Abstract

Systems for structural health monitoring in aeronautical structures use methods of measuring the elongation that normally require too heavy setups or difficult assembly jobs, such as those based on traditional strain gauges. Alternative methods based on fiber Bragg gratings tend to be very expensive. We analyze the possibility of improving the existing designs with the aid of low-cost plastic optical fiber sensors. For this purpose we test these sensors in a rudder flap subjected to different types of bending forces. The results show that they offer good stability and repeatability, and the measured values are very similar to those obtained with Bragg sensors.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J.M.López-Higuera, ed., Handbook of Optical Fiber Sensing Technology (Wiley, 2002).
  2. H. Poisel, M. Luber, S. Loquai, Neuner, and A. Bachmann, “POF strain sensor using phase measurement techniques,” presented at the 16th POF Conference 2007, Turin, Italy, 10-13 September 2007.
  3. S. Kiesel, K. Peters, T. Hassan, and M. Kowalsky, “Large deformation in-fiber polymer optical fiber sensor,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20, 416-418 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. Kiesel, K. Peters, T. Hassan, and M. Kowalsky, “Behaviour of intrinsic polymer optical fibre sensor for large-strain applications,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 3144-3154 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. Silva-López, A. Fender, W. N. MacPherson, J. S. Barton, and J. D. C. Jones, “Strain and temperature sensitivity of a single-mode polymer optical fiber,” Opt. Lett. 30, 3129-3131 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. Analog Devices, AD8302 Datasheet, www.analog.com/static/imported-files/data_sheets/AD8302.pdf.
  7. Micron Optics, OS110 and OS310 Fiber Bragg Grating Sensor Datasheet, http://www.micronoptics.com/pdfs/os1100.pdf, http://www.micronoptics.com/pdfs/os3100.pdf.
  8. H. Zhao, B. Zhang, R. Wang, Z. Wu, and D. Wang, “Monitoring of composite pressure vessel using two kinds of fiber optic sensors,” presented at 6th International Workshop on Structural Health Monitoring, Stanford University, Stanford, Calif., 11-13 September 2007.

2008

S. Kiesel, K. Peters, T. Hassan, and M. Kowalsky, “Large deformation in-fiber polymer optical fiber sensor,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20, 416-418 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

S. Kiesel, K. Peters, T. Hassan, and M. Kowalsky, “Behaviour of intrinsic polymer optical fibre sensor for large-strain applications,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 3144-3154 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005

Bachmann, A.

H. Poisel, M. Luber, S. Loquai, Neuner, and A. Bachmann, “POF strain sensor using phase measurement techniques,” presented at the 16th POF Conference 2007, Turin, Italy, 10-13 September 2007.

Barton, J. S.

Fender, A.

Hassan, T.

S. Kiesel, K. Peters, T. Hassan, and M. Kowalsky, “Large deformation in-fiber polymer optical fiber sensor,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20, 416-418 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Kiesel, K. Peters, T. Hassan, and M. Kowalsky, “Behaviour of intrinsic polymer optical fibre sensor for large-strain applications,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 3144-3154 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jones, J. D. C.

Kiesel, S.

S. Kiesel, K. Peters, T. Hassan, and M. Kowalsky, “Large deformation in-fiber polymer optical fiber sensor,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20, 416-418 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Kiesel, K. Peters, T. Hassan, and M. Kowalsky, “Behaviour of intrinsic polymer optical fibre sensor for large-strain applications,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 3144-3154 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kowalsky, M.

S. Kiesel, K. Peters, T. Hassan, and M. Kowalsky, “Large deformation in-fiber polymer optical fiber sensor,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20, 416-418 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Kiesel, K. Peters, T. Hassan, and M. Kowalsky, “Behaviour of intrinsic polymer optical fibre sensor for large-strain applications,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 3144-3154 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Loquai, S.

H. Poisel, M. Luber, S. Loquai, Neuner, and A. Bachmann, “POF strain sensor using phase measurement techniques,” presented at the 16th POF Conference 2007, Turin, Italy, 10-13 September 2007.

Luber, M.

H. Poisel, M. Luber, S. Loquai, Neuner, and A. Bachmann, “POF strain sensor using phase measurement techniques,” presented at the 16th POF Conference 2007, Turin, Italy, 10-13 September 2007.

MacPherson, W. N.

Neuner,

H. Poisel, M. Luber, S. Loquai, Neuner, and A. Bachmann, “POF strain sensor using phase measurement techniques,” presented at the 16th POF Conference 2007, Turin, Italy, 10-13 September 2007.

Peters, K.

S. Kiesel, K. Peters, T. Hassan, and M. Kowalsky, “Large deformation in-fiber polymer optical fiber sensor,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20, 416-418 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Kiesel, K. Peters, T. Hassan, and M. Kowalsky, “Behaviour of intrinsic polymer optical fibre sensor for large-strain applications,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 3144-3154 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Poisel, H.

H. Poisel, M. Luber, S. Loquai, Neuner, and A. Bachmann, “POF strain sensor using phase measurement techniques,” presented at the 16th POF Conference 2007, Turin, Italy, 10-13 September 2007.

Silva-López, M.

Wang, D.

H. Zhao, B. Zhang, R. Wang, Z. Wu, and D. Wang, “Monitoring of composite pressure vessel using two kinds of fiber optic sensors,” presented at 6th International Workshop on Structural Health Monitoring, Stanford University, Stanford, Calif., 11-13 September 2007.

Wang, R.

H. Zhao, B. Zhang, R. Wang, Z. Wu, and D. Wang, “Monitoring of composite pressure vessel using two kinds of fiber optic sensors,” presented at 6th International Workshop on Structural Health Monitoring, Stanford University, Stanford, Calif., 11-13 September 2007.

Wu, Z.

H. Zhao, B. Zhang, R. Wang, Z. Wu, and D. Wang, “Monitoring of composite pressure vessel using two kinds of fiber optic sensors,” presented at 6th International Workshop on Structural Health Monitoring, Stanford University, Stanford, Calif., 11-13 September 2007.

Zhang, B.

H. Zhao, B. Zhang, R. Wang, Z. Wu, and D. Wang, “Monitoring of composite pressure vessel using two kinds of fiber optic sensors,” presented at 6th International Workshop on Structural Health Monitoring, Stanford University, Stanford, Calif., 11-13 September 2007.

Zhao, H.

H. Zhao, B. Zhang, R. Wang, Z. Wu, and D. Wang, “Monitoring of composite pressure vessel using two kinds of fiber optic sensors,” presented at 6th International Workshop on Structural Health Monitoring, Stanford University, Stanford, Calif., 11-13 September 2007.

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett.

S. Kiesel, K. Peters, T. Hassan, and M. Kowalsky, “Large deformation in-fiber polymer optical fiber sensor,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20, 416-418 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol.

S. Kiesel, K. Peters, T. Hassan, and M. Kowalsky, “Behaviour of intrinsic polymer optical fibre sensor for large-strain applications,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 3144-3154 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Other

Analog Devices, AD8302 Datasheet, www.analog.com/static/imported-files/data_sheets/AD8302.pdf.

Micron Optics, OS110 and OS310 Fiber Bragg Grating Sensor Datasheet, http://www.micronoptics.com/pdfs/os1100.pdf, http://www.micronoptics.com/pdfs/os3100.pdf.

H. Zhao, B. Zhang, R. Wang, Z. Wu, and D. Wang, “Monitoring of composite pressure vessel using two kinds of fiber optic sensors,” presented at 6th International Workshop on Structural Health Monitoring, Stanford University, Stanford, Calif., 11-13 September 2007.

J.M.López-Higuera, ed., Handbook of Optical Fiber Sensing Technology (Wiley, 2002).

H. Poisel, M. Luber, S. Loquai, Neuner, and A. Bachmann, “POF strain sensor using phase measurement techniques,” presented at the 16th POF Conference 2007, Turin, Italy, 10-13 September 2007.

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Setup used for the measurements. The VCO generates a sinusoidally modulated signal that is fed into the transmitter (T). A Y coupler launches two identical signals into the POFs (POF 1 and POF 2). Two optical receivers (R) generate the respective electrical signals, and with a phase comparator and an A/D converter, we can see the phase shift in a PC.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Flap is held by one of its sides by means of a metal framework and a clamping jaw, and it is bent by a hydraulic actuator attached to another clamping jaw located on the other side. The movements of the flap are monitored using 3D cameras placed on top of the camera column.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Assembly of all the parts of the structure, photographed from the narrow side of the flap. In the foreground we can see the actuator and its clamping jaw as well as a tripod that was used to provide a reference position for the 3D camera system. The metal framework is in the background.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Photographs of the upper side (left) and the bottom side (right) of the flap. The electronic components were placed on the upper side. For the measurements a loop of POF was employed on each side, extending nearly from one end to the opposite one (the shorter loop that also appears in the photographs was used to compare the amount of stress in different parts of the flap).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Electronic setup, with the components numbered as follows: 1, wires for power supply; 2, circuit board; 3, VCO; 4, transmitter; 5, receivers; 6, phase-shift detector; 7, A/D converter; and 8, metal plate.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Schematic diagram of the location of the sensors on the specimen under test (top view). Two pairs of FBG sensors are used (a pair of OS310 and a pair of OS110). Both pairs are placed along directions parallel to the flap, which lie, respectively, inside and outside the fiber loop employed for the POF-based strain sensor. At both sides of each OS110 sensor, there are strain gauges.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Stability of the deflection measurements. Results of bending the flap upward and downward ± 10 cm at 40 mm / s are shown.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Continuous deflection. Results of the POF sensor when the flap is continuously bent upward and downward in the range of ± 10 cm are shown. The horizontal dotted lines serve to check the stability of the output.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Drift of the POF sensor with time. A 5 min period of measurements carried out when the actuator was static at the point 0 cm is shown.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Deflection measurements when bending the flap upward an downward in the range of ± 10 cm : (a) positions of the actuator, (b) strains undergone by the strain gauges, (c) strains undergone by the OS110 FBG sensor, and (d) voltage of the POF-based system.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Photograph of the pair of strain gauges located farthest from the framework that holds the flap (Gauges 1 and 2, respectively, starting from the top).

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

(a) Deflections, (b), (c) strains, and (d) voltages obtained as a result of bending the flap upward and downward up to ± 10 cm with steps of 1 cm : (a) positions of the actuator, (b) strains measured by the strain gauges, (c) strains measured by FBG Sensors 1 and 2, and (d) voltages yielded by the POF-based system according to the phase shift.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Voltage Differences between the Points of Null Elongation Marked in Fig. 7

Equations (3)

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Δ l = c 0 n c 0 · f m · 1 360 · Δ φ ,
λ B = 2 n Λ ,
Δ λ B = K ε Δ ε + K T Δ T ,

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