiová, J. Kaiser, K. Novotny, O. Samek, L. Reale, R. Malina, K. Páleníková, M. Liska, V. Cudek, V. Kanicky, V. Otruba, A. Poma, and A. Tucci, “Utilization of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy for the investigation of the metal accumulation in vegetal tissues,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 62, 1597-1605 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. Juvé, R. Portelli, M. Boueri, M. Baudelet, and J. Yu, “Space-resolved analysis of trace elements in fresh vegetables using ultraviolet nanosecond laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 63, 1047-1053 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. C. Trevizan, D. Santos, Jr., R. E. Samad, N. D. Vieira, Jr., C. S. Nomura, L. C. Nunes, I. A. Rufini, and F. J. Krug, “Evaluation of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy for the determination of macronutrients in plant materials,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 63, 1151-1158 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. C. Trevizan, D. Santos, Jr., R. E. Samad, N. D. Vieira, Jr., C. S. Nomura, L. C. Nunes, I. A. Rufini, and F. J. Krug, “Evaluation of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy for the determination of micronutrients in plant materials,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 64, 369-377 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. C. Nunes, G. A. de Silva, L. C. Trevizan, D. S. Júnior, R. J. Poppi, and F. J. Krug, “Simultaneous optimization by neuro-genetic approach for analysis of plant materials by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 64, 565-572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Kaiser, M. Galiová, K. Novotny, R. Cervenka, L. Reale, J. Novotny, M. Liska, O. Samek, V. Kanicky, A. Hrdlicka, K. Stejskal, V. Adam, and R. Kizek, “Mapping of lead, magnesium and copper accumulation in plant tissues by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and laser-ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 64, 67-73 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Barnett, E. Cahoon, and J. R. Almirall, “Wavelength dependence on the elemental analysis of glass by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 63, 1016-1023 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Michaud, R. Lecleric, and E. Proulx, “Influence of particle size and mineral phases in the analysis of iron ore slurries by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 62, 1575-1581 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. E. Naes, S. Umpierrez, S. Ryland, C. Barnett, and J. R. Almirall, “Comparison of laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, micro x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, and laser induced breakdown spectroscopy for the discrimination of automotive glass,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 63, 1145-1150 (2008)
[CrossRef]

Text. Chem. Color.

D. E. Brushwood and H. H. Perkins, Jr., “Determining the metal content of cotton,” Text. Chem. Color. 26, 32-35 (1994).

Other

D. E. Brushwood, “Survey of metals found in non-domestic raw cottons,” in Proceedings of the Beltwide Cotton Conference (National Cotton Council, 2000), pp. 1546-1549.

“Textile Import Enforcement: Is the Playing Field Level for American Small Businesses?,” http://www.house.gov/smbiz/hearings/hearing-6-18-09-textile-import-enforcement/hearing-witnesses-textile-import.htm.

D. Baldwin, “Statement of Commissioner Dan Baldwin, Office of International Trade, U. S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland Security Before the House Committee Subcommittee on Rural Development, Entrepreneurship and Trade Regarding Textile Enforcement: Is the Playing Field Level for American Businesses?,” http://www.house.gov/smbiz/hearings/hearing-6-18-09-textile-import-enforcement/Baldwin.pdf.

D. Nation, “Testimony of Dan Nation to U. S. House Committee on Small Business Subcommittee on Rural Development, Entrepreneurship and Trade Textile Enforcement and Small Businesses,” http://www.house.gov/smbiz/hearings/hearing-6-18-09-textile-import-enforcement/Nation.pdf.

D. H. Stowe, “Testimony of D. Harding Stowe, CEO of R. L. Stowes Mills, Before the House of Representatives Small Business Subcommittee on Rural Development, Entrepreneurship and Trade,” http://www.house.gov/smbiz/hearings/hearing-6-18-09-textile-import-enforcement/Stowe.pdf.

J. Womach, “CRS Report for Congress: Cotton Production and Support in the United States. Report: RL32442. The Library of Congress, 2004,” http://www.nationalaglawcenter.org/assets/crs/RL32442.pdf.

P. Wakelyn, N. R. Bertoniere, A. D. French, D. P. Thibodeaux, B. A. Triplett, M. A. Rousselle, W. R. Goynes, Jr., J. V. Edwards, L. Hunter, D. D. McAlister, and G. R. Gamble, Cotton Fiber Chemistry and Technology (CRC Press, 2007).

G. Adams, S. Boyd, D. Cougot, and M. Huffman, “The Economic Outlook for U. S. Cotton 2009,” in Economic Services, NCC Annual Meeting (National Cotton Council, 12-16 February 2009).

L. Pszonick, A. N. Hanna, and O. Suschny, “Intercomparison of the determination of trace elements in cotton cellulose, IAEA/RL/97 Report” (International Atomic Energy Agency, 1983).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Calibration curve for the ratio of Sr II 421.5 nm to Sc II 361.3 nm peak area. (b) Signal profile for the Sr II 421.5 nm line depicting the relationship between strontium concentration and emission line intensity.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Signal profile for the Mg II 279.5 nm and Mg II 280.2 nm peaks of two samples from two different regions in the U.S.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Results for a homogeneity study of 300 g of a bulk sample; a stable peak area ratio is observed.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

PCA model for unprocessed cotton LIBS data. Separation based on geographic regions are observed: □, south/southwest; x, unknown sample (New Mexico origin); •, south/southeast.

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Precision and Accuracy of the Cotton Cellulose Reference Material (IAEA V-9) by LIBS

Tables Icon

Table 2 Precision of the Cotton Cellulose Reference Material (IAEA V-9) by LA-ICP-MS a

Tables Icon

Table 3 Linear Discriminant Analysis Results for Cotton

Tables Icon

Table 4 Confusion Matrix for the Classification of Unprocessed Cotton by State Grown in Using LDA Actual Rows by Predicted Columns

Metrics