Abstract

We propose a low-loss ultracompact optical power splitter for broadband passive optical network applications. The design is based on a multistep structure involving a two-material (core/cladding) system. The performance of the proposed device was evaluated through the three-dimensional finite-difference beam propagation method. By using the proposed design, an excess loss of 0.4dB was achieved at a full branching angle of 24°. The wavelength-dependent loss was found to be less than 0.3dB, and the polarization-dependent loss was less than 0.05dB from O to L bands. The device offers the potential of being mass-produced using low-cost polymer-based embossing techniques.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  12. K. K. Chung, H. P. Chan, and P. L. Chu, “A 1×4 polarization and wavelength independent optical power splitter based on a novel wide-angle low-loss Y-junction,” Opt. Commun. 267, 367-372 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  13. H. P. Chan, S. Y. Cheng, and P. S. Chung, “Low loss wide-angle symmetric Y-branch waveguide,” Electron. Lett. 32, 652-653(1996).
    [CrossRef]
  14. H. Sasaki and N. Mikoshiba, “Normalized power transmission in single mode optical branching waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 17, 136-138 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  15. M. Heckele and W. K. Schomburg, “Review on micro molding of thermoplastic polymers,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 14, R1-R14 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  16. C. G. Choi, S. P. Han, B. C. Kim, S. H. Ahn, and M. Y. Jeong, “Fabrication of large-core 1×16 optical power splitters in polymers using hot-embossing process,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 825-827 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  17. R. Scarmozzino and R. M. Osgood Jr., “Comparison of finite-difference and Fourier-transform solutions of the parabolic wave equation with emphasis on integrated-optics applications,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 8, 724 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  18. G. R. Hadley, “Wide-angle beam propagation using Pade approximant operators,” Opt. Lett. 17, 1426 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. W. P. Huang and C. L. Xu, “Simulation of three-dimensional optical waveguides by a full-vector beam propagation method,” J. Quantum Electron. 29, 2639 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  20. W. H. Press, B. P. Flannery, S. A. Teuklsky, and W. T. Vetterling, Numerical Recipes: The Art of Scientific Computing(Cambridge U. Press, 1986).
  21. G. R. Hadley, “Transparent boundary condition for the beam propagation method,” J. Quantum Electron. 28, 363-370 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  22. W. H. Wong and E. Y. B. Pun, “SU8C resist for electron beam lithography,” Proc. SPIE 4345, 873-880 (2001).
    [CrossRef]

2009 (2)

2008 (2)

2007 (1)

Y. Sakamaki, T. Saida, M. Tamura, T. Hashimoto, and H. Takahashi, “Low-loss Y-branch waveguides designed by wavefront matching method and their application to a compact 1×32 splitter,” Electron. Lett. 43, 217-219 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

K. K. Chung, H. P. Chan, and P. L. Chu, “A 1×4 polarization and wavelength independent optical power splitter based on a novel wide-angle low-loss Y-junction,” Opt. Commun. 267, 367-372 (2006).
[CrossRef]

X. L. Cai, D. X. Huang, and X. L. Zhang, “Numerical analysis of polarization splitter based on vertically coupled microring resonator,” Opt. Express 14, 11304-11311 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

M. Heckele and W. K. Schomburg, “Review on micro molding of thermoplastic polymers,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 14, R1-R14 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Gamet and G. Pandraud, “Ultralow-loss 1×8 splitter based on field matching Y junction,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2060-2062 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

C. G. Choi, S. P. Han, B. C. Kim, S. H. Ahn, and M. Y. Jeong, “Fabrication of large-core 1×16 optical power splitters in polymers using hot-embossing process,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 825-827 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

C. Chaudhari, D. S. Patil, and D. K. Gautam, “A new technique for the reduction of the power loss in the Y-branch optical power splitter,” Opt. Commun. 193, 121-125 (2001).
[CrossRef]

W. H. Wong and E. Y. B. Pun, “SU8C resist for electron beam lithography,” Proc. SPIE 4345, 873-880 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

W. C. Chang and H. B. Lin, “A novel low-loss wide-angle Y-branch with a diamond-like microprism,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 683-685 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

M. H. Hu, J. Z. Huang, R. Scarmozzino, M. Levy, and R. M. Osgood Jr., “A low-loss and compact waveguide Y-branch using refractive-index tapering,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 203-205 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

H. P. Chan, S. Y. Cheng, and P. S. Chung, “Low loss wide-angle symmetric Y-branch waveguide,” Electron. Lett. 32, 652-653(1996).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

W. P. Huang and C. L. Xu, “Simulation of three-dimensional optical waveguides by a full-vector beam propagation method,” J. Quantum Electron. 29, 2639 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (2)

G. R. Hadley, “Transparent boundary condition for the beam propagation method,” J. Quantum Electron. 28, 363-370 (1992).
[CrossRef]

G. R. Hadley, “Wide-angle beam propagation using Pade approximant operators,” Opt. Lett. 17, 1426 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

1988 (1)

W. Y. Hung, H. P. Chan, and P. S. Chung, “Single-mode 1×3 integrated optical branching circuit design using phase-front accelerators,” Electron. Lett. 24, 1365-1366 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

H. Sasaki and N. Mikoshiba, “Normalized power transmission in single mode optical branching waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 17, 136-138 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Ahn, S. H.

C. G. Choi, S. P. Han, B. C. Kim, S. H. Ahn, and M. Y. Jeong, “Fabrication of large-core 1×16 optical power splitters in polymers using hot-embossing process,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 825-827 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cai, X. L.

Chan, H. P.

K. K. Chung, H. P. Chan, and P. L. Chu, “A 1×4 polarization and wavelength independent optical power splitter based on a novel wide-angle low-loss Y-junction,” Opt. Commun. 267, 367-372 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. P. Chan, S. Y. Cheng, and P. S. Chung, “Low loss wide-angle symmetric Y-branch waveguide,” Electron. Lett. 32, 652-653(1996).
[CrossRef]

W. Y. Hung, H. P. Chan, and P. S. Chung, “Single-mode 1×3 integrated optical branching circuit design using phase-front accelerators,” Electron. Lett. 24, 1365-1366 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Chang, W. C.

W. C. Chang and H. B. Lin, “A novel low-loss wide-angle Y-branch with a diamond-like microprism,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 683-685 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chaudhari, C.

C. Chaudhari, D. S. Patil, and D. K. Gautam, “A new technique for the reduction of the power loss in the Y-branch optical power splitter,” Opt. Commun. 193, 121-125 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chen, X. J.

Cheng, S. Y.

H. P. Chan, S. Y. Cheng, and P. S. Chung, “Low loss wide-angle symmetric Y-branch waveguide,” Electron. Lett. 32, 652-653(1996).
[CrossRef]

Choi, C. G.

C. G. Choi, S. P. Han, B. C. Kim, S. H. Ahn, and M. Y. Jeong, “Fabrication of large-core 1×16 optical power splitters in polymers using hot-embossing process,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 825-827 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chu, P. L.

K. K. Chung, H. P. Chan, and P. L. Chu, “A 1×4 polarization and wavelength independent optical power splitter based on a novel wide-angle low-loss Y-junction,” Opt. Commun. 267, 367-372 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chung, K. K.

K. K. Chung, H. P. Chan, and P. L. Chu, “A 1×4 polarization and wavelength independent optical power splitter based on a novel wide-angle low-loss Y-junction,” Opt. Commun. 267, 367-372 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chung, P. S.

H. P. Chan, S. Y. Cheng, and P. S. Chung, “Low loss wide-angle symmetric Y-branch waveguide,” Electron. Lett. 32, 652-653(1996).
[CrossRef]

W. Y. Hung, H. P. Chan, and P. S. Chung, “Single-mode 1×3 integrated optical branching circuit design using phase-front accelerators,” Electron. Lett. 24, 1365-1366 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Flannery, B. P.

W. H. Press, B. P. Flannery, S. A. Teuklsky, and W. T. Vetterling, Numerical Recipes: The Art of Scientific Computing(Cambridge U. Press, 1986).

Gamet, J.

J. Gamet and G. Pandraud, “Ultralow-loss 1×8 splitter based on field matching Y junction,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2060-2062 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gautam, D. K.

C. Chaudhari, D. S. Patil, and D. K. Gautam, “A new technique for the reduction of the power loss in the Y-branch optical power splitter,” Opt. Commun. 193, 121-125 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Guo, Q.

Hadley, G. R.

G. R. Hadley, “Transparent boundary condition for the beam propagation method,” J. Quantum Electron. 28, 363-370 (1992).
[CrossRef]

G. R. Hadley, “Wide-angle beam propagation using Pade approximant operators,” Opt. Lett. 17, 1426 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Han, S. P.

C. G. Choi, S. P. Han, B. C. Kim, S. H. Ahn, and M. Y. Jeong, “Fabrication of large-core 1×16 optical power splitters in polymers using hot-embossing process,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 825-827 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hashimoto, T.

Y. Sakamaki, T. Saida, M. Tamura, T. Hashimoto, and H. Takahashi, “Low-loss Y-branch waveguides designed by wavefront matching method and their application to a compact 1×32 splitter,” Electron. Lett. 43, 217-219 (2007).
[CrossRef]

He, J. J.

Heckele, M.

M. Heckele and W. K. Schomburg, “Review on micro molding of thermoplastic polymers,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 14, R1-R14 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hu, M. H.

M. H. Hu, J. Z. Huang, R. Scarmozzino, M. Levy, and R. M. Osgood Jr., “A low-loss and compact waveguide Y-branch using refractive-index tapering,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 203-205 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Huang, D. X.

Huang, J. Z.

M. H. Hu, J. Z. Huang, R. Scarmozzino, M. Levy, and R. M. Osgood Jr., “A low-loss and compact waveguide Y-branch using refractive-index tapering,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 203-205 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Huang, W. P.

W. P. Huang and C. L. Xu, “Simulation of three-dimensional optical waveguides by a full-vector beam propagation method,” J. Quantum Electron. 29, 2639 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hung, W. Y.

W. Y. Hung, H. P. Chan, and P. S. Chung, “Single-mode 1×3 integrated optical branching circuit design using phase-front accelerators,” Electron. Lett. 24, 1365-1366 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Jeong, M. Y.

C. G. Choi, S. P. Han, B. C. Kim, S. H. Ahn, and M. Y. Jeong, “Fabrication of large-core 1×16 optical power splitters in polymers using hot-embossing process,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 825-827 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kim, B. C.

C. G. Choi, S. P. Han, B. C. Kim, S. H. Ahn, and M. Y. Jeong, “Fabrication of large-core 1×16 optical power splitters in polymers using hot-embossing process,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 825-827 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lan, S.

Levy, M.

M. H. Hu, J. Z. Huang, R. Scarmozzino, M. Levy, and R. M. Osgood Jr., “A low-loss and compact waveguide Y-branch using refractive-index tapering,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 203-205 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lin, H. B.

W. C. Chang and H. B. Lin, “A novel low-loss wide-angle Y-branch with a diamond-like microprism,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 683-685 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mikoshiba, N.

H. Sasaki and N. Mikoshiba, “Normalized power transmission in single mode optical branching waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 17, 136-138 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Osgood, R. M.

M. H. Hu, J. Z. Huang, R. Scarmozzino, M. Levy, and R. M. Osgood Jr., “A low-loss and compact waveguide Y-branch using refractive-index tapering,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 203-205 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Scarmozzino and R. M. Osgood Jr., “Comparison of finite-difference and Fourier-transform solutions of the parabolic wave equation with emphasis on integrated-optics applications,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 8, 724 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Pandraud, G.

J. Gamet and G. Pandraud, “Ultralow-loss 1×8 splitter based on field matching Y junction,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2060-2062 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Patil, D. S.

C. Chaudhari, D. S. Patil, and D. K. Gautam, “A new technique for the reduction of the power loss in the Y-branch optical power splitter,” Opt. Commun. 193, 121-125 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Press, W. H.

W. H. Press, B. P. Flannery, S. A. Teuklsky, and W. T. Vetterling, Numerical Recipes: The Art of Scientific Computing(Cambridge U. Press, 1986).

Pun, E. Y. B.

W. H. Wong and E. Y. B. Pun, “SU8C resist for electron beam lithography,” Proc. SPIE 4345, 873-880 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sahu, P. P.

Saida, T.

Y. Sakamaki, T. Saida, M. Tamura, T. Hashimoto, and H. Takahashi, “Low-loss Y-branch waveguides designed by wavefront matching method and their application to a compact 1×32 splitter,” Electron. Lett. 43, 217-219 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sakamaki, Y.

Y. Sakamaki, T. Saida, M. Tamura, T. Hashimoto, and H. Takahashi, “Low-loss Y-branch waveguides designed by wavefront matching method and their application to a compact 1×32 splitter,” Electron. Lett. 43, 217-219 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sasaki, H.

H. Sasaki and N. Mikoshiba, “Normalized power transmission in single mode optical branching waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 17, 136-138 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Scarmozzino, R.

M. H. Hu, J. Z. Huang, R. Scarmozzino, M. Levy, and R. M. Osgood Jr., “A low-loss and compact waveguide Y-branch using refractive-index tapering,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 203-205 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Scarmozzino and R. M. Osgood Jr., “Comparison of finite-difference and Fourier-transform solutions of the parabolic wave equation with emphasis on integrated-optics applications,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 8, 724 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Schomburg, W. K.

M. Heckele and W. K. Schomburg, “Review on micro molding of thermoplastic polymers,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 14, R1-R14 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shumate, P. W.

Takahashi, H.

Y. Sakamaki, T. Saida, M. Tamura, T. Hashimoto, and H. Takahashi, “Low-loss Y-branch waveguides designed by wavefront matching method and their application to a compact 1×32 splitter,” Electron. Lett. 43, 217-219 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tamura, M.

Y. Sakamaki, T. Saida, M. Tamura, T. Hashimoto, and H. Takahashi, “Low-loss Y-branch waveguides designed by wavefront matching method and their application to a compact 1×32 splitter,” Electron. Lett. 43, 217-219 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Teuklsky, S. A.

W. H. Press, B. P. Flannery, S. A. Teuklsky, and W. T. Vetterling, Numerical Recipes: The Art of Scientific Computing(Cambridge U. Press, 1986).

Vetterling, W. T.

W. H. Press, B. P. Flannery, S. A. Teuklsky, and W. T. Vetterling, Numerical Recipes: The Art of Scientific Computing(Cambridge U. Press, 1986).

Wang, L.

Wong, W. H.

W. H. Wong and E. Y. B. Pun, “SU8C resist for electron beam lithography,” Proc. SPIE 4345, 873-880 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wu, L. J.

Xu, C. L.

W. P. Huang and C. L. Xu, “Simulation of three-dimensional optical waveguides by a full-vector beam propagation method,” J. Quantum Electron. 29, 2639 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Y.

Yang, X.

Zhang, L.

Zhang, X. L.

Appl. Opt. (3)

Electron. Lett. (4)

W. Y. Hung, H. P. Chan, and P. S. Chung, “Single-mode 1×3 integrated optical branching circuit design using phase-front accelerators,” Electron. Lett. 24, 1365-1366 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sakamaki, T. Saida, M. Tamura, T. Hashimoto, and H. Takahashi, “Low-loss Y-branch waveguides designed by wavefront matching method and their application to a compact 1×32 splitter,” Electron. Lett. 43, 217-219 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. P. Chan, S. Y. Cheng, and P. S. Chung, “Low loss wide-angle symmetric Y-branch waveguide,” Electron. Lett. 32, 652-653(1996).
[CrossRef]

H. Sasaki and N. Mikoshiba, “Normalized power transmission in single mode optical branching waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 17, 136-138 (1981).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (4)

C. G. Choi, S. P. Han, B. C. Kim, S. H. Ahn, and M. Y. Jeong, “Fabrication of large-core 1×16 optical power splitters in polymers using hot-embossing process,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 825-827 (2003).
[CrossRef]

W. C. Chang and H. B. Lin, “A novel low-loss wide-angle Y-branch with a diamond-like microprism,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 683-685 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Hu, J. Z. Huang, R. Scarmozzino, M. Levy, and R. M. Osgood Jr., “A low-loss and compact waveguide Y-branch using refractive-index tapering,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 203-205 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Gamet and G. Pandraud, “Ultralow-loss 1×8 splitter based on field matching Y junction,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2060-2062 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Micromech. Microeng. (1)

M. Heckele and W. K. Schomburg, “Review on micro molding of thermoplastic polymers,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 14, R1-R14 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Quantum Electron. (2)

W. P. Huang and C. L. Xu, “Simulation of three-dimensional optical waveguides by a full-vector beam propagation method,” J. Quantum Electron. 29, 2639 (1993).
[CrossRef]

G. R. Hadley, “Transparent boundary condition for the beam propagation method,” J. Quantum Electron. 28, 363-370 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (2)

K. K. Chung, H. P. Chan, and P. L. Chu, “A 1×4 polarization and wavelength independent optical power splitter based on a novel wide-angle low-loss Y-junction,” Opt. Commun. 267, 367-372 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Chaudhari, D. S. Patil, and D. K. Gautam, “A new technique for the reduction of the power loss in the Y-branch optical power splitter,” Opt. Commun. 193, 121-125 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. SPIE (1)

W. H. Wong and E. Y. B. Pun, “SU8C resist for electron beam lithography,” Proc. SPIE 4345, 873-880 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

W. H. Press, B. P. Flannery, S. A. Teuklsky, and W. T. Vetterling, Numerical Recipes: The Art of Scientific Computing(Cambridge U. Press, 1986).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Configuration of the proposed Y-junction (top and cross-sectional view).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Cross-sectional view of the mode fields (amplitude distribution of the total electric field) with the outline of the waveguide along the propagation direction at regions III, IV, and V at 24 ° full branching angle: (a) NY, (b) MCY, and (c) SCY.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Performance comparison among NY (solid curve), MCY (dashed curve), and proposed SCY (dotted curve).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Wavelength and polarization dependence of the SCY splitter (for both TE/TM polarizations).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Principal steps in the embossing process: (a) mold the liquid polymer with a molding tool, (b) cure the polymer using UV or heat, and (c) demold the tool from the solid polymer.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Excess loss variation with the branch buffer angle B.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Excess loss contour map with the thickness of input/ output waveguide t 1 and (a) additional thickness of the height- elevated structural compensator t 2 ; (b) the thickness of the height-reduced structural compensator t 3 .

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Performance impact of the thickness t slab of the residual layer slab waveguide by microimprinting.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Fabrication Tolerance of Geometric Parameters

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I EX = 10 · log 10 P 1 P 2 ,
PDL = | I EX ( TE ) I EX ( TM ) | ,

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