Abstract

The optical waveguides in neodymium-doped gadolinium gallium garnet crystal are fabricated, to our knowledge for the first time, by either H+ or C3+ ion implantation. The reconstructed refractive index profiles of the planar waveguides have shown, in both cases, the typical enhanced well+barrier distributions. The two-dimensional modal profiles of the channel waveguides, obtained by using an end-face coupling arrangement, are in good agreement with the simulated modal distributions. After moderate thermal annealing at 200°C, the propagation loss of the H- and C-ion-implanted channel waveguides are reduced down to 1.5 and 1.6dB/cm, respectively, which exhibits acceptable guiding qualities for applications on potential integrated laser generation.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2010 (1)

L.-L. Wang and Y.-G. Yu, “Characterization of laser waveguides in Nd:CNGG crystals formed by low fluence carbon ion implantation,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 256, 2616-2619 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (5)

2008 (5)

F. Chen, Y. Tan, and A. Rodenas, “Ion implanted optical channel waveguides in Er3+/MgO co-doped near stoichiometric LiNbO3: a new candidate for active integrated photonic devices operating at 1.5 μm,” Opt. Express 16, 16209-16214(2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Tan, F. Chen, X. L. Wang, K. M. Wang, and Q. M. Lu, “Optical channel waveguides in KTiOPO4 crystal produced by proton implantation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26, 1304-1308(2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. X. Kong, F. Chen, D. Jaque, Y. Tan, N. N. Dong, Q. M. Lu, and H. J. Ma, “Low-dose O3+ ion implanted active optical planar waveguides in Nd:YAG crystals: guiding properties and micro-luminescence,” J. Phys. D 41, 175112 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. J. Qin, D. Y. Tang, G. Q. Xie, C. M. Dong, Z. T. Jia, and X. T. Tao, “High-power continuous wave and passively Q-switched laser operations of a Nd:GGG crystal,” Laser Phys. Lett. 5, 100-103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. S. B. Darby, T. C. May-Smith, and R. W. Eason, “Deposition and stoichiometry control of Nd-doped gadolinium gallium garnet thin films by combinatorial pulsed laser deposition using two targets of Nd:Gd3Ga5O12 and Ga2O3,” Appl. Phys. A 93, 477-481 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

J. Gottmann, L. Moiseev, D. Wortmann, I. Vasilief, L. Starovoytova, D. Ganser, and R. Wagner, “Laser deposition and structuring of laser active planar waveguides of Er:ZBLAN, Nd:YAG and Nd:GGG for integrated waveguide lasers,” Proc. SPIE 6459, 64590W (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Chen, X. L. Wang, and K. M. Wang, “Developments of ion implanted optical waveguides in optical materials: a review,” Opt. Mater. 29, 1523-1542 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

Z. Jia, X. Tao, C. Dong, X. Cheng, W. Zhang, F. Xu, and M. Jiang, “Study on crystal growth of large size Nd3+:Gd3Ga5O12 (Nd3+:GGG) by Czochralski method,” J. Cryst. Growth 292, 386-390 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

P. Moretti, M. F. Joubert, S. Tascu, B. Jacquier, M. Kaczkan, M. Malinowskii, and J. Samecki, “Luminescence of Nd3+ in proton or helium-implanted channel waveguides in Nd:YAG crystals,” Opt. Mater. 24, 315-319 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

N. V. Baburin, B. I. Galagan, Yu. K. Danileiko, N. N. Il'ichev, A. V. Masalov, V. Ya. Molchanov, and V. A. Chikov, “Two-frequency mode-locked lasing in a monoblock diode-pumped Nd3+:GGG laser,” Quantum Electron. 31, 303-304 (2001).
[CrossRef]

F. Chen, H. Hu, F. Lei, B. R. Shi, J. H. Zhang, K. M. Wang, D. Y. Shen, and X. M. Wang, “Comparison between MeV Ni+ and He+ ion-implanted planar optical waveguides in quartz,” Opt. Commun. 190, 153-157 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

R. Gerhardt, J. Kleine-Börger, L. Beilschmidt, M. Frommeyer, H. Dötsch, and B. Gather, “Efficient channel-waveguide laser in Nd:GGG at 1.062 μm wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1210-1212 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

N. A. Vainos, C. Grivas, C. Fotakis, R. W. Eason, A. A. Anderson, D. S. Gill, D. P. Shepherd, M. Jelinek, J. Lancok, and J. Sonsky, “Planar laser waveguides of Ti:sapphire, Nd:GGG and Nd:YAG grown by pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 127-129, 514-519 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

C. L. Bonner, A. A. Anderson, R. W. Eason, D. P. Shepherd, D. S. Gill, C. Grivas, and N. Vainos, “Performance of a low-loss pulsed-laser-deposited Nd:Gd3Ga5O12 waveguide laser at 1.06 and 0.94 μm,” Opt. Lett. 22, 988-990 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. A. Anderson, C. L. Bonner, D. P. Shepherd, R. W. Eason, C. Grivas, D. S. Gill, and N. Vainos, “Low loss (0.5 dB/cm) Nd:Gd3Ga5O12 waveguide layers grown by pulsed laser deposition,” Opt. Commun. 144, 183-186 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

D. S. Gill, A. A. Anderson, R. W. Eason, T. J. Warburton, and D. P. Shepherd, “Laser operation of an Nd:Gd3Ga5O12 thin-film optical waveguide fabricated by pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 10-12 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1992 (2)

1991 (2)

S. J. Field, D. C. Hanna, A. C. Large, D. P. Shepherd, A. C. Tropper, P. J. Chandler, P. D. Townsend, and L. Zhang, “An efficient, diode-pumped, ion-implanted Nd:GGG planar waveguide laser,” Opt. Commun. 86, 161-166 (1991).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Field, D. C. Hanna, A. C. Large, D. P. Shepherd, A. C. Tropper, P. J. Chandler, P. D. Townsend, and L. Zhang, “Low threshold ion-implanted Nd:YAG channel waveguide laser,” Electron. Lett. 27, 2375-2376 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

P. J. Chandler and F. L. Lama, “A new approach to the determination of planar waveguide profiles by means of a non-stationary mode index calculation,” Opt. Acta 33, 127-143(1986).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

R. Regener and W. Sohler, “Loss in low-finesse Ti:LiNbO3optical waveguide resonators,” Appl. Phys. B 36, 143-147(1985).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, A. A.

N. A. Vainos, C. Grivas, C. Fotakis, R. W. Eason, A. A. Anderson, D. S. Gill, D. P. Shepherd, M. Jelinek, J. Lancok, and J. Sonsky, “Planar laser waveguides of Ti:sapphire, Nd:GGG and Nd:YAG grown by pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 127-129, 514-519 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Bonner, A. A. Anderson, R. W. Eason, D. P. Shepherd, D. S. Gill, C. Grivas, and N. Vainos, “Performance of a low-loss pulsed-laser-deposited Nd:Gd3Ga5O12 waveguide laser at 1.06 and 0.94 μm,” Opt. Lett. 22, 988-990 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. A. Anderson, C. L. Bonner, D. P. Shepherd, R. W. Eason, C. Grivas, D. S. Gill, and N. Vainos, “Low loss (0.5 dB/cm) Nd:Gd3Ga5O12 waveguide layers grown by pulsed laser deposition,” Opt. Commun. 144, 183-186 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Gill, A. A. Anderson, R. W. Eason, T. J. Warburton, and D. P. Shepherd, “Laser operation of an Nd:Gd3Ga5O12 thin-film optical waveguide fabricated by pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 10-12 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Baburin, N. V.

N. V. Baburin, B. I. Galagan, Yu. K. Danileiko, N. N. Il'ichev, A. V. Masalov, V. Ya. Molchanov, and V. A. Chikov, “Two-frequency mode-locked lasing in a monoblock diode-pumped Nd3+:GGG laser,” Quantum Electron. 31, 303-304 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bardyszewiski, W.

Beilschmidt, L.

R. Gerhardt, J. Kleine-Börger, L. Beilschmidt, M. Frommeyer, H. Dötsch, and B. Gather, “Efficient channel-waveguide laser in Nd:GGG at 1.062 μm wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1210-1212 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bonner, C. L.

A. A. Anderson, C. L. Bonner, D. P. Shepherd, R. W. Eason, C. Grivas, D. S. Gill, and N. Vainos, “Low loss (0.5 dB/cm) Nd:Gd3Ga5O12 waveguide layers grown by pulsed laser deposition,” Opt. Commun. 144, 183-186 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Bonner, A. A. Anderson, R. W. Eason, D. P. Shepherd, D. S. Gill, C. Grivas, and N. Vainos, “Performance of a low-loss pulsed-laser-deposited Nd:Gd3Ga5O12 waveguide laser at 1.06 and 0.94 μm,” Opt. Lett. 22, 988-990 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chandler, P. J.

S. J. Field, D. C. Hanna, A. C. Tropper, D. P. Shepherd, P. J. Chandler, P. D. Townsend, and L. Zhang, “Ion-implanted Nd:GGG channel waveguide laser,” Opt. Lett. 17, 52-54(1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. J. Field, D. C. Hanna, A. C. Large, D. P. Shepherd, A. C. Tropper, P. J. Chandler, P. D. Townsend, and L. Zhang, “An efficient, diode-pumped, ion-implanted Nd:GGG planar waveguide laser,” Opt. Commun. 86, 161-166 (1991).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Field, D. C. Hanna, A. C. Large, D. P. Shepherd, A. C. Tropper, P. J. Chandler, P. D. Townsend, and L. Zhang, “Low threshold ion-implanted Nd:YAG channel waveguide laser,” Electron. Lett. 27, 2375-2376 (1991).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Chandler and F. L. Lama, “A new approach to the determination of planar waveguide profiles by means of a non-stationary mode index calculation,” Opt. Acta 33, 127-143(1986).
[CrossRef]

P. D. Townsend, P. J. Chandler, and L. Zhang, Optical Effects of Ion Implantation (Cambridge U. Press, 1994).
[CrossRef]

Chen, F.

F. Chen, Y. Tan, and D. Jaque, “Ion implanted optical channel waveguides in neodymium doped yttrium aluminum garnet transparent ceramics,” Opt. Lett. 34, 28-30 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. N. Dong, F. Chen, Y. Tan, and Y. X. Kong, “Proton-implanted optical channel waveguides in Nd3+:MgO:LiNbO3: fabrication, guiding properties, and luminescence investigation,” Appl. Phys. B 94, 283-287 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. X. Kong, F. Chen, D. Jaque, Q. M. Lu, and H. J. Ma, “Optical channel waveguide in Nd/Ce codoped YAG laser crystal produced by carbon ion implantation,” Appl. Opt. 48, 4514-4518(2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Jaque and F. Chen, “High resolution fluorescence imaging of damage regions in H+ ion implanted Nd:MgO:LiNbO3 channel waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 011109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Tan, F. Chen, X. L. Wang, K. M. Wang, and Q. M. Lu, “Optical channel waveguides in KTiOPO4 crystal produced by proton implantation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26, 1304-1308(2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Chen, Y. Tan, and A. Rodenas, “Ion implanted optical channel waveguides in Er3+/MgO co-doped near stoichiometric LiNbO3: a new candidate for active integrated photonic devices operating at 1.5 μm,” Opt. Express 16, 16209-16214(2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. X. Kong, F. Chen, D. Jaque, Y. Tan, N. N. Dong, Q. M. Lu, and H. J. Ma, “Low-dose O3+ ion implanted active optical planar waveguides in Nd:YAG crystals: guiding properties and micro-luminescence,” J. Phys. D 41, 175112 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Chen, X. L. Wang, and K. M. Wang, “Developments of ion implanted optical waveguides in optical materials: a review,” Opt. Mater. 29, 1523-1542 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Chen, H. Hu, F. Lei, B. R. Shi, J. H. Zhang, K. M. Wang, D. Y. Shen, and X. M. Wang, “Comparison between MeV Ni+ and He+ ion-implanted planar optical waveguides in quartz,” Opt. Commun. 190, 153-157 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, X.

Z. Jia, X. Tao, C. Dong, X. Cheng, W. Zhang, F. Xu, and M. Jiang, “Study on crystal growth of large size Nd3+:Gd3Ga5O12 (Nd3+:GGG) by Czochralski method,” J. Cryst. Growth 292, 386-390 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chikov, V. A.

N. V. Baburin, B. I. Galagan, Yu. K. Danileiko, N. N. Il'ichev, A. V. Masalov, V. Ya. Molchanov, and V. A. Chikov, “Two-frequency mode-locked lasing in a monoblock diode-pumped Nd3+:GGG laser,” Quantum Electron. 31, 303-304 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Danileiko, Yu. K.

N. V. Baburin, B. I. Galagan, Yu. K. Danileiko, N. N. Il'ichev, A. V. Masalov, V. Ya. Molchanov, and V. A. Chikov, “Two-frequency mode-locked lasing in a monoblock diode-pumped Nd3+:GGG laser,” Quantum Electron. 31, 303-304 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Darby, M. S. B.

M. S. B. Darby, T. C. May-Smith, and R. W. Eason, “Deposition and stoichiometry control of Nd-doped gadolinium gallium garnet thin films by combinatorial pulsed laser deposition using two targets of Nd:Gd3Ga5O12 and Ga2O3,” Appl. Phys. A 93, 477-481 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dong, C.

Z. Jia, X. Tao, C. Dong, X. Cheng, W. Zhang, F. Xu, and M. Jiang, “Study on crystal growth of large size Nd3+:Gd3Ga5O12 (Nd3+:GGG) by Czochralski method,” J. Cryst. Growth 292, 386-390 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dong, C. M.

L. J. Qin, D. Y. Tang, G. Q. Xie, C. M. Dong, Z. T. Jia, and X. T. Tao, “High-power continuous wave and passively Q-switched laser operations of a Nd:GGG crystal,” Laser Phys. Lett. 5, 100-103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dong, N. N.

N. N. Dong, F. Chen, Y. Tan, and Y. X. Kong, “Proton-implanted optical channel waveguides in Nd3+:MgO:LiNbO3: fabrication, guiding properties, and luminescence investigation,” Appl. Phys. B 94, 283-287 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. X. Kong, F. Chen, D. Jaque, Y. Tan, N. N. Dong, Q. M. Lu, and H. J. Ma, “Low-dose O3+ ion implanted active optical planar waveguides in Nd:YAG crystals: guiding properties and micro-luminescence,” J. Phys. D 41, 175112 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dötsch, H.

R. Gerhardt, J. Kleine-Börger, L. Beilschmidt, M. Frommeyer, H. Dötsch, and B. Gather, “Efficient channel-waveguide laser in Nd:GGG at 1.062 μm wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1210-1212 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Eason, R. W.

M. S. B. Darby, T. C. May-Smith, and R. W. Eason, “Deposition and stoichiometry control of Nd-doped gadolinium gallium garnet thin films by combinatorial pulsed laser deposition using two targets of Nd:Gd3Ga5O12 and Ga2O3,” Appl. Phys. A 93, 477-481 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. A. Vainos, C. Grivas, C. Fotakis, R. W. Eason, A. A. Anderson, D. S. Gill, D. P. Shepherd, M. Jelinek, J. Lancok, and J. Sonsky, “Planar laser waveguides of Ti:sapphire, Nd:GGG and Nd:YAG grown by pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 127-129, 514-519 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Bonner, A. A. Anderson, R. W. Eason, D. P. Shepherd, D. S. Gill, C. Grivas, and N. Vainos, “Performance of a low-loss pulsed-laser-deposited Nd:Gd3Ga5O12 waveguide laser at 1.06 and 0.94 μm,” Opt. Lett. 22, 988-990 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. A. Anderson, C. L. Bonner, D. P. Shepherd, R. W. Eason, C. Grivas, D. S. Gill, and N. Vainos, “Low loss (0.5 dB/cm) Nd:Gd3Ga5O12 waveguide layers grown by pulsed laser deposition,” Opt. Commun. 144, 183-186 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Gill, A. A. Anderson, R. W. Eason, T. J. Warburton, and D. P. Shepherd, “Laser operation of an Nd:Gd3Ga5O12 thin-film optical waveguide fabricated by pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 10-12 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Field, S. J.

S. J. Field, D. C. Hanna, A. C. Tropper, D. P. Shepherd, P. J. Chandler, P. D. Townsend, and L. Zhang, “Ion-implanted Nd:GGG channel waveguide laser,” Opt. Lett. 17, 52-54(1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. J. Field, D. C. Hanna, A. C. Large, D. P. Shepherd, A. C. Tropper, P. J. Chandler, P. D. Townsend, and L. Zhang, “An efficient, diode-pumped, ion-implanted Nd:GGG planar waveguide laser,” Opt. Commun. 86, 161-166 (1991).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Field, D. C. Hanna, A. C. Large, D. P. Shepherd, A. C. Tropper, P. J. Chandler, P. D. Townsend, and L. Zhang, “Low threshold ion-implanted Nd:YAG channel waveguide laser,” Electron. Lett. 27, 2375-2376 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Fotakis, C.

N. A. Vainos, C. Grivas, C. Fotakis, R. W. Eason, A. A. Anderson, D. S. Gill, D. P. Shepherd, M. Jelinek, J. Lancok, and J. Sonsky, “Planar laser waveguides of Ti:sapphire, Nd:GGG and Nd:YAG grown by pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 127-129, 514-519 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Frommeyer, M.

R. Gerhardt, J. Kleine-Börger, L. Beilschmidt, M. Frommeyer, H. Dötsch, and B. Gather, “Efficient channel-waveguide laser in Nd:GGG at 1.062 μm wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1210-1212 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Galagan, B. I.

N. V. Baburin, B. I. Galagan, Yu. K. Danileiko, N. N. Il'ichev, A. V. Masalov, V. Ya. Molchanov, and V. A. Chikov, “Two-frequency mode-locked lasing in a monoblock diode-pumped Nd3+:GGG laser,” Quantum Electron. 31, 303-304 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ganser, D.

J. Gottmann, L. Moiseev, D. Wortmann, I. Vasilief, L. Starovoytova, D. Ganser, and R. Wagner, “Laser deposition and structuring of laser active planar waveguides of Er:ZBLAN, Nd:YAG and Nd:GGG for integrated waveguide lasers,” Proc. SPIE 6459, 64590W (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gather, B.

R. Gerhardt, J. Kleine-Börger, L. Beilschmidt, M. Frommeyer, H. Dötsch, and B. Gather, “Efficient channel-waveguide laser in Nd:GGG at 1.062 μm wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1210-1212 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gerhardt, R.

R. Gerhardt, J. Kleine-Börger, L. Beilschmidt, M. Frommeyer, H. Dötsch, and B. Gather, “Efficient channel-waveguide laser in Nd:GGG at 1.062 μm wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1210-1212 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gill, D. S.

N. A. Vainos, C. Grivas, C. Fotakis, R. W. Eason, A. A. Anderson, D. S. Gill, D. P. Shepherd, M. Jelinek, J. Lancok, and J. Sonsky, “Planar laser waveguides of Ti:sapphire, Nd:GGG and Nd:YAG grown by pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 127-129, 514-519 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Bonner, A. A. Anderson, R. W. Eason, D. P. Shepherd, D. S. Gill, C. Grivas, and N. Vainos, “Performance of a low-loss pulsed-laser-deposited Nd:Gd3Ga5O12 waveguide laser at 1.06 and 0.94 μm,” Opt. Lett. 22, 988-990 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. A. Anderson, C. L. Bonner, D. P. Shepherd, R. W. Eason, C. Grivas, D. S. Gill, and N. Vainos, “Low loss (0.5 dB/cm) Nd:Gd3Ga5O12 waveguide layers grown by pulsed laser deposition,” Opt. Commun. 144, 183-186 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Gill, A. A. Anderson, R. W. Eason, T. J. Warburton, and D. P. Shepherd, “Laser operation of an Nd:Gd3Ga5O12 thin-film optical waveguide fabricated by pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 10-12 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Gottmann, J.

J. Gottmann, L. Moiseev, D. Wortmann, I. Vasilief, L. Starovoytova, D. Ganser, and R. Wagner, “Laser deposition and structuring of laser active planar waveguides of Er:ZBLAN, Nd:YAG and Nd:GGG for integrated waveguide lasers,” Proc. SPIE 6459, 64590W (2007).
[CrossRef]

Grabar, A. A.

Grivas, C.

N. A. Vainos, C. Grivas, C. Fotakis, R. W. Eason, A. A. Anderson, D. S. Gill, D. P. Shepherd, M. Jelinek, J. Lancok, and J. Sonsky, “Planar laser waveguides of Ti:sapphire, Nd:GGG and Nd:YAG grown by pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 127-129, 514-519 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Bonner, A. A. Anderson, R. W. Eason, D. P. Shepherd, D. S. Gill, C. Grivas, and N. Vainos, “Performance of a low-loss pulsed-laser-deposited Nd:Gd3Ga5O12 waveguide laser at 1.06 and 0.94 μm,” Opt. Lett. 22, 988-990 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. A. Anderson, C. L. Bonner, D. P. Shepherd, R. W. Eason, C. Grivas, D. S. Gill, and N. Vainos, “Low loss (0.5 dB/cm) Nd:Gd3Ga5O12 waveguide layers grown by pulsed laser deposition,” Opt. Commun. 144, 183-186 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Günter, P.

Hanna, D. C.

S. J. Field, D. C. Hanna, A. C. Tropper, D. P. Shepherd, P. J. Chandler, P. D. Townsend, and L. Zhang, “Ion-implanted Nd:GGG channel waveguide laser,” Opt. Lett. 17, 52-54(1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. J. Field, D. C. Hanna, A. C. Large, D. P. Shepherd, A. C. Tropper, P. J. Chandler, P. D. Townsend, and L. Zhang, “Low threshold ion-implanted Nd:YAG channel waveguide laser,” Electron. Lett. 27, 2375-2376 (1991).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Field, D. C. Hanna, A. C. Large, D. P. Shepherd, A. C. Tropper, P. J. Chandler, P. D. Townsend, and L. Zhang, “An efficient, diode-pumped, ion-implanted Nd:GGG planar waveguide laser,” Opt. Commun. 86, 161-166 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hu, H.

F. Chen, H. Hu, F. Lei, B. R. Shi, J. H. Zhang, K. M. Wang, D. Y. Shen, and X. M. Wang, “Comparison between MeV Ni+ and He+ ion-implanted planar optical waveguides in quartz,” Opt. Commun. 190, 153-157 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Il'ichev, N. N.

N. V. Baburin, B. I. Galagan, Yu. K. Danileiko, N. N. Il'ichev, A. V. Masalov, V. Ya. Molchanov, and V. A. Chikov, “Two-frequency mode-locked lasing in a monoblock diode-pumped Nd3+:GGG laser,” Quantum Electron. 31, 303-304 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jacquier, B.

P. Moretti, M. F. Joubert, S. Tascu, B. Jacquier, M. Kaczkan, M. Malinowskii, and J. Samecki, “Luminescence of Nd3+ in proton or helium-implanted channel waveguides in Nd:YAG crystals,” Opt. Mater. 24, 315-319 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jaque, D.

Y. X. Kong, F. Chen, D. Jaque, Q. M. Lu, and H. J. Ma, “Optical channel waveguide in Nd/Ce codoped YAG laser crystal produced by carbon ion implantation,” Appl. Opt. 48, 4514-4518(2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Chen, Y. Tan, and D. Jaque, “Ion implanted optical channel waveguides in neodymium doped yttrium aluminum garnet transparent ceramics,” Opt. Lett. 34, 28-30 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Jaque and F. Chen, “High resolution fluorescence imaging of damage regions in H+ ion implanted Nd:MgO:LiNbO3 channel waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 011109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. X. Kong, F. Chen, D. Jaque, Y. Tan, N. N. Dong, Q. M. Lu, and H. J. Ma, “Low-dose O3+ ion implanted active optical planar waveguides in Nd:YAG crystals: guiding properties and micro-luminescence,” J. Phys. D 41, 175112 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jazbinsek, M.

Jelinek, M.

N. A. Vainos, C. Grivas, C. Fotakis, R. W. Eason, A. A. Anderson, D. S. Gill, D. P. Shepherd, M. Jelinek, J. Lancok, and J. Sonsky, “Planar laser waveguides of Ti:sapphire, Nd:GGG and Nd:YAG grown by pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 127-129, 514-519 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Jia, Z.

Z. Jia, X. Tao, C. Dong, X. Cheng, W. Zhang, F. Xu, and M. Jiang, “Study on crystal growth of large size Nd3+:Gd3Ga5O12 (Nd3+:GGG) by Czochralski method,” J. Cryst. Growth 292, 386-390 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jia, Z. T.

L. J. Qin, D. Y. Tang, G. Q. Xie, C. M. Dong, Z. T. Jia, and X. T. Tao, “High-power continuous wave and passively Q-switched laser operations of a Nd:GGG crystal,” Laser Phys. Lett. 5, 100-103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, M.

Z. Jia, X. Tao, C. Dong, X. Cheng, W. Zhang, F. Xu, and M. Jiang, “Study on crystal growth of large size Nd3+:Gd3Ga5O12 (Nd3+:GGG) by Czochralski method,” J. Cryst. Growth 292, 386-390 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Joubert, M. F.

P. Moretti, M. F. Joubert, S. Tascu, B. Jacquier, M. Kaczkan, M. Malinowskii, and J. Samecki, “Luminescence of Nd3+ in proton or helium-implanted channel waveguides in Nd:YAG crystals,” Opt. Mater. 24, 315-319 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Juvalta, F.

Kaczkan, M.

P. Moretti, M. F. Joubert, S. Tascu, B. Jacquier, M. Kaczkan, M. Malinowskii, and J. Samecki, “Luminescence of Nd3+ in proton or helium-implanted channel waveguides in Nd:YAG crystals,” Opt. Mater. 24, 315-319 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kleine-Börger, J.

R. Gerhardt, J. Kleine-Börger, L. Beilschmidt, M. Frommeyer, H. Dötsch, and B. Gather, “Efficient channel-waveguide laser in Nd:GGG at 1.062 μm wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1210-1212 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kong, Y. X.

Y. X. Kong, F. Chen, D. Jaque, Q. M. Lu, and H. J. Ma, “Optical channel waveguide in Nd/Ce codoped YAG laser crystal produced by carbon ion implantation,” Appl. Opt. 48, 4514-4518(2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. N. Dong, F. Chen, Y. Tan, and Y. X. Kong, “Proton-implanted optical channel waveguides in Nd3+:MgO:LiNbO3: fabrication, guiding properties, and luminescence investigation,” Appl. Phys. B 94, 283-287 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. X. Kong, F. Chen, D. Jaque, Y. Tan, N. N. Dong, Q. M. Lu, and H. J. Ma, “Low-dose O3+ ion implanted active optical planar waveguides in Nd:YAG crystals: guiding properties and micro-luminescence,” J. Phys. D 41, 175112 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lama, F. L.

P. J. Chandler and F. L. Lama, “A new approach to the determination of planar waveguide profiles by means of a non-stationary mode index calculation,” Opt. Acta 33, 127-143(1986).
[CrossRef]

Lancok, J.

N. A. Vainos, C. Grivas, C. Fotakis, R. W. Eason, A. A. Anderson, D. S. Gill, D. P. Shepherd, M. Jelinek, J. Lancok, and J. Sonsky, “Planar laser waveguides of Ti:sapphire, Nd:GGG and Nd:YAG grown by pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 127-129, 514-519 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Large, A. C.

S. J. Field, D. C. Hanna, A. C. Large, D. P. Shepherd, A. C. Tropper, P. J. Chandler, P. D. Townsend, and L. Zhang, “Low threshold ion-implanted Nd:YAG channel waveguide laser,” Electron. Lett. 27, 2375-2376 (1991).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Field, D. C. Hanna, A. C. Large, D. P. Shepherd, A. C. Tropper, P. J. Chandler, P. D. Townsend, and L. Zhang, “An efficient, diode-pumped, ion-implanted Nd:GGG planar waveguide laser,” Opt. Commun. 86, 161-166 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Lei, F.

F. Chen, H. Hu, F. Lei, B. R. Shi, J. H. Zhang, K. M. Wang, D. Y. Shen, and X. M. Wang, “Comparison between MeV Ni+ and He+ ion-implanted planar optical waveguides in quartz,” Opt. Commun. 190, 153-157 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lu, Q. M.

Ma, H. J.

Y. X. Kong, F. Chen, D. Jaque, Q. M. Lu, and H. J. Ma, “Optical channel waveguide in Nd/Ce codoped YAG laser crystal produced by carbon ion implantation,” Appl. Opt. 48, 4514-4518(2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. X. Kong, F. Chen, D. Jaque, Y. Tan, N. N. Dong, Q. M. Lu, and H. J. Ma, “Low-dose O3+ ion implanted active optical planar waveguides in Nd:YAG crystals: guiding properties and micro-luminescence,” J. Phys. D 41, 175112 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Malinowskii, M.

P. Moretti, M. F. Joubert, S. Tascu, B. Jacquier, M. Kaczkan, M. Malinowskii, and J. Samecki, “Luminescence of Nd3+ in proton or helium-implanted channel waveguides in Nd:YAG crystals,” Opt. Mater. 24, 315-319 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Masalov, A. V.

N. V. Baburin, B. I. Galagan, Yu. K. Danileiko, N. N. Il'ichev, A. V. Masalov, V. Ya. Molchanov, and V. A. Chikov, “Two-frequency mode-locked lasing in a monoblock diode-pumped Nd3+:GGG laser,” Quantum Electron. 31, 303-304 (2001).
[CrossRef]

May-Smith, T. C.

M. S. B. Darby, T. C. May-Smith, and R. W. Eason, “Deposition and stoichiometry control of Nd-doped gadolinium gallium garnet thin films by combinatorial pulsed laser deposition using two targets of Nd:Gd3Ga5O12 and Ga2O3,” Appl. Phys. A 93, 477-481 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Moiseev, L.

J. Gottmann, L. Moiseev, D. Wortmann, I. Vasilief, L. Starovoytova, D. Ganser, and R. Wagner, “Laser deposition and structuring of laser active planar waveguides of Er:ZBLAN, Nd:YAG and Nd:GGG for integrated waveguide lasers,” Proc. SPIE 6459, 64590W (2007).
[CrossRef]

Molchanov, V. Ya.

N. V. Baburin, B. I. Galagan, Yu. K. Danileiko, N. N. Il'ichev, A. V. Masalov, V. Ya. Molchanov, and V. A. Chikov, “Two-frequency mode-locked lasing in a monoblock diode-pumped Nd3+:GGG laser,” Quantum Electron. 31, 303-304 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Moretti, P.

P. Moretti, M. F. Joubert, S. Tascu, B. Jacquier, M. Kaczkan, M. Malinowskii, and J. Samecki, “Luminescence of Nd3+ in proton or helium-implanted channel waveguides in Nd:YAG crystals,” Opt. Mater. 24, 315-319 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mosimann, R.

Qin, L. J.

L. J. Qin, D. Y. Tang, G. Q. Xie, C. M. Dong, Z. T. Jia, and X. T. Tao, “High-power continuous wave and passively Q-switched laser operations of a Nd:GGG crystal,” Laser Phys. Lett. 5, 100-103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Regener, R.

R. Regener and W. Sohler, “Loss in low-finesse Ti:LiNbO3optical waveguide resonators,” Appl. Phys. B 36, 143-147(1985).
[CrossRef]

Rodenas, A.

Samecki, J.

P. Moretti, M. F. Joubert, S. Tascu, B. Jacquier, M. Kaczkan, M. Malinowskii, and J. Samecki, “Luminescence of Nd3+ in proton or helium-implanted channel waveguides in Nd:YAG crystals,” Opt. Mater. 24, 315-319 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shen, D. Y.

F. Chen, H. Hu, F. Lei, B. R. Shi, J. H. Zhang, K. M. Wang, D. Y. Shen, and X. M. Wang, “Comparison between MeV Ni+ and He+ ion-implanted planar optical waveguides in quartz,” Opt. Commun. 190, 153-157 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Shepherd, D. P.

N. A. Vainos, C. Grivas, C. Fotakis, R. W. Eason, A. A. Anderson, D. S. Gill, D. P. Shepherd, M. Jelinek, J. Lancok, and J. Sonsky, “Planar laser waveguides of Ti:sapphire, Nd:GGG and Nd:YAG grown by pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 127-129, 514-519 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Bonner, A. A. Anderson, R. W. Eason, D. P. Shepherd, D. S. Gill, C. Grivas, and N. Vainos, “Performance of a low-loss pulsed-laser-deposited Nd:Gd3Ga5O12 waveguide laser at 1.06 and 0.94 μm,” Opt. Lett. 22, 988-990 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. A. Anderson, C. L. Bonner, D. P. Shepherd, R. W. Eason, C. Grivas, D. S. Gill, and N. Vainos, “Low loss (0.5 dB/cm) Nd:Gd3Ga5O12 waveguide layers grown by pulsed laser deposition,” Opt. Commun. 144, 183-186 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Gill, A. A. Anderson, R. W. Eason, T. J. Warburton, and D. P. Shepherd, “Laser operation of an Nd:Gd3Ga5O12 thin-film optical waveguide fabricated by pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 10-12 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Field, D. C. Hanna, A. C. Tropper, D. P. Shepherd, P. J. Chandler, P. D. Townsend, and L. Zhang, “Ion-implanted Nd:GGG channel waveguide laser,” Opt. Lett. 17, 52-54(1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. J. Field, D. C. Hanna, A. C. Large, D. P. Shepherd, A. C. Tropper, P. J. Chandler, P. D. Townsend, and L. Zhang, “Low threshold ion-implanted Nd:YAG channel waveguide laser,” Electron. Lett. 27, 2375-2376 (1991).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Field, D. C. Hanna, A. C. Large, D. P. Shepherd, A. C. Tropper, P. J. Chandler, P. D. Townsend, and L. Zhang, “An efficient, diode-pumped, ion-implanted Nd:GGG planar waveguide laser,” Opt. Commun. 86, 161-166 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Shi, B. R.

F. Chen, H. Hu, F. Lei, B. R. Shi, J. H. Zhang, K. M. Wang, D. Y. Shen, and X. M. Wang, “Comparison between MeV Ni+ and He+ ion-implanted planar optical waveguides in quartz,” Opt. Commun. 190, 153-157 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sohler, W.

R. Regener and W. Sohler, “Loss in low-finesse Ti:LiNbO3optical waveguide resonators,” Appl. Phys. B 36, 143-147(1985).
[CrossRef]

Sonsky, J.

N. A. Vainos, C. Grivas, C. Fotakis, R. W. Eason, A. A. Anderson, D. S. Gill, D. P. Shepherd, M. Jelinek, J. Lancok, and J. Sonsky, “Planar laser waveguides of Ti:sapphire, Nd:GGG and Nd:YAG grown by pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 127-129, 514-519 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Starovoytova, L.

J. Gottmann, L. Moiseev, D. Wortmann, I. Vasilief, L. Starovoytova, D. Ganser, and R. Wagner, “Laser deposition and structuring of laser active planar waveguides of Er:ZBLAN, Nd:YAG and Nd:GGG for integrated waveguide lasers,” Proc. SPIE 6459, 64590W (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tan, Y.

F. Chen, Y. Tan, and D. Jaque, “Ion implanted optical channel waveguides in neodymium doped yttrium aluminum garnet transparent ceramics,” Opt. Lett. 34, 28-30 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. N. Dong, F. Chen, Y. Tan, and Y. X. Kong, “Proton-implanted optical channel waveguides in Nd3+:MgO:LiNbO3: fabrication, guiding properties, and luminescence investigation,” Appl. Phys. B 94, 283-287 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Tan, F. Chen, X. L. Wang, K. M. Wang, and Q. M. Lu, “Optical channel waveguides in KTiOPO4 crystal produced by proton implantation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26, 1304-1308(2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Chen, Y. Tan, and A. Rodenas, “Ion implanted optical channel waveguides in Er3+/MgO co-doped near stoichiometric LiNbO3: a new candidate for active integrated photonic devices operating at 1.5 μm,” Opt. Express 16, 16209-16214(2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. X. Kong, F. Chen, D. Jaque, Y. Tan, N. N. Dong, Q. M. Lu, and H. J. Ma, “Low-dose O3+ ion implanted active optical planar waveguides in Nd:YAG crystals: guiding properties and micro-luminescence,” J. Phys. D 41, 175112 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tang, D. Y.

L. J. Qin, D. Y. Tang, G. Q. Xie, C. M. Dong, Z. T. Jia, and X. T. Tao, “High-power continuous wave and passively Q-switched laser operations of a Nd:GGG crystal,” Laser Phys. Lett. 5, 100-103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tao, X.

Z. Jia, X. Tao, C. Dong, X. Cheng, W. Zhang, F. Xu, and M. Jiang, “Study on crystal growth of large size Nd3+:Gd3Ga5O12 (Nd3+:GGG) by Czochralski method,” J. Cryst. Growth 292, 386-390 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tao, X. T.

L. J. Qin, D. Y. Tang, G. Q. Xie, C. M. Dong, Z. T. Jia, and X. T. Tao, “High-power continuous wave and passively Q-switched laser operations of a Nd:GGG crystal,” Laser Phys. Lett. 5, 100-103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tascu, S.

P. Moretti, M. F. Joubert, S. Tascu, B. Jacquier, M. Kaczkan, M. Malinowskii, and J. Samecki, “Luminescence of Nd3+ in proton or helium-implanted channel waveguides in Nd:YAG crystals,” Opt. Mater. 24, 315-319 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Townsend, P. D.

S. J. Field, D. C. Hanna, A. C. Tropper, D. P. Shepherd, P. J. Chandler, P. D. Townsend, and L. Zhang, “Ion-implanted Nd:GGG channel waveguide laser,” Opt. Lett. 17, 52-54(1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. J. Field, D. C. Hanna, A. C. Large, D. P. Shepherd, A. C. Tropper, P. J. Chandler, P. D. Townsend, and L. Zhang, “An efficient, diode-pumped, ion-implanted Nd:GGG planar waveguide laser,” Opt. Commun. 86, 161-166 (1991).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Field, D. C. Hanna, A. C. Large, D. P. Shepherd, A. C. Tropper, P. J. Chandler, P. D. Townsend, and L. Zhang, “Low threshold ion-implanted Nd:YAG channel waveguide laser,” Electron. Lett. 27, 2375-2376 (1991).
[CrossRef]

P. D. Townsend, P. J. Chandler, and L. Zhang, Optical Effects of Ion Implantation (Cambridge U. Press, 1994).
[CrossRef]

Tropper, A. C.

S. J. Field, D. C. Hanna, A. C. Tropper, D. P. Shepherd, P. J. Chandler, P. D. Townsend, and L. Zhang, “Ion-implanted Nd:GGG channel waveguide laser,” Opt. Lett. 17, 52-54(1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. J. Field, D. C. Hanna, A. C. Large, D. P. Shepherd, A. C. Tropper, P. J. Chandler, P. D. Townsend, and L. Zhang, “An efficient, diode-pumped, ion-implanted Nd:GGG planar waveguide laser,” Opt. Commun. 86, 161-166 (1991).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Field, D. C. Hanna, A. C. Large, D. P. Shepherd, A. C. Tropper, P. J. Chandler, P. D. Townsend, and L. Zhang, “Low threshold ion-implanted Nd:YAG channel waveguide laser,” Electron. Lett. 27, 2375-2376 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Vainos, N.

A. A. Anderson, C. L. Bonner, D. P. Shepherd, R. W. Eason, C. Grivas, D. S. Gill, and N. Vainos, “Low loss (0.5 dB/cm) Nd:Gd3Ga5O12 waveguide layers grown by pulsed laser deposition,” Opt. Commun. 144, 183-186 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Bonner, A. A. Anderson, R. W. Eason, D. P. Shepherd, D. S. Gill, C. Grivas, and N. Vainos, “Performance of a low-loss pulsed-laser-deposited Nd:Gd3Ga5O12 waveguide laser at 1.06 and 0.94 μm,” Opt. Lett. 22, 988-990 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vainos, N. A.

N. A. Vainos, C. Grivas, C. Fotakis, R. W. Eason, A. A. Anderson, D. S. Gill, D. P. Shepherd, M. Jelinek, J. Lancok, and J. Sonsky, “Planar laser waveguides of Ti:sapphire, Nd:GGG and Nd:YAG grown by pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 127-129, 514-519 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Vasilief, I.

J. Gottmann, L. Moiseev, D. Wortmann, I. Vasilief, L. Starovoytova, D. Ganser, and R. Wagner, “Laser deposition and structuring of laser active planar waveguides of Er:ZBLAN, Nd:YAG and Nd:GGG for integrated waveguide lasers,” Proc. SPIE 6459, 64590W (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wagner, R.

J. Gottmann, L. Moiseev, D. Wortmann, I. Vasilief, L. Starovoytova, D. Ganser, and R. Wagner, “Laser deposition and structuring of laser active planar waveguides of Er:ZBLAN, Nd:YAG and Nd:GGG for integrated waveguide lasers,” Proc. SPIE 6459, 64590W (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wang, K. M.

Y. Tan, F. Chen, X. L. Wang, K. M. Wang, and Q. M. Lu, “Optical channel waveguides in KTiOPO4 crystal produced by proton implantation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26, 1304-1308(2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Chen, X. L. Wang, and K. M. Wang, “Developments of ion implanted optical waveguides in optical materials: a review,” Opt. Mater. 29, 1523-1542 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Chen, H. Hu, F. Lei, B. R. Shi, J. H. Zhang, K. M. Wang, D. Y. Shen, and X. M. Wang, “Comparison between MeV Ni+ and He+ ion-implanted planar optical waveguides in quartz,” Opt. Commun. 190, 153-157 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L.-L.

L.-L. Wang and Y.-G. Yu, “Characterization of laser waveguides in Nd:CNGG crystals formed by low fluence carbon ion implantation,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 256, 2616-2619 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X. L.

Y. Tan, F. Chen, X. L. Wang, K. M. Wang, and Q. M. Lu, “Optical channel waveguides in KTiOPO4 crystal produced by proton implantation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26, 1304-1308(2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Chen, X. L. Wang, and K. M. Wang, “Developments of ion implanted optical waveguides in optical materials: a review,” Opt. Mater. 29, 1523-1542 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X. M.

F. Chen, H. Hu, F. Lei, B. R. Shi, J. H. Zhang, K. M. Wang, D. Y. Shen, and X. M. Wang, “Comparison between MeV Ni+ and He+ ion-implanted planar optical waveguides in quartz,” Opt. Commun. 190, 153-157 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Warburton, T. J.

D. S. Gill, A. A. Anderson, R. W. Eason, T. J. Warburton, and D. P. Shepherd, “Laser operation of an Nd:Gd3Ga5O12 thin-film optical waveguide fabricated by pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 10-12 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wortmann, D.

J. Gottmann, L. Moiseev, D. Wortmann, I. Vasilief, L. Starovoytova, D. Ganser, and R. Wagner, “Laser deposition and structuring of laser active planar waveguides of Er:ZBLAN, Nd:YAG and Nd:GGG for integrated waveguide lasers,” Proc. SPIE 6459, 64590W (2007).
[CrossRef]

Xie, G. Q.

L. J. Qin, D. Y. Tang, G. Q. Xie, C. M. Dong, Z. T. Jia, and X. T. Tao, “High-power continuous wave and passively Q-switched laser operations of a Nd:GGG crystal,” Laser Phys. Lett. 5, 100-103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Xu, F.

Z. Jia, X. Tao, C. Dong, X. Cheng, W. Zhang, F. Xu, and M. Jiang, “Study on crystal growth of large size Nd3+:Gd3Ga5O12 (Nd3+:GGG) by Czochralski method,” J. Cryst. Growth 292, 386-390 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yevick, D.

Yu, Y.-G.

L.-L. Wang and Y.-G. Yu, “Characterization of laser waveguides in Nd:CNGG crystals formed by low fluence carbon ion implantation,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 256, 2616-2619 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J. H.

F. Chen, H. Hu, F. Lei, B. R. Shi, J. H. Zhang, K. M. Wang, D. Y. Shen, and X. M. Wang, “Comparison between MeV Ni+ and He+ ion-implanted planar optical waveguides in quartz,” Opt. Commun. 190, 153-157 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L.

S. J. Field, D. C. Hanna, A. C. Tropper, D. P. Shepherd, P. J. Chandler, P. D. Townsend, and L. Zhang, “Ion-implanted Nd:GGG channel waveguide laser,” Opt. Lett. 17, 52-54(1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. J. Field, D. C. Hanna, A. C. Large, D. P. Shepherd, A. C. Tropper, P. J. Chandler, P. D. Townsend, and L. Zhang, “An efficient, diode-pumped, ion-implanted Nd:GGG planar waveguide laser,” Opt. Commun. 86, 161-166 (1991).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Field, D. C. Hanna, A. C. Large, D. P. Shepherd, A. C. Tropper, P. J. Chandler, P. D. Townsend, and L. Zhang, “Low threshold ion-implanted Nd:YAG channel waveguide laser,” Electron. Lett. 27, 2375-2376 (1991).
[CrossRef]

P. D. Townsend, P. J. Chandler, and L. Zhang, Optical Effects of Ion Implantation (Cambridge U. Press, 1994).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, W.

Z. Jia, X. Tao, C. Dong, X. Cheng, W. Zhang, F. Xu, and M. Jiang, “Study on crystal growth of large size Nd3+:Gd3Ga5O12 (Nd3+:GGG) by Czochralski method,” J. Cryst. Growth 292, 386-390 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ziegler, J. F.

J. F. Ziegler, computer code, http://www.srim.org.

Appl. Opt. (1)

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[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

D. Jaque and F. Chen, “High resolution fluorescence imaging of damage regions in H+ ion implanted Nd:MgO:LiNbO3 channel waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 011109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Gill, A. A. Anderson, R. W. Eason, T. J. Warburton, and D. P. Shepherd, “Laser operation of an Nd:Gd3Ga5O12 thin-film optical waveguide fabricated by pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 10-12 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. Gerhardt, J. Kleine-Börger, L. Beilschmidt, M. Frommeyer, H. Dötsch, and B. Gather, “Efficient channel-waveguide laser in Nd:GGG at 1.062 μm wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1210-1212 (1999).
[CrossRef]

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N. A. Vainos, C. Grivas, C. Fotakis, R. W. Eason, A. A. Anderson, D. S. Gill, D. P. Shepherd, M. Jelinek, J. Lancok, and J. Sonsky, “Planar laser waveguides of Ti:sapphire, Nd:GGG and Nd:YAG grown by pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 127-129, 514-519 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L.-L. Wang and Y.-G. Yu, “Characterization of laser waveguides in Nd:CNGG crystals formed by low fluence carbon ion implantation,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 256, 2616-2619 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

S. J. Field, D. C. Hanna, A. C. Large, D. P. Shepherd, A. C. Tropper, P. J. Chandler, P. D. Townsend, and L. Zhang, “Low threshold ion-implanted Nd:YAG channel waveguide laser,” Electron. Lett. 27, 2375-2376 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Cryst. Growth (1)

Z. Jia, X. Tao, C. Dong, X. Cheng, W. Zhang, F. Xu, and M. Jiang, “Study on crystal growth of large size Nd3+:Gd3Ga5O12 (Nd3+:GGG) by Czochralski method,” J. Cryst. Growth 292, 386-390 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Phys. D (1)

Y. X. Kong, F. Chen, D. Jaque, Y. Tan, N. N. Dong, Q. M. Lu, and H. J. Ma, “Low-dose O3+ ion implanted active optical planar waveguides in Nd:YAG crystals: guiding properties and micro-luminescence,” J. Phys. D 41, 175112 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Laser Phys. Lett. (1)

L. J. Qin, D. Y. Tang, G. Q. Xie, C. M. Dong, Z. T. Jia, and X. T. Tao, “High-power continuous wave and passively Q-switched laser operations of a Nd:GGG crystal,” Laser Phys. Lett. 5, 100-103 (2008).
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[CrossRef]

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S. J. Field, D. C. Hanna, A. C. Large, D. P. Shepherd, A. C. Tropper, P. J. Chandler, P. D. Townsend, and L. Zhang, “An efficient, diode-pumped, ion-implanted Nd:GGG planar waveguide laser,” Opt. Commun. 86, 161-166 (1991).
[CrossRef]

F. Chen, H. Hu, F. Lei, B. R. Shi, J. H. Zhang, K. M. Wang, D. Y. Shen, and X. M. Wang, “Comparison between MeV Ni+ and He+ ion-implanted planar optical waveguides in quartz,” Opt. Commun. 190, 153-157 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Anderson, C. L. Bonner, D. P. Shepherd, R. W. Eason, C. Grivas, D. S. Gill, and N. Vainos, “Low loss (0.5 dB/cm) Nd:Gd3Ga5O12 waveguide layers grown by pulsed laser deposition,” Opt. Commun. 144, 183-186 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Opt. Mater. (2)

F. Chen, X. L. Wang, and K. M. Wang, “Developments of ion implanted optical waveguides in optical materials: a review,” Opt. Mater. 29, 1523-1542 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Moretti, M. F. Joubert, S. Tascu, B. Jacquier, M. Kaczkan, M. Malinowskii, and J. Samecki, “Luminescence of Nd3+ in proton or helium-implanted channel waveguides in Nd:YAG crystals,” Opt. Mater. 24, 315-319 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

J. Gottmann, L. Moiseev, D. Wortmann, I. Vasilief, L. Starovoytova, D. Ganser, and R. Wagner, “Laser deposition and structuring of laser active planar waveguides of Er:ZBLAN, Nd:YAG and Nd:GGG for integrated waveguide lasers,” Proc. SPIE 6459, 64590W (2007).
[CrossRef]

Quantum Electron. (1)

N. V. Baburin, B. I. Galagan, Yu. K. Danileiko, N. N. Il'ichev, A. V. Masalov, V. Ya. Molchanov, and V. A. Chikov, “Two-frequency mode-locked lasing in a monoblock diode-pumped Nd3+:GGG laser,” Quantum Electron. 31, 303-304 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

P. D. Townsend, P. J. Chandler, and L. Zhang, Optical Effects of Ion Implantation (Cambridge U. Press, 1994).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Ziegler, computer code, http://www.srim.org.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Dark-mode spectra of the TM modes for the (a)  H + and (b)  C 3 + ion-implanted waveguides in Nd:GGG crystals. The dashed lines show the refractive indices of the substrates.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Refractive index profiles of the H + -ion- implanted Nd:GGG planar waveguide (solid curve) and the C 3 + -ion-implanted Nd:GGG waveguide (dashed curve).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) 2D refractive index profile, (b) calculated modal profile, and (c) measured near-field intensity distributions of the TM modes for the H + -ion-implanted Nd:GGG channel waveguides.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) 2D refractive index profile, (b) calculated modal profile, and (c) measured near-field intensity distributions of the TM modes for the Nd:GGG channel waveguides produced by C 3 + ion implantation.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Relative atom displacement of the original lattice versus penetration depth of ions in Nd:GGG induced by the triple H + ion implantation at total fluences of 8 × 10 16   ions / cm 2 (solid curve) and 6 MeV C 3 + ion irradiation at 6 × 10 14   ions / cm 2 (dashed curve).

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Propagation Loss of the Channel Waveguides in Nd:GGG Crystals Produced by H or C Ion Implantation under Diverse Treatments

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