Abstract

Matched filtering is a robust technique to identify and locate objects in the presence of noise. Traditionally, the amplitude of the correlation peak is used for detection of a match. However, when distinguishing objects that are not significantly different or detecting objects under high noise imaging conditions, the normalized peak amplitude alone may not provide sufficient discrimination. In this paper, we demonstrate that measurements derived from the shape of the correlation peak offer not only higher levels of discrimination but also accurate position estimation. To our knowledge, this is the first time such features have been used in a real-time system, like the National Ignition Facility, where such techniques enable real-time, accurate position estimation and alignment under challenging imaging conditions. It is envisioned that systems utilizing matched filtering will greatly benefit from incorporating additional shape based information.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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References

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  2. R. A. Zacharias, N. R. Beer, E. S. Bliss, S. C. Burkhart, S. J. Cohen, S. B. Sutton, R. L. Van Atta, S. E. Winters, J. T. Salmon, M. R. Latta, C. J. Stolz, D. C. Pigg, and T. J. Arnold, “Alignment and wavefront control systems of the National Ignition Facility,” Opt. Eng. 43, 2873-2884 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  6. A. A. S. Awwal, J. V. Candy, C. A. Haynam, C. C. Widmayer, E. S. Bliss, and S. C. Burkhart, “Accurate position sensing of defocused beams using simulated beam templates,” Proc. SPIE 5556, pp. 233-242 (2004).
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    [CrossRef]
  9. A. A. S. AwwalKenneth L. Rice and Tarek M. Taha, “Fast implementation of matched-filter-based automatic alignment image processing,” Opt. Laser Technol. 41, 193-197 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. A. S. Awwal, Wilbert A. McClay, Walter S. Ferguson, James V. Candy, Thad Salmon, and Paul Wegner, “Detection and tracking of the back-reflection of KDP images in the presence or absence of a phase mask,” Appl. Opt. 45, 3038-3048 (2006).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  17. B. V. K. V. Kumar, F. M. Dickey, and J. M. Delaurentis, “Correlation filters minimizing peak location errors,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 9, 678-682 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. A. A. S. Awwal, K. L. Rice, and T. M. Taha, “Hardware accelerated optical alignment of lasers using beam-specific matched-filters,” Appl. Opt. 48, 5190-5196 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  24. P. C. Miller and R. S. Carpari, “Demonstration of improved automatic target-recognition performances by moment analysis of correlation peaks,” Appl. Opt. 38, 1325-1331 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  25. A. Mahalanobis and D. P. Casasent, “Performance evaluation of minimum average correlation energy filters,” Appl. Opt. 30, 561-572 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. P. Refregier, B. Javidi, and G. Zhang, “Minimum mean-square-error filter for pattern recognition with spatially disjoint signal and scene noise,” Opt. Lett. 18, 1453-1455 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. F. Goudail and P. Refregier, “Optimal and suboptimal detection of target with random grey levels imbedded in non-overlapping noise,” Opt. Commun. 125, 211-216 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  28. A. Mahalanobis and B. V. K. V. Kumar, “Optimality of the maximum average correlation height filters for detection of targets in noise,” Opt. Eng. 36, 2642-2648 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  29. R. A. Kerekes and B. V. K. V. Kumar, “Selecting a composite correlation filter design: a survey and comparative study,” Opt. Eng. 47, 067202 (2008)
    [CrossRef]
  30. H. L. Van Trees, Detection, Estimation, and Modulation Theory, Part I (Wiley, 2001).

2009 (2)

A. A. S. AwwalKenneth L. Rice and Tarek M. Taha, “Fast implementation of matched-filter-based automatic alignment image processing,” Opt. Laser Technol. 41, 193-197 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. A. S. Awwal, K. L. Rice, and T. M. Taha, “Hardware accelerated optical alignment of lasers using beam-specific matched-filters,” Appl. Opt. 48, 5190-5196 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

E. I. Moses, “Overview of the National Ignition Facility,” Fusion Sci. Technol. 54, 361-366 (2008).

R. A. Kerekes and B. V. K. V. Kumar, “Selecting a composite correlation filter design: a survey and comparative study,” Opt. Eng. 47, 067202 (2008)
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

2006 (2)

2004 (4)

W. A. McClay III, A. A. S. Awwal, S. C. Burkhart, and J. V. Candy, “Optimization and improvement of FOA corner cube algorithm,” Proc. SPIE 5556, 227-232 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. A. S. Awwal, J. V. Candy, C. A. Haynam, C. C. Widmayer, E. S. Bliss, and S. C. Burkhart, “Accurate position sensing of defocused beams using simulated beam templates,” Proc. SPIE 5556, pp. 233-242 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. A. S. Awwal, “Automatic identification of templates in matched filtering,” Proc. SPIE 5556, 102-109 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Zacharias, N. R. Beer, E. S. Bliss, S. C. Burkhart, S. J. Cohen, S. B. Sutton, R. L. Van Atta, S. E. Winters, J. T. Salmon, M. R. Latta, C. J. Stolz, D. C. Pigg, and T. J. Arnold, “Alignment and wavefront control systems of the National Ignition Facility,” Opt. Eng. 43, 2873-2884 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

2002 (1)

S. Chang and C. P. Grover, “Centroid detection based on optical correlation,” Opt. Eng. 41, 2479-2486 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

1997 (1)

A. Mahalanobis and B. V. K. V. Kumar, “Optimality of the maximum average correlation height filters for detection of targets in noise,” Opt. Eng. 36, 2642-2648 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (4)

K. M. Iftekharuddin, M. A. Karim, and A. A. S. Awwal, “Optimization of amplitude modulated inverse filter,” Math. Comput. Model. 24, 103-112 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Iftekharuddin, M. A. Karim, P. W. Eloe, and A. A. S. Awwal, “Discretized amplitude-modulated phase-only filter,” Opt. Laser Technol. 28, 93-100 (1996).
[CrossRef]

F. Goudail and P. Refregier, “Optimal and suboptimal detection of target with random grey levels imbedded in non-overlapping noise,” Opt. Commun. 125, 211-216 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. Wolf, B. Gutman, H. Weber, J. Ferre-Borrull, S. Bosch, and S. Vallmitjana, “Application of fuzzy-rule-based postprocessing to correlation methods in pattern recognition,” Appl. Opt. 35, 6955-6963 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

1992 (1)

1991 (1)

1990 (2)

1985 (1)

1964 (1)

A. VanderLugt, “Signal detection by complex spatial filtering,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 10, 139-145 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Arnold, T. J.

R. A. Zacharias, N. R. Beer, E. S. Bliss, S. C. Burkhart, S. J. Cohen, S. B. Sutton, R. L. Van Atta, S. E. Winters, J. T. Salmon, M. R. Latta, C. J. Stolz, D. C. Pigg, and T. J. Arnold, “Alignment and wavefront control systems of the National Ignition Facility,” Opt. Eng. 43, 2873-2884 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Auerbach, J. M.

Awwal, A.

K. Wilhelmsen, A. Awwal, W. Ferguson, B. Horowitz, V. Miller Kamm, and C. Reynolds, “Automatic alignment system for the National Ignition Facility,” in Proceedings of 2007 International Conference on Accelerator and Large Experimental Control Systems (ICALEPCS07) (2007), pp. 486-490. http://accelconf.web.cern.ch/accelconf/ica07/PAPERS/ROAA02.PDF

Awwal, A. A. S.

A. A. S. Awwal, K. L. Rice, and T. M. Taha, “Hardware accelerated optical alignment of lasers using beam-specific matched-filters,” Appl. Opt. 48, 5190-5196 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. A. S. AwwalKenneth L. Rice and Tarek M. Taha, “Fast implementation of matched-filter-based automatic alignment image processing,” Opt. Laser Technol. 41, 193-197 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. A. S. Awwal, “Multi-object feature detection and error correction for NIF automatic optical alignment,” Proc. SPIE 6310, 63100Q (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. A. S. Awwal, Wilbert A. McClay, Walter S. Ferguson, James V. Candy, Thad Salmon, and Paul Wegner, “Detection and tracking of the back-reflection of KDP images in the presence or absence of a phase mask,” Appl. Opt. 45, 3038-3048 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. A. S. Awwal, “Automatic identification of templates in matched filtering,” Proc. SPIE 5556, 102-109 (2004).
[CrossRef]

W. A. McClay III, A. A. S. Awwal, S. C. Burkhart, and J. V. Candy, “Optimization and improvement of FOA corner cube algorithm,” Proc. SPIE 5556, 227-232 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. A. S. Awwal, J. V. Candy, C. A. Haynam, C. C. Widmayer, E. S. Bliss, and S. C. Burkhart, “Accurate position sensing of defocused beams using simulated beam templates,” Proc. SPIE 5556, pp. 233-242 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Karl S. Gudmundsson and A. A. S. Awwal, “Sub-imaging technique to improve POF search capability,” Appl. Opt. 42, 4709-4717 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. M. Iftekharuddin, M. A. Karim, and A. A. S. Awwal, “Optimization of amplitude modulated inverse filter,” Math. Comput. Model. 24, 103-112 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Iftekharuddin, M. A. Karim, P. W. Eloe, and A. A. S. Awwal, “Discretized amplitude-modulated phase-only filter,” Opt. Laser Technol. 28, 93-100 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. A. S. Awwal, M. A. Karim, and S. R. Jahan, “Improved correlation discrimination using an amplitude-modulated phase-only filter,” Appl. Opt. 29, 2107-2112 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Karim and A. A. S. Awwal, Optical Computing: An Introduction (Wiley, 1992).

Beer, N. R.

R. A. Zacharias, N. R. Beer, E. S. Bliss, S. C. Burkhart, S. J. Cohen, S. B. Sutton, R. L. Van Atta, S. E. Winters, J. T. Salmon, M. R. Latta, C. J. Stolz, D. C. Pigg, and T. J. Arnold, “Alignment and wavefront control systems of the National Ignition Facility,” Opt. Eng. 43, 2873-2884 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bliss, E. S.

R. A. Zacharias, N. R. Beer, E. S. Bliss, S. C. Burkhart, S. J. Cohen, S. B. Sutton, R. L. Van Atta, S. E. Winters, J. T. Salmon, M. R. Latta, C. J. Stolz, D. C. Pigg, and T. J. Arnold, “Alignment and wavefront control systems of the National Ignition Facility,” Opt. Eng. 43, 2873-2884 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. A. S. Awwal, J. V. Candy, C. A. Haynam, C. C. Widmayer, E. S. Bliss, and S. C. Burkhart, “Accurate position sensing of defocused beams using simulated beam templates,” Proc. SPIE 5556, pp. 233-242 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bosch, S.

Bowers, M. W.

Burkhart, S. C.

R. A. Zacharias, N. R. Beer, E. S. Bliss, S. C. Burkhart, S. J. Cohen, S. B. Sutton, R. L. Van Atta, S. E. Winters, J. T. Salmon, M. R. Latta, C. J. Stolz, D. C. Pigg, and T. J. Arnold, “Alignment and wavefront control systems of the National Ignition Facility,” Opt. Eng. 43, 2873-2884 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. A. S. Awwal, J. V. Candy, C. A. Haynam, C. C. Widmayer, E. S. Bliss, and S. C. Burkhart, “Accurate position sensing of defocused beams using simulated beam templates,” Proc. SPIE 5556, pp. 233-242 (2004).
[CrossRef]

W. A. McClay III, A. A. S. Awwal, S. C. Burkhart, and J. V. Candy, “Optimization and improvement of FOA corner cube algorithm,” Proc. SPIE 5556, 227-232 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Candy, J. V.

W. A. McClay III, A. A. S. Awwal, S. C. Burkhart, and J. V. Candy, “Optimization and improvement of FOA corner cube algorithm,” Proc. SPIE 5556, 227-232 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. A. S. Awwal, J. V. Candy, C. A. Haynam, C. C. Widmayer, E. S. Bliss, and S. C. Burkhart, “Accurate position sensing of defocused beams using simulated beam templates,” Proc. SPIE 5556, pp. 233-242 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Candy, James V.

Carpari, R. S.

Casasent, D. P.

Chang, S.

S. Chang and C. P. Grover, “Centroid detection based on optical correlation,” Opt. Eng. 41, 2479-2486 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cohen, S. J.

R. A. Zacharias, N. R. Beer, E. S. Bliss, S. C. Burkhart, S. J. Cohen, S. B. Sutton, R. L. Van Atta, S. E. Winters, J. T. Salmon, M. R. Latta, C. J. Stolz, D. C. Pigg, and T. J. Arnold, “Alignment and wavefront control systems of the National Ignition Facility,” Opt. Eng. 43, 2873-2884 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Delaurentis, J. M.

Dickey, F. M.

Dixit, S. N.

Eloe, P. W.

K. M. Iftekharuddin, M. A. Karim, P. W. Eloe, and A. A. S. Awwal, “Discretized amplitude-modulated phase-only filter,” Opt. Laser Technol. 28, 93-100 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Erbert, G. V.

Ferguson, W.

K. Wilhelmsen, A. Awwal, W. Ferguson, B. Horowitz, V. Miller Kamm, and C. Reynolds, “Automatic alignment system for the National Ignition Facility,” in Proceedings of 2007 International Conference on Accelerator and Large Experimental Control Systems (ICALEPCS07) (2007), pp. 486-490. http://accelconf.web.cern.ch/accelconf/ica07/PAPERS/ROAA02.PDF

Ferguson, Walter S.

Ferre-Borrull, J.

Goudail, F.

F. Goudail and P. Refregier, “Optimal and suboptimal detection of target with random grey levels imbedded in non-overlapping noise,” Opt. Commun. 125, 211-216 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Grover, C. P.

S. Chang and C. P. Grover, “Centroid detection based on optical correlation,” Opt. Eng. 41, 2479-2486 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gudmundsson, Karl S.

Gutman, B.

Hassebrook, L.

Haynam, C. A.

Heestand, G. M.

Henesian, M. A.

Hermann, M. R.

Horner, J. L.

Horowitz, B.

K. Wilhelmsen, A. Awwal, W. Ferguson, B. Horowitz, V. Miller Kamm, and C. Reynolds, “Automatic alignment system for the National Ignition Facility,” in Proceedings of 2007 International Conference on Accelerator and Large Experimental Control Systems (ICALEPCS07) (2007), pp. 486-490. http://accelconf.web.cern.ch/accelconf/ica07/PAPERS/ROAA02.PDF

Iftekharuddin, K. M.

K. M. Iftekharuddin, M. A. Karim, P. W. Eloe, and A. A. S. Awwal, “Discretized amplitude-modulated phase-only filter,” Opt. Laser Technol. 28, 93-100 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Iftekharuddin, M. A. Karim, and A. A. S. Awwal, “Optimization of amplitude modulated inverse filter,” Math. Comput. Model. 24, 103-112 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Jahan, S. R.

Jancaitis, K. S.

Javidi, B.

Karim, M. A.

K. M. Iftekharuddin, M. A. Karim, P. W. Eloe, and A. A. S. Awwal, “Discretized amplitude-modulated phase-only filter,” Opt. Laser Technol. 28, 93-100 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Iftekharuddin, M. A. Karim, and A. A. S. Awwal, “Optimization of amplitude modulated inverse filter,” Math. Comput. Model. 24, 103-112 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. A. S. Awwal, M. A. Karim, and S. R. Jahan, “Improved correlation discrimination using an amplitude-modulated phase-only filter,” Appl. Opt. 29, 2107-2112 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Karim and A. A. S. Awwal, Optical Computing: An Introduction (Wiley, 1992).

Kerekes, R. A.

R. A. Kerekes and B. V. K. V. Kumar, “Selecting a composite correlation filter design: a survey and comparative study,” Opt. Eng. 47, 067202 (2008)
[CrossRef]

Kumar, B. V. K. V.

R. A. Kerekes and B. V. K. V. Kumar, “Selecting a composite correlation filter design: a survey and comparative study,” Opt. Eng. 47, 067202 (2008)
[CrossRef]

A. Mahalanobis and B. V. K. V. Kumar, “Optimality of the maximum average correlation height filters for detection of targets in noise,” Opt. Eng. 36, 2642-2648 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. V. K. V. Kumar, F. M. Dickey, and J. M. Delaurentis, “Correlation filters minimizing peak location errors,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 9, 678-682 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Latta, M. R.

R. A. Zacharias, N. R. Beer, E. S. Bliss, S. C. Burkhart, S. J. Cohen, S. B. Sutton, R. L. Van Atta, S. E. Winters, J. T. Salmon, M. R. Latta, C. J. Stolz, D. C. Pigg, and T. J. Arnold, “Alignment and wavefront control systems of the National Ignition Facility,” Opt. Eng. 43, 2873-2884 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Leger, J.

Mahalanobis, A.

A. Mahalanobis and B. V. K. V. Kumar, “Optimality of the maximum average correlation height filters for detection of targets in noise,” Opt. Eng. 36, 2642-2648 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Mahalanobis and D. P. Casasent, “Performance evaluation of minimum average correlation energy filters,” Appl. Opt. 30, 561-572 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Manes, K. R.

Marshall, C. D.

McClay, W. A.

W. A. McClay III, A. A. S. Awwal, S. C. Burkhart, and J. V. Candy, “Optimization and improvement of FOA corner cube algorithm,” Proc. SPIE 5556, 227-232 (2004).
[CrossRef]

McClay, Wilbert A.

Mehta, N. C.

Menapace, J.

Miller, P. C.

Miller Kamm, V.

K. Wilhelmsen, A. Awwal, W. Ferguson, B. Horowitz, V. Miller Kamm, and C. Reynolds, “Automatic alignment system for the National Ignition Facility,” in Proceedings of 2007 International Conference on Accelerator and Large Experimental Control Systems (ICALEPCS07) (2007), pp. 486-490. http://accelconf.web.cern.ch/accelconf/ica07/PAPERS/ROAA02.PDF

Moses, E.

Moses, E. I.

E. I. Moses, “Overview of the National Ignition Facility,” Fusion Sci. Technol. 54, 361-366 (2008).

Murray, J. R.

Nostrand, M. C.

Orth, C. D.

Patterson, R.

Pigg, D. C.

R. A. Zacharias, N. R. Beer, E. S. Bliss, S. C. Burkhart, S. J. Cohen, S. B. Sutton, R. L. Van Atta, S. E. Winters, J. T. Salmon, M. R. Latta, C. J. Stolz, D. C. Pigg, and T. J. Arnold, “Alignment and wavefront control systems of the National Ignition Facility,” Opt. Eng. 43, 2873-2884 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Refregier, P.

F. Goudail and P. Refregier, “Optimal and suboptimal detection of target with random grey levels imbedded in non-overlapping noise,” Opt. Commun. 125, 211-216 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. Refregier, B. Javidi, and G. Zhang, “Minimum mean-square-error filter for pattern recognition with spatially disjoint signal and scene noise,” Opt. Lett. 18, 1453-1455 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reynolds, C.

K. Wilhelmsen, A. Awwal, W. Ferguson, B. Horowitz, V. Miller Kamm, and C. Reynolds, “Automatic alignment system for the National Ignition Facility,” in Proceedings of 2007 International Conference on Accelerator and Large Experimental Control Systems (ICALEPCS07) (2007), pp. 486-490. http://accelconf.web.cern.ch/accelconf/ica07/PAPERS/ROAA02.PDF

Rice, K. L.

Rice, Kenneth L.

A. A. S. AwwalKenneth L. Rice and Tarek M. Taha, “Fast implementation of matched-filter-based automatic alignment image processing,” Opt. Laser Technol. 41, 193-197 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sacks, R. A.

Salmon, J. T.

R. A. Zacharias, N. R. Beer, E. S. Bliss, S. C. Burkhart, S. J. Cohen, S. B. Sutton, R. L. Van Atta, S. E. Winters, J. T. Salmon, M. R. Latta, C. J. Stolz, D. C. Pigg, and T. J. Arnold, “Alignment and wavefront control systems of the National Ignition Facility,” Opt. Eng. 43, 2873-2884 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Salmon, Thad

Shaw, M. J.

Spaeth, M.

Stolz, C. J.

R. A. Zacharias, N. R. Beer, E. S. Bliss, S. C. Burkhart, S. J. Cohen, S. B. Sutton, R. L. Van Atta, S. E. Winters, J. T. Salmon, M. R. Latta, C. J. Stolz, D. C. Pigg, and T. J. Arnold, “Alignment and wavefront control systems of the National Ignition Facility,” Opt. Eng. 43, 2873-2884 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sutton, S. B.

Taha, T. M.

Taha, Tarek M.

A. A. S. AwwalKenneth L. Rice and Tarek M. Taha, “Fast implementation of matched-filter-based automatic alignment image processing,” Opt. Laser Technol. 41, 193-197 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Vallmitjana, S.

Van Atta, R. L.

R. A. Zacharias, N. R. Beer, E. S. Bliss, S. C. Burkhart, S. J. Cohen, S. B. Sutton, R. L. Van Atta, S. E. Winters, J. T. Salmon, M. R. Latta, C. J. Stolz, D. C. Pigg, and T. J. Arnold, “Alignment and wavefront control systems of the National Ignition Facility,” Opt. Eng. 43, 2873-2884 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Van Trees, H. L.

H. L. Van Trees, Detection, Estimation, and Modulation Theory, Part I (Wiley, 2001).

Van Wonterghem, B. M.

VanderLugt, A.

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K. Wilhelmsen, A. Awwal, W. Ferguson, B. Horowitz, V. Miller Kamm, and C. Reynolds, “Automatic alignment system for the National Ignition Facility,” in Proceedings of 2007 International Conference on Accelerator and Large Experimental Control Systems (ICALEPCS07) (2007), pp. 486-490. http://accelconf.web.cern.ch/accelconf/ica07/PAPERS/ROAA02.PDF

Williams, W. H.

Winters, S. E.

R. A. Zacharias, N. R. Beer, E. S. Bliss, S. C. Burkhart, S. J. Cohen, S. B. Sutton, R. L. Van Atta, S. E. Winters, J. T. Salmon, M. R. Latta, C. J. Stolz, D. C. Pigg, and T. J. Arnold, “Alignment and wavefront control systems of the National Ignition Facility,” Opt. Eng. 43, 2873-2884 (2004).
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R. A. Zacharias, N. R. Beer, E. S. Bliss, S. C. Burkhart, S. J. Cohen, S. B. Sutton, R. L. Van Atta, S. E. Winters, J. T. Salmon, M. R. Latta, C. J. Stolz, D. C. Pigg, and T. J. Arnold, “Alignment and wavefront control systems of the National Ignition Facility,” Opt. Eng. 43, 2873-2884 (2004).
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K. Wilhelmsen, A. Awwal, W. Ferguson, B. Horowitz, V. Miller Kamm, and C. Reynolds, “Automatic alignment system for the National Ignition Facility,” in Proceedings of 2007 International Conference on Accelerator and Large Experimental Control Systems (ICALEPCS07) (2007), pp. 486-490. http://accelconf.web.cern.ch/accelconf/ica07/PAPERS/ROAA02.PDF

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Pedestal experiment performed by correlating the octagon and the circle shown above. The background is set at 0, and the white region is set at 255.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Auto- and cross-correlation with CMF with the octagon as filter.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Auto- and cross-correlation with AMPOF with the octagon as filter.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Progression of discrimination showing 200 times improvement from normalized peak to pedestal of AMPOF.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Normalized peak and pedestal versus radius for a corner-cube pinhole image. When the maximum normalized peak at radius 36 is chosen the position estimation is biased towards the right, and when a lower maximum at a minimum pedestal at radius 41 is chosen the position is well centered. The y-labels are pedestal and peak, and the peak is multiplied by 10 4 to match the pedestal y-axis.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Correlation peak at radius 36 is maximum but with a double peak. (b) 3D view of the correlation in a (c) correlation peak at radius 41. (d) 3D view of (c) shows a single peak.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Active target images showing the fiducials to-be-detected, which are barely visible with extremely low contrast a side view of this image at an angle of nearly 15 degrees, is shown in Fig. 10. (b) Template chosen from another real image. (c) Correlation plane output displaying a large number of peaks of which only two are valid.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(a) Active target side images showing extremely low contrast fiducials with very high brightness noise. (b) Correlation plane output shows a large number of peaks due to high noise count.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(a) Total autocorrelation plane. (b) Segmented autocorrelation. (c) The first detected maximum from the cross-correlation plane matches with autocorrelation. (d) The second maximum does not match. (e) The tird maximum does not match. (f) The fourth maximum matches with the self-correlation and is selected.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

(a) Segmented self-correlation. (b) First false peak. (c) Second peak a match, detected using the standard deviation of the product of inverse self-correlation. (d) Third peak, detected by the standard deviation of the inverse method.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Comparison of Pedestal Versus Normalized Correlation Peaks for AMPOF and CMF Filters for the Octagon and Circle Objects in Terms of Discrimination Ratio a

Tables Icon

Table 2 Pedestal of Correlation Peak for Detecting the Incorrect Template

Equations (10)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

F ( U x , U y ) = | F ( U x , U y ) | exp ( j Φ ( U x , U y ) ) .
H CMF ( U x , U y ) = F * ( U x , U y ) = | F ( U x , U y ) | exp ( j Φ ( U x , U y ) ) .
H POF ( U x , U y ) = exp ( j Φ ( U x , U y ) ) .
H AMPOF ( U x , U y ) = a F * ( U x , U y ) [ b + c | F ( U x , U y ) | + d | F ( U x , U y ) | 2 ] m .
C AMPOF ( x , y ) = F 1 { F ( U x , U y ) H AMPOF ( U x , U y ) } .
Pedestal = Σ ( C ( x , y ) > T ) ,
DR = Abs ( Autocorrelation parameter cross correlation parameter ) Autocorrelation parameter .
NP = max ( C ( x , y ) ) C ( x , y ) .
MSE ( auto cross ) 2 n × n ,
error = stddev auto cross .

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