Abstract

Tongue fissures, an important feature on the tongue surface, may be pathologically related to some diseases. Most existing tongue fissure extraction methods use tongue images captured by traditional charge coupled device cameras. However, these conventional methods cannot be used for an accurate analysis of the tongue surface due to limited information from the images. To solve this, a hyperspectral tongue imager is used to capture tongue images instead of a digital camera. New algorithms for automatic tongue fissure extraction and classification, based on hyperspectral images, are presented. Both spectral and spatial information of the tongue surface is used to segment the tongue body and extract tongue fissures. Then a classification algorithm based on a hidden Markov model is used to classify tongue fissures into 12 typical categories. Results of the experiment show that the new method has good performance in terms of the classification rates of correctness.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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2009 (2)

O. B. Ozgursoy, S. K. Ozgursoy, O. Tulunay, O. Kemal, A. Akyol, and G. Dursun, “Melkersson-Rosenthal syndrome revisited as a misdiagnosed disease,” Am. J. Otol. 30, 33-37 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Q. L. Li and Z. Liu, “Tongue color analysis and discrimination based on hyperspectral images,” Comput. Med. Imaging Graphics 33, 217-221 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

Q. L. Li, Y. Q. Xue, and Z. Liu, “A novel system for tongue inspection based on hyperspectral imaging system,” J. Biomed. Eng. 25, 368-371 (2008).

2007 (8)

Z. Liu, D. Zhang, J. Q. Yan, Q. L. Li, and Q. L. Tang, “Classification of hyperspectral medical tongue images for tongue diagnosis,” Comput. Med. Imaging Graphics 31, 311 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. Thakoor, J. Gao, and S. Jung, “Hidden Markov model-based weighted likelihood discriminant for 2-D shape classification,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 16, 2707-2719 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Lukmana, Y. Heb, and S.-C. Huic, “Computational methods for traditional Chinese medicine: a survey,” Comput. Meth. Prog. Biomed. 88, 283-294 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. G. Wang, J. Yang, and Y. Zhou, “Region partition and feature matching based color recognition of tongue image,” Patt. Recogn. Lett. 28, 11-19 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Q. L. Li, Y. Q. Xue, and J. Y. Wang, “Automated tongue segmentation algorithm based on hyperspectral image,” J. Infrared Millim. Waves 26, 77-80 (2007).

Z. Liu, J. Q. Yan, D. Zhang, and Q. L. Li, “Automated tongue segmentation in hyperspectral images for medicine,” Appl. Opt. 46, 8328-8334 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Liu, D. Zhang, and J. You, “Detecting wide lines using isotropic nonlinear filtering,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 16, 1584-1595 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. W. Grushka, V. Ching, and S. Polak, “Retrospective study: prevalence of geographic and fissured tongue in patients with burning mouth syndrome,” Oral Surg. Oral Med. Oral Pathol. Oral Radiol. Endo. 103, 789 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

M. A. Scheper, N. G. Nikitakis, E. Sarlani, J. J. Sauk, and T. F. Meiller, “Cowden syndrome: report of a case with immunohistochemical analysis and review of the literature,” Oral Surg. Oral Med. Oral Pathol. Oral Radiol. Endo. 101, 625-631 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Zheng, J. Yang, Y. Zhou, and Y. Z. Wang, “Color-texture based unsupervised segmentation using JSEG with fuzzy connectedness,” J. Syst. Eng. Electron. 17, 213-219 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, W. Zuo, K. Wang, and D. Zhang, “A snake-based approach to automated segmentation of tongue image using polar edge detector,” Int. J. Imaging Syst. Technol. 16, 103-112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

B. Pang, D. Zhang, and K. Q. Wang, “The bi-elliptical deformable contour and its application to automated tongue segmentation in Chinese medicine,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 24, 946-956 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. Pang, Z. David, and K. Q. Wang, “Tongue image analysis for appendicitis diagnosis,” Inf. Sci. 175, 160-176 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (4)

B. L. Pham and Y. Cai, “Visualization techniques for tongue analysis in traditional Chinese medicine,” Proc. SPIE 5367, 171-180 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. Pang, D. Zhang, and N. M. Li, “Computerized tongue diagnosis based on Bayesian networks,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 51, 1803-1810 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Vo-Dinh, D. L. Stokes, M. B. Wabuyele, M. E. Martin, J. M. Song, R. Jagannathan, E. Michaud, R. J. Lee, and X. G. Pan, “A hyperspectral imaging system for in vivo optical diagnosis,” IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Mag. 23, 40-49 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Bicego and V. Murino, “Investigating hidden Markov models' capabilities in 2-D shape classification,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Machine Intell. 26, 281-286 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

L. Shen, B. Wei, Y. Cai, X. Zhang, Y. Wang, J. Chen, and L. Kong, “Image analysis for tongue characterization,” Chinese J. Electron. 12, 317-323 (2003).

2002 (3)

Y. Zhou, L. Shen, and J. Yang, “Feature analysis method of tongue image by Chinese medical diagnosis based on image processing,” Infra. Laser Eng. 31, 490-494 (2002).

C. H. Li and P. C. Yuen, “Tongue image matching using color content,” Patt. Recogn. 35, 407-419 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Z. Somosy, G. Bognar, G. Thuroczy, and G. J. Koteles, “Biological responses of tight junction to ionizing radiation and electromagnetic field exposition,” Cell. Mol. Biol. (Oxford) 48, 571-575 (2002).

2001 (2)

S. Wang, P. Wang, and H. Wang, “Tongue texture and hepatocirrhosis,” J. Gansu College of TCM 18, 36-38 (2001).

J. Cai and Z.-Q. Liu, “Hidden Markov models with spectral features for 2-D shape recognition,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Machine Intell. 23, 1454-1458 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (4)

C.-C. Chiu, “A novel approach based on computerized image analysis for traditional Chinese medical diagnosis of the tongue,” Comput. Meth. Prog. Biomed. 61, 77-89 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C.-C. Chiu, H.-H. Chang, and C.-H. Yang, “Objective auscultation for traditional Chinese medical diagnosis using novel acoustic parameters,” Comput. Meth. Prog. Biomed. 62, 99-107 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. Ren and C. Chang, “Target-constrained interference-minimized approach to subpixel target detection for hyperspectral images,” Opt. Eng. 39, 3138-3145 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Guggenheimer, P. A. Moore, K. Rossie, D. Myers, M. B. Mongelluzzo, H. M. Block, R. Weyant, and T. Orchard, “Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and oral soft tissue pathologies. I. prevalence and characteristics of non-candidal lesions,” Oral Surg. Oral Med. Oral Pathol. Oral Radiol. Endo. 89, 563-569 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

R. L. Ornberg, B. M. Woerner, and D. A. Edwards, “Analysis of stained objects in histological sections by spectral imaging and differential absorption,” J. Histochem. Cytochem. 47, 1307-1331 (1999).

1998 (1)

S. Katagiri, B.-H. Juang, and C.-H. Lee, “Pattern recognition using a family of design algorithms based upon the generalized probabilistic descent method,” Proc. IEEE 86, 2345-2373 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

I. v. d. Waal, K. P. Schepman, E. H. v. d. Meij, and L. E. Smeele, “Oral leukoplakia: a clinicopathological review,” Oral Oncol. 33, 291-301 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

J. L. Jackel, M. S. Goodman, J. E. Baran, W. J. Tomlinson, G. K. Chang, M. Z. Iqbal, G. H. Song, K. Bala, C. A. Brackett, D. A. Smith, R. S. Chakravarthy, R. H. Hobbs, D. J. Fritz, R. W. Ade, and K. M. Kissa, “Acousto-optic tunable filters (AOTFs) for multiwavelength optical cross-connects: crosstalk considerations,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 1056-1066 (1996),
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

Y. He and A. Kundu, “2-D shape classification using hidden markov model,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Machine Intell. 13, 1172-1184 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

K. B. Avraham, M. Schickler, D. Sapoznikov, R. Yarom, and Y. Groner, “Down's syndrome: Abnormal neuromuscular junction in tongue of transgenic mice with elevated levels of human Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase,” Cell 54, 823-829 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

A. Kullaa-Mikkonen, I. Penttilä, R. Kotilainen, and E. Puhakainen, “Haematological and immunological features of patients with fissured tongue syndrome,” Br. J. Oral Maxillofac. Surg. 25, 481-487 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Ade, R. W.

J. L. Jackel, M. S. Goodman, J. E. Baran, W. J. Tomlinson, G. K. Chang, M. Z. Iqbal, G. H. Song, K. Bala, C. A. Brackett, D. A. Smith, R. S. Chakravarthy, R. H. Hobbs, D. J. Fritz, R. W. Ade, and K. M. Kissa, “Acousto-optic tunable filters (AOTFs) for multiwavelength optical cross-connects: crosstalk considerations,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 1056-1066 (1996),
[CrossRef]

Akyol, A.

O. B. Ozgursoy, S. K. Ozgursoy, O. Tulunay, O. Kemal, A. Akyol, and G. Dursun, “Melkersson-Rosenthal syndrome revisited as a misdiagnosed disease,” Am. J. Otol. 30, 33-37 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Avraham, K. B.

K. B. Avraham, M. Schickler, D. Sapoznikov, R. Yarom, and Y. Groner, “Down's syndrome: Abnormal neuromuscular junction in tongue of transgenic mice with elevated levels of human Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase,” Cell 54, 823-829 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Bala, K.

J. L. Jackel, M. S. Goodman, J. E. Baran, W. J. Tomlinson, G. K. Chang, M. Z. Iqbal, G. H. Song, K. Bala, C. A. Brackett, D. A. Smith, R. S. Chakravarthy, R. H. Hobbs, D. J. Fritz, R. W. Ade, and K. M. Kissa, “Acousto-optic tunable filters (AOTFs) for multiwavelength optical cross-connects: crosstalk considerations,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 1056-1066 (1996),
[CrossRef]

Ballard, D. H.

D. H. Ballard and C. M. Brown, Computer Vision (Prentice Hall, 1982).

Baran, J. E.

J. L. Jackel, M. S. Goodman, J. E. Baran, W. J. Tomlinson, G. K. Chang, M. Z. Iqbal, G. H. Song, K. Bala, C. A. Brackett, D. A. Smith, R. S. Chakravarthy, R. H. Hobbs, D. J. Fritz, R. W. Ade, and K. M. Kissa, “Acousto-optic tunable filters (AOTFs) for multiwavelength optical cross-connects: crosstalk considerations,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 1056-1066 (1996),
[CrossRef]

Bicego, M.

M. Bicego and V. Murino, “Investigating hidden Markov models' capabilities in 2-D shape classification,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Machine Intell. 26, 281-286 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Block, H. M.

J. Guggenheimer, P. A. Moore, K. Rossie, D. Myers, M. B. Mongelluzzo, H. M. Block, R. Weyant, and T. Orchard, “Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and oral soft tissue pathologies. I. prevalence and characteristics of non-candidal lesions,” Oral Surg. Oral Med. Oral Pathol. Oral Radiol. Endo. 89, 563-569 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bognar, G.

Z. Somosy, G. Bognar, G. Thuroczy, and G. J. Koteles, “Biological responses of tight junction to ionizing radiation and electromagnetic field exposition,” Cell. Mol. Biol. (Oxford) 48, 571-575 (2002).

Brackett, C. A.

J. L. Jackel, M. S. Goodman, J. E. Baran, W. J. Tomlinson, G. K. Chang, M. Z. Iqbal, G. H. Song, K. Bala, C. A. Brackett, D. A. Smith, R. S. Chakravarthy, R. H. Hobbs, D. J. Fritz, R. W. Ade, and K. M. Kissa, “Acousto-optic tunable filters (AOTFs) for multiwavelength optical cross-connects: crosstalk considerations,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 1056-1066 (1996),
[CrossRef]

Brown, C. M.

D. H. Ballard and C. M. Brown, Computer Vision (Prentice Hall, 1982).

Bruzzone, L.

F. Melgani and L. Bruzzone, “Support vector machines for classification of hyperspectral remote-sensing images,” in Proceedings of the Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, 2002, IGARSS'02 (2002), pp. 24-28.

Cai, J.

J. Cai and Z.-Q. Liu, “Hidden Markov models with spectral features for 2-D shape recognition,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Machine Intell. 23, 1454-1458 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Cai, Y.

B. L. Pham and Y. Cai, “Visualization techniques for tongue analysis in traditional Chinese medicine,” Proc. SPIE 5367, 171-180 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. Shen, B. Wei, Y. Cai, X. Zhang, Y. Wang, J. Chen, and L. Kong, “Image analysis for tongue characterization,” Chinese J. Electron. 12, 317-323 (2003).

Chakravarthy, R. S.

J. L. Jackel, M. S. Goodman, J. E. Baran, W. J. Tomlinson, G. K. Chang, M. Z. Iqbal, G. H. Song, K. Bala, C. A. Brackett, D. A. Smith, R. S. Chakravarthy, R. H. Hobbs, D. J. Fritz, R. W. Ade, and K. M. Kissa, “Acousto-optic tunable filters (AOTFs) for multiwavelength optical cross-connects: crosstalk considerations,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 1056-1066 (1996),
[CrossRef]

Chang, C.

H. Ren and C. Chang, “Target-constrained interference-minimized approach to subpixel target detection for hyperspectral images,” Opt. Eng. 39, 3138-3145 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chang, G. K.

J. L. Jackel, M. S. Goodman, J. E. Baran, W. J. Tomlinson, G. K. Chang, M. Z. Iqbal, G. H. Song, K. Bala, C. A. Brackett, D. A. Smith, R. S. Chakravarthy, R. H. Hobbs, D. J. Fritz, R. W. Ade, and K. M. Kissa, “Acousto-optic tunable filters (AOTFs) for multiwavelength optical cross-connects: crosstalk considerations,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 1056-1066 (1996),
[CrossRef]

Chang, H.-H.

C.-C. Chiu, H.-H. Chang, and C.-H. Yang, “Objective auscultation for traditional Chinese medical diagnosis using novel acoustic parameters,” Comput. Meth. Prog. Biomed. 62, 99-107 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J.

L. Shen, B. Wei, Y. Cai, X. Zhang, Y. Wang, J. Chen, and L. Kong, “Image analysis for tongue characterization,” Chinese J. Electron. 12, 317-323 (2003).

Ching, V.

M. W. Grushka, V. Ching, and S. Polak, “Retrospective study: prevalence of geographic and fissured tongue in patients with burning mouth syndrome,” Oral Surg. Oral Med. Oral Pathol. Oral Radiol. Endo. 103, 789 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chiu, C.-C.

C.-C. Chiu, H.-H. Chang, and C.-H. Yang, “Objective auscultation for traditional Chinese medical diagnosis using novel acoustic parameters,” Comput. Meth. Prog. Biomed. 62, 99-107 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C.-C. Chiu, “A novel approach based on computerized image analysis for traditional Chinese medical diagnosis of the tongue,” Comput. Meth. Prog. Biomed. 61, 77-89 (2000).
[CrossRef]

David, Z.

B. Pang, Z. David, and K. Q. Wang, “Tongue image analysis for appendicitis diagnosis,” Inf. Sci. 175, 160-176 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Q. Wang, Z. David, and N. M. Li, Tongue Diagnosis Based on Biometric Pattern Recognition Technology (World Scientific, 2001).

Dursun, G.

O. B. Ozgursoy, S. K. Ozgursoy, O. Tulunay, O. Kemal, A. Akyol, and G. Dursun, “Melkersson-Rosenthal syndrome revisited as a misdiagnosed disease,” Am. J. Otol. 30, 33-37 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Edwards, D. A.

R. L. Ornberg, B. M. Woerner, and D. A. Edwards, “Analysis of stained objects in histological sections by spectral imaging and differential absorption,” J. Histochem. Cytochem. 47, 1307-1331 (1999).

Fritz, D. J.

J. L. Jackel, M. S. Goodman, J. E. Baran, W. J. Tomlinson, G. K. Chang, M. Z. Iqbal, G. H. Song, K. Bala, C. A. Brackett, D. A. Smith, R. S. Chakravarthy, R. H. Hobbs, D. J. Fritz, R. W. Ade, and K. M. Kissa, “Acousto-optic tunable filters (AOTFs) for multiwavelength optical cross-connects: crosstalk considerations,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 1056-1066 (1996),
[CrossRef]

Gao, J.

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Z. Somosy, G. Bognar, G. Thuroczy, and G. J. Koteles, “Biological responses of tight junction to ionizing radiation and electromagnetic field exposition,” Cell. Mol. Biol. (Oxford) 48, 571-575 (2002).

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J. L. Jackel, M. S. Goodman, J. E. Baran, W. J. Tomlinson, G. K. Chang, M. Z. Iqbal, G. H. Song, K. Bala, C. A. Brackett, D. A. Smith, R. S. Chakravarthy, R. H. Hobbs, D. J. Fritz, R. W. Ade, and K. M. Kissa, “Acousto-optic tunable filters (AOTFs) for multiwavelength optical cross-connects: crosstalk considerations,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 1056-1066 (1996),
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T. Vo-Dinh, D. L. Stokes, M. B. Wabuyele, M. E. Martin, J. M. Song, R. Jagannathan, E. Michaud, R. J. Lee, and X. G. Pan, “A hyperspectral imaging system for in vivo optical diagnosis,” IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Mag. 23, 40-49 (2004).
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J. L. Jackel, M. S. Goodman, J. E. Baran, W. J. Tomlinson, G. K. Chang, M. Z. Iqbal, G. H. Song, K. Bala, C. A. Brackett, D. A. Smith, R. S. Chakravarthy, R. H. Hobbs, D. J. Fritz, R. W. Ade, and K. M. Kissa, “Acousto-optic tunable filters (AOTFs) for multiwavelength optical cross-connects: crosstalk considerations,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 1056-1066 (1996),
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T. Vo-Dinh, D. L. Stokes, M. B. Wabuyele, M. E. Martin, J. M. Song, R. Jagannathan, E. Michaud, R. J. Lee, and X. G. Pan, “A hyperspectral imaging system for in vivo optical diagnosis,” IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Mag. 23, 40-49 (2004).
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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Typical tongue fissures.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Tongue fissure extraction scheme: (a) hyperspectral tongue images, (b) segmented tongue body image cube, (c) single-band image of (b), (d) gradient image with tongue fissure seed, and (e) tongue fissure image obtained by postprocessing.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Tongue fissure extraction results: (a)–(f) gray images composed by single-band images at 435, 545, and 630 nm , (g)–(l)  extraction results by the hyperspectral-based method, and (m)–(r) extraction results using the improved WLD algorithm.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Comparisons of Performance of the CCD-Based Method and the Hyperspectral-Based Method

Tables Icon

Table 2 Fissure Classification Results and Rate of Correctness for Each Category

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

S = [ s 1 , s 2 , s N ] T ,
B = [ b 1 , b 2 , , b N ] T ,
[ S B ] T W = [ 1 0 ] ,
W = R N × N 1 [ S B ] ( [ S B ] T R N × N 1 [ S B ] ) 1 [ 1 0 ] ,
F ( x ) = W x = R N × N 1 [ S B ] ( [ S B ] T R N × N 1 [ S B ] ) 1 [ 1 0 ] x .
T P R = # T P / # C G T F P R = # F P / # B G T ,
T P = C T D C G T F P = C T D B G T ,

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