Abstract

Laser guide star wavefront sensing comes with several limitations. When imaged with a Shack– Hartmann wavefront sensor, the laser guide star is seen as extended sources elongated in the directions given by the lenslet locations and the laser axis. A test bed has been built in the Adaptive Optics Laboratory of the University of Victoria that reproduces this effect as seen on extremely large telescopes. A new wavefront sensing algorithm, the matched filter, has been implemented and its performance assessed with the test bed. Its ability to mitigate laser guide star aberrations by tracking the sodium layer fluctuations in a closed loop adaptive optics system is shown.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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2008 (2)

2007 (1)

2006 (6)

L. Gilles and B. Ellerbroek, “Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensing with elongated sodium laser beacons: centroiding versus matched filtering,” Appl. Opt. 45, 6568-6576 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. S. Davis, P. Hickson, G. Herriot, and C.-Y. She, “Temporal variability of the telluric sodium layer,” Opt. Lett. 31, 3369-3371 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. M. Adkins, O. Azucena, and J. E. Nelson, “The design and optimization of detectors for adaptive optics wavefront sensing,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62721E (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Herriot, P. Hickson, B. L. Ellerboek, D. A. Andersen, T. Davidge, D. A. Erickson, I. P. Powell, R. Clare, L. Gilles, C. Boyer, M. Smith, L. Saddlemyer, and J.-P. Véran, “NFIRAOS: TMT narrow field near-infrared facility adaptive optics,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720Q (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. A. van Dam, A. H. Bouchez, D. Le Mignant, E. M. Johansson, P. L. Wizinowich, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, S. K. Hartman, R. E. Lafon, P. J. Stomski, Jr., and D. M. Summers, “The W. M. Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: performance characterization,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 310-318 (2006).

S. Thomas, T. Fusco, A. Tokovinin, M. Nicolle, V. Michau, and G. Rousset, “Comparison of centroid computation algorithms in a Shack-Hartmann sensor,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 371, 323-336 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

J. W. Beletic, S. Adkins, B. Burke, R. Reich, B. Kosicki, V. Suntharalingham, C. Bleau, R. Duvarney, R. Stover, J. Nelson, and F. Rigaut, “The ultimate CCD for laser guide star wavefront sensing on extremely large telescopes,” Exp. Astron. 19, 103-109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

2001 (1)

L. Michaille, J. Clifford, J. Dainty, T. Gregory, J. Quartel, F. Reavell, R. Wilson, and N. Wooder, “Characterization of the mesospheric sodium layer at La Palma,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 328, 993-1000 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

L. Michaille, A. D. Cañas, J. C. Dainty, J. Maxwell, T. Gregory, J. C. Quartel, R. W. W. F. C. Reavell, and N. J. Wooder, “A laser beacon for monitoring the mesospheric sodium layer at La Palma,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 318, 139-144 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. S. Argall, O. N. Vassiliev, R. J. Sica, and M. M. Mwangi, “Lidar measurements taken with a large-aperture liquid mirror. 2. Sodium resonance-fluorescence system,” Appl. Opt. 39, 2393-2400 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

1992 (1)

F. Rigaut and E. Gendron, “Laser guide star in adaptive optics: the tilt determination problem,” Astron. Astrophys. 261, 677-684 (1992).

1990 (1)

M. Tallon and R. Foy, “Adaptive telescope with laser probe: isoplanatism and cone effect,” Astron. Astrophys. 235, 549-557 (1990).

1976 (1)

Adkins, S.

J. W. Beletic, S. Adkins, B. Burke, R. Reich, B. Kosicki, V. Suntharalingham, C. Bleau, R. Duvarney, R. Stover, J. Nelson, and F. Rigaut, “The ultimate CCD for laser guide star wavefront sensing on extremely large telescopes,” Exp. Astron. 19, 103-109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Adkins, S. M.

S. M. Adkins, O. Azucena, and J. E. Nelson, “The design and optimization of detectors for adaptive optics wavefront sensing,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62721E (2006).
[CrossRef]

Andersen, D. A.

G. Herriot, P. Hickson, B. L. Ellerboek, D. A. Andersen, T. Davidge, D. A. Erickson, I. P. Powell, R. Clare, L. Gilles, C. Boyer, M. Smith, L. Saddlemyer, and J.-P. Véran, “NFIRAOS: TMT narrow field near-infrared facility adaptive optics,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720Q (2006).
[CrossRef]

Argall, P. S.

Azucena, O.

S. M. Adkins, O. Azucena, and J. E. Nelson, “The design and optimization of detectors for adaptive optics wavefront sensing,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62721E (2006).
[CrossRef]

Beletic, J. W.

J. W. Beletic, S. Adkins, B. Burke, R. Reich, B. Kosicki, V. Suntharalingham, C. Bleau, R. Duvarney, R. Stover, J. Nelson, and F. Rigaut, “The ultimate CCD for laser guide star wavefront sensing on extremely large telescopes,” Exp. Astron. 19, 103-109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bleau, C.

J. W. Beletic, S. Adkins, B. Burke, R. Reich, B. Kosicki, V. Suntharalingham, C. Bleau, R. Duvarney, R. Stover, J. Nelson, and F. Rigaut, “The ultimate CCD for laser guide star wavefront sensing on extremely large telescopes,” Exp. Astron. 19, 103-109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Borra, E. F.

Bouchez, A. H.

R. M. Clare, M. A. van Dam, and A. H. Bouchez, “Modeling low order aberrations in laser guide star adaptive optics systems,” Opt. Express 15, 4711-4725 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. van Dam, A. H. Bouchez, D. Le Mignant, E. M. Johansson, P. L. Wizinowich, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, S. K. Hartman, R. E. Lafon, P. J. Stomski, Jr., and D. M. Summers, “The W. M. Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: performance characterization,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 310-318 (2006).

Boyer, C.

G. Herriot, P. Hickson, B. L. Ellerboek, D. A. Andersen, T. Davidge, D. A. Erickson, I. P. Powell, R. Clare, L. Gilles, C. Boyer, M. Smith, L. Saddlemyer, and J.-P. Véran, “NFIRAOS: TMT narrow field near-infrared facility adaptive optics,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720Q (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bradley, C.

Burke, B.

J. W. Beletic, S. Adkins, B. Burke, R. Reich, B. Kosicki, V. Suntharalingham, C. Bleau, R. Duvarney, R. Stover, J. Nelson, and F. Rigaut, “The ultimate CCD for laser guide star wavefront sensing on extremely large telescopes,” Exp. Astron. 19, 103-109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Campbell, R. D.

M. A. van Dam, A. H. Bouchez, D. Le Mignant, E. M. Johansson, P. L. Wizinowich, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, S. K. Hartman, R. E. Lafon, P. J. Stomski, Jr., and D. M. Summers, “The W. M. Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: performance characterization,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 310-318 (2006).

Cañas, A. D.

L. Michaille, A. D. Cañas, J. C. Dainty, J. Maxwell, T. Gregory, J. C. Quartel, R. W. W. F. C. Reavell, and N. J. Wooder, “A laser beacon for monitoring the mesospheric sodium layer at La Palma,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 318, 139-144 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chin, J. C. Y.

M. A. van Dam, A. H. Bouchez, D. Le Mignant, E. M. Johansson, P. L. Wizinowich, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, S. K. Hartman, R. E. Lafon, P. J. Stomski, Jr., and D. M. Summers, “The W. M. Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: performance characterization,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 310-318 (2006).

Clare, R.

G. Herriot, P. Hickson, B. L. Ellerboek, D. A. Andersen, T. Davidge, D. A. Erickson, I. P. Powell, R. Clare, L. Gilles, C. Boyer, M. Smith, L. Saddlemyer, and J.-P. Véran, “NFIRAOS: TMT narrow field near-infrared facility adaptive optics,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720Q (2006).
[CrossRef]

Clare, R. M.

Clifford, J.

L. Michaille, J. Clifford, J. Dainty, T. Gregory, J. Quartel, F. Reavell, R. Wilson, and N. Wooder, “Characterization of the mesospheric sodium layer at La Palma,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 328, 993-1000 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Conan, R.

Dainty, J.

L. Michaille, J. Clifford, J. Dainty, T. Gregory, J. Quartel, F. Reavell, R. Wilson, and N. Wooder, “Characterization of the mesospheric sodium layer at La Palma,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 328, 993-1000 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Dainty, J. C.

L. Michaille, A. D. Cañas, J. C. Dainty, J. Maxwell, T. Gregory, J. C. Quartel, R. W. W. F. C. Reavell, and N. J. Wooder, “A laser beacon for monitoring the mesospheric sodium layer at La Palma,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 318, 139-144 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Davidge, T.

G. Herriot, P. Hickson, B. L. Ellerboek, D. A. Andersen, T. Davidge, D. A. Erickson, I. P. Powell, R. Clare, L. Gilles, C. Boyer, M. Smith, L. Saddlemyer, and J.-P. Véran, “NFIRAOS: TMT narrow field near-infrared facility adaptive optics,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720Q (2006).
[CrossRef]

Davis, D. S.

Duvarney, R.

J. W. Beletic, S. Adkins, B. Burke, R. Reich, B. Kosicki, V. Suntharalingham, C. Bleau, R. Duvarney, R. Stover, J. Nelson, and F. Rigaut, “The ultimate CCD for laser guide star wavefront sensing on extremely large telescopes,” Exp. Astron. 19, 103-109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ellerboek, B. L.

G. Herriot, P. Hickson, B. L. Ellerboek, D. A. Andersen, T. Davidge, D. A. Erickson, I. P. Powell, R. Clare, L. Gilles, C. Boyer, M. Smith, L. Saddlemyer, and J.-P. Véran, “NFIRAOS: TMT narrow field near-infrared facility adaptive optics,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720Q (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ellerbroek, B.

Ellerbroek, B. L.

Erickson, D. A.

G. Herriot, P. Hickson, B. L. Ellerboek, D. A. Andersen, T. Davidge, D. A. Erickson, I. P. Powell, R. Clare, L. Gilles, C. Boyer, M. Smith, L. Saddlemyer, and J.-P. Véran, “NFIRAOS: TMT narrow field near-infrared facility adaptive optics,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720Q (2006).
[CrossRef]

Flatt, S.

Foy, R.

M. Tallon and R. Foy, “Adaptive telescope with laser probe: isoplanatism and cone effect,” Astron. Astrophys. 235, 549-557 (1990).

Fusco, T.

S. Thomas, T. Fusco, A. Tokovinin, M. Nicolle, V. Michau, and G. Rousset, “Comparison of centroid computation algorithms in a Shack-Hartmann sensor,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 371, 323-336 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gendron, E.

F. Rigaut and E. Gendron, “Laser guide star in adaptive optics: the tilt determination problem,” Astron. Astrophys. 261, 677-684 (1992).

Gilles, L.

Girard, L.

Gregory, T.

L. Michaille, J. Clifford, J. Dainty, T. Gregory, J. Quartel, F. Reavell, R. Wilson, and N. Wooder, “Characterization of the mesospheric sodium layer at La Palma,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 328, 993-1000 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L. Michaille, A. D. Cañas, J. C. Dainty, J. Maxwell, T. Gregory, J. C. Quartel, R. W. W. F. C. Reavell, and N. J. Wooder, “A laser beacon for monitoring the mesospheric sodium layer at La Palma,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 318, 139-144 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hartman, S. K.

M. A. van Dam, A. H. Bouchez, D. Le Mignant, E. M. Johansson, P. L. Wizinowich, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, S. K. Hartman, R. E. Lafon, P. J. Stomski, Jr., and D. M. Summers, “The W. M. Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: performance characterization,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 310-318 (2006).

Herriot, G.

O. Lardiere, R. Conan, C. Bradley, K. Jackson, and G. Herriot, “A laser guide star wavefront sensor bench demonstrator for TMT,” Opt. Express 16, 5527-5543 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Herriot, P. Hickson, B. L. Ellerboek, D. A. Andersen, T. Davidge, D. A. Erickson, I. P. Powell, R. Clare, L. Gilles, C. Boyer, M. Smith, L. Saddlemyer, and J.-P. Véran, “NFIRAOS: TMT narrow field near-infrared facility adaptive optics,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720Q (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Davis, P. Hickson, G. Herriot, and C.-Y. She, “Temporal variability of the telluric sodium layer,” Opt. Lett. 31, 3369-3371 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hickson, P.

D. S. Davis, P. Hickson, G. Herriot, and C.-Y. She, “Temporal variability of the telluric sodium layer,” Opt. Lett. 31, 3369-3371 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Herriot, P. Hickson, B. L. Ellerboek, D. A. Andersen, T. Davidge, D. A. Erickson, I. P. Powell, R. Clare, L. Gilles, C. Boyer, M. Smith, L. Saddlemyer, and J.-P. Véran, “NFIRAOS: TMT narrow field near-infrared facility adaptive optics,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720Q (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jackson, K.

Johansson, E. M.

M. A. van Dam, A. H. Bouchez, D. Le Mignant, E. M. Johansson, P. L. Wizinowich, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, S. K. Hartman, R. E. Lafon, P. J. Stomski, Jr., and D. M. Summers, “The W. M. Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: performance characterization,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 310-318 (2006).

Kosicki, B.

J. W. Beletic, S. Adkins, B. Burke, R. Reich, B. Kosicki, V. Suntharalingham, C. Bleau, R. Duvarney, R. Stover, J. Nelson, and F. Rigaut, “The ultimate CCD for laser guide star wavefront sensing on extremely large telescopes,” Exp. Astron. 19, 103-109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lafon, R. E.

M. A. van Dam, A. H. Bouchez, D. Le Mignant, E. M. Johansson, P. L. Wizinowich, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, S. K. Hartman, R. E. Lafon, P. J. Stomski, Jr., and D. M. Summers, “The W. M. Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: performance characterization,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 310-318 (2006).

Lardiere, O.

Le Mignant, D.

M. A. van Dam, A. H. Bouchez, D. Le Mignant, E. M. Johansson, P. L. Wizinowich, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, S. K. Hartman, R. E. Lafon, P. J. Stomski, Jr., and D. M. Summers, “The W. M. Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: performance characterization,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 310-318 (2006).

Maxwell, J.

L. Michaille, A. D. Cañas, J. C. Dainty, J. Maxwell, T. Gregory, J. C. Quartel, R. W. W. F. C. Reavell, and N. J. Wooder, “A laser beacon for monitoring the mesospheric sodium layer at La Palma,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 318, 139-144 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Michaille, L.

L. Michaille, J. Clifford, J. Dainty, T. Gregory, J. Quartel, F. Reavell, R. Wilson, and N. Wooder, “Characterization of the mesospheric sodium layer at La Palma,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 328, 993-1000 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L. Michaille, A. D. Cañas, J. C. Dainty, J. Maxwell, T. Gregory, J. C. Quartel, R. W. W. F. C. Reavell, and N. J. Wooder, “A laser beacon for monitoring the mesospheric sodium layer at La Palma,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 318, 139-144 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Michau, V.

S. Thomas, T. Fusco, A. Tokovinin, M. Nicolle, V. Michau, and G. Rousset, “Comparison of centroid computation algorithms in a Shack-Hartmann sensor,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 371, 323-336 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mwangi, M. M.

Nelson, J.

J. W. Beletic, S. Adkins, B. Burke, R. Reich, B. Kosicki, V. Suntharalingham, C. Bleau, R. Duvarney, R. Stover, J. Nelson, and F. Rigaut, “The ultimate CCD for laser guide star wavefront sensing on extremely large telescopes,” Exp. Astron. 19, 103-109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nelson, J. E.

S. M. Adkins, O. Azucena, and J. E. Nelson, “The design and optimization of detectors for adaptive optics wavefront sensing,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62721E (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nicolle, M.

S. Thomas, T. Fusco, A. Tokovinin, M. Nicolle, V. Michau, and G. Rousset, “Comparison of centroid computation algorithms in a Shack-Hartmann sensor,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 371, 323-336 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Noll, R.

Powell, I. P.

G. Herriot, P. Hickson, B. L. Ellerboek, D. A. Andersen, T. Davidge, D. A. Erickson, I. P. Powell, R. Clare, L. Gilles, C. Boyer, M. Smith, L. Saddlemyer, and J.-P. Véran, “NFIRAOS: TMT narrow field near-infrared facility adaptive optics,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720Q (2006).
[CrossRef]

Poyneer, L. A.

Quartel, J.

L. Michaille, J. Clifford, J. Dainty, T. Gregory, J. Quartel, F. Reavell, R. Wilson, and N. Wooder, “Characterization of the mesospheric sodium layer at La Palma,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 328, 993-1000 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Quartel, J. C.

L. Michaille, A. D. Cañas, J. C. Dainty, J. Maxwell, T. Gregory, J. C. Quartel, R. W. W. F. C. Reavell, and N. J. Wooder, “A laser beacon for monitoring the mesospheric sodium layer at La Palma,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 318, 139-144 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Reavell, F.

L. Michaille, J. Clifford, J. Dainty, T. Gregory, J. Quartel, F. Reavell, R. Wilson, and N. Wooder, “Characterization of the mesospheric sodium layer at La Palma,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 328, 993-1000 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Reavell, R. W. W. F. C.

L. Michaille, A. D. Cañas, J. C. Dainty, J. Maxwell, T. Gregory, J. C. Quartel, R. W. W. F. C. Reavell, and N. J. Wooder, “A laser beacon for monitoring the mesospheric sodium layer at La Palma,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 318, 139-144 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Reich, R.

J. W. Beletic, S. Adkins, B. Burke, R. Reich, B. Kosicki, V. Suntharalingham, C. Bleau, R. Duvarney, R. Stover, J. Nelson, and F. Rigaut, “The ultimate CCD for laser guide star wavefront sensing on extremely large telescopes,” Exp. Astron. 19, 103-109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rigaut, F.

J. W. Beletic, S. Adkins, B. Burke, R. Reich, B. Kosicki, V. Suntharalingham, C. Bleau, R. Duvarney, R. Stover, J. Nelson, and F. Rigaut, “The ultimate CCD for laser guide star wavefront sensing on extremely large telescopes,” Exp. Astron. 19, 103-109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. Rigaut and E. Gendron, “Laser guide star in adaptive optics: the tilt determination problem,” Astron. Astrophys. 261, 677-684 (1992).

Rousset, G.

S. Thomas, T. Fusco, A. Tokovinin, M. Nicolle, V. Michau, and G. Rousset, “Comparison of centroid computation algorithms in a Shack-Hartmann sensor,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 371, 323-336 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Saddlemyer, L.

G. Herriot, P. Hickson, B. L. Ellerboek, D. A. Andersen, T. Davidge, D. A. Erickson, I. P. Powell, R. Clare, L. Gilles, C. Boyer, M. Smith, L. Saddlemyer, and J.-P. Véran, “NFIRAOS: TMT narrow field near-infrared facility adaptive optics,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720Q (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sargoytchev, S.

She, C.-Y.

Sica, R. J.

Smith, M.

G. Herriot, P. Hickson, B. L. Ellerboek, D. A. Andersen, T. Davidge, D. A. Erickson, I. P. Powell, R. Clare, L. Gilles, C. Boyer, M. Smith, L. Saddlemyer, and J.-P. Véran, “NFIRAOS: TMT narrow field near-infrared facility adaptive optics,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720Q (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sparrow, C. T.

Stomski, P. J.

M. A. van Dam, A. H. Bouchez, D. Le Mignant, E. M. Johansson, P. L. Wizinowich, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, S. K. Hartman, R. E. Lafon, P. J. Stomski, Jr., and D. M. Summers, “The W. M. Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: performance characterization,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 310-318 (2006).

Stover, R.

J. W. Beletic, S. Adkins, B. Burke, R. Reich, B. Kosicki, V. Suntharalingham, C. Bleau, R. Duvarney, R. Stover, J. Nelson, and F. Rigaut, “The ultimate CCD for laser guide star wavefront sensing on extremely large telescopes,” Exp. Astron. 19, 103-109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Summers, D. M.

M. A. van Dam, A. H. Bouchez, D. Le Mignant, E. M. Johansson, P. L. Wizinowich, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, S. K. Hartman, R. E. Lafon, P. J. Stomski, Jr., and D. M. Summers, “The W. M. Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: performance characterization,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 310-318 (2006).

Suntharalingham, V.

J. W. Beletic, S. Adkins, B. Burke, R. Reich, B. Kosicki, V. Suntharalingham, C. Bleau, R. Duvarney, R. Stover, J. Nelson, and F. Rigaut, “The ultimate CCD for laser guide star wavefront sensing on extremely large telescopes,” Exp. Astron. 19, 103-109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tallon, M.

M. Tallon and R. Foy, “Adaptive telescope with laser probe: isoplanatism and cone effect,” Astron. Astrophys. 235, 549-557 (1990).

Thomas, S.

S. Thomas, T. Fusco, A. Tokovinin, M. Nicolle, V. Michau, and G. Rousset, “Comparison of centroid computation algorithms in a Shack-Hartmann sensor,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 371, 323-336 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tokovinin, A.

S. Thomas, T. Fusco, A. Tokovinin, M. Nicolle, V. Michau, and G. Rousset, “Comparison of centroid computation algorithms in a Shack-Hartmann sensor,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 371, 323-336 (2006).
[CrossRef]

van Dam, M. A.

R. M. Clare, M. A. van Dam, and A. H. Bouchez, “Modeling low order aberrations in laser guide star adaptive optics systems,” Opt. Express 15, 4711-4725 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. van Dam, A. H. Bouchez, D. Le Mignant, E. M. Johansson, P. L. Wizinowich, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, S. K. Hartman, R. E. Lafon, P. J. Stomski, Jr., and D. M. Summers, “The W. M. Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: performance characterization,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 310-318 (2006).

Vassiliev, O. N.

Véran, J.-P.

G. Herriot, P. Hickson, B. L. Ellerboek, D. A. Andersen, T. Davidge, D. A. Erickson, I. P. Powell, R. Clare, L. Gilles, C. Boyer, M. Smith, L. Saddlemyer, and J.-P. Véran, “NFIRAOS: TMT narrow field near-infrared facility adaptive optics,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720Q (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, R.

L. Michaille, J. Clifford, J. Dainty, T. Gregory, J. Quartel, F. Reavell, R. Wilson, and N. Wooder, “Characterization of the mesospheric sodium layer at La Palma,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 328, 993-1000 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wizinowich, P. L.

M. A. van Dam, A. H. Bouchez, D. Le Mignant, E. M. Johansson, P. L. Wizinowich, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, S. K. Hartman, R. E. Lafon, P. J. Stomski, Jr., and D. M. Summers, “The W. M. Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: performance characterization,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 310-318 (2006).

Wooder, N.

L. Michaille, J. Clifford, J. Dainty, T. Gregory, J. Quartel, F. Reavell, R. Wilson, and N. Wooder, “Characterization of the mesospheric sodium layer at La Palma,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 328, 993-1000 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wooder, N. J.

L. Michaille, A. D. Cañas, J. C. Dainty, J. Maxwell, T. Gregory, J. C. Quartel, R. W. W. F. C. Reavell, and N. J. Wooder, “A laser beacon for monitoring the mesospheric sodium layer at La Palma,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 318, 139-144 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (4)

Astron. Astrophys. (2)

F. Rigaut and E. Gendron, “Laser guide star in adaptive optics: the tilt determination problem,” Astron. Astrophys. 261, 677-684 (1992).

M. Tallon and R. Foy, “Adaptive telescope with laser probe: isoplanatism and cone effect,” Astron. Astrophys. 235, 549-557 (1990).

Exp. Astron. (1)

J. W. Beletic, S. Adkins, B. Burke, R. Reich, B. Kosicki, V. Suntharalingham, C. Bleau, R. Duvarney, R. Stover, J. Nelson, and F. Rigaut, “The ultimate CCD for laser guide star wavefront sensing on extremely large telescopes,” Exp. Astron. 19, 103-109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. (3)

L. Michaille, A. D. Cañas, J. C. Dainty, J. Maxwell, T. Gregory, J. C. Quartel, R. W. W. F. C. Reavell, and N. J. Wooder, “A laser beacon for monitoring the mesospheric sodium layer at La Palma,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 318, 139-144 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. Michaille, J. Clifford, J. Dainty, T. Gregory, J. Quartel, F. Reavell, R. Wilson, and N. Wooder, “Characterization of the mesospheric sodium layer at La Palma,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 328, 993-1000 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Thomas, T. Fusco, A. Tokovinin, M. Nicolle, V. Michau, and G. Rousset, “Comparison of centroid computation algorithms in a Shack-Hartmann sensor,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 371, 323-336 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Proc. SPIE (2)

G. Herriot, P. Hickson, B. L. Ellerboek, D. A. Andersen, T. Davidge, D. A. Erickson, I. P. Powell, R. Clare, L. Gilles, C. Boyer, M. Smith, L. Saddlemyer, and J.-P. Véran, “NFIRAOS: TMT narrow field near-infrared facility adaptive optics,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720Q (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Adkins, O. Azucena, and J. E. Nelson, “The design and optimization of detectors for adaptive optics wavefront sensing,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62721E (2006).
[CrossRef]

Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. (1)

M. A. van Dam, A. H. Bouchez, D. Le Mignant, E. M. Johansson, P. L. Wizinowich, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, S. K. Hartman, R. E. Lafon, P. J. Stomski, Jr., and D. M. Summers, “The W. M. Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: performance characterization,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 310-318 (2006).

Other (1)

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Figures (13)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Shack–Hartmann wavefront sensor spots geometry for the Thirty Meter Telescope pupil pointing a laser guide star at zenith. (b) The radial elongation of the spots can be reproduced in the laboratory with a deformable mirror generating an alternating focus during the integration time. The source intensity is modulated synchronously with the deformable mirror to also reproduce sodium profile variations.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Block diagram of a closed-loop laser guide star adaptive optics system using the matched filter to process the Shack–Hartmann wavefront sensor spot images.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Block diagram of the phase-locked loop allowing for compensation of system delay between the fast steering mirror motion of the launch telescope and the wavefront sensor spot nutation.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Block diagram of the matched-filter-based laser guide star wavefront sensing background tasks. It features the computing of the reference images I 0 , the pixel gain matrix G, and the matched-filter matrix R.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Radial dependency (azimuthal average) of the slope temporal rms error for different dithering amplitudes (in pixels) for a static Na profile. The rms centroid error is given by σ x 2 + σ y 2 , where σ x and σ y are the X and Y rms centroids, respectively. The center of gravity is not thresholded here and the signal-to-noise ratio is 140 for the central spots.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Temporal rms error of slopes, averaged over the pupil, for different dithering amplitudes (in pixels) for a static Na profile. The second measurement for an dither amplitude of 2.10 2 is likely incorrect due to environmental perturbations. The center of gravity is not thresholded here and the signal-to-noise ratio is 140 for the central spots.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Temporal rms errors of Zernike modes for different dithering amplitudes (in pixels) for a static Na profile. The center of gravity is radially thresholded here and the signal-to-noise ratio is 18 for the central spots.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Mean slope error (averaged over the pupil) for different signal-to-noise ratios on a static Na profile. The slope error is given by σ x 2 + σ y 2 , where σ x and σ y are the X and Y rms centroids, respectively. CoG x % denotes a center-of-gravity algorithm using images thresholded at x % of the subimage maximum. M F η is the matched filtering computed with the noise covariance matrix C η .

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Static aberrations and temporal rms errors for the 28 first Zernike modes measured during the sodium profile sequence for the center of gravity, the dynamically referenced center of gravity, and the matched filter. Both the dynamically referenced center of gravity and the matched filter were updated eight times per Na profile timestep. One Na profile lasts 70 s on the sky and the profiles are interpolated in between. The center of gravity and the dynamically referenced center of gravity are thresholded at 13 ADU for all the lenslets. The signal-to-noise ratio is 140 for the central spots.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Laser-guide-star-induced Z 11 error versus the update rate of the matched filter and the dynamically referenced center of gravity. The center of gravity and the dynamically referenced center of gravity are thresholded at 13 ADU for all the lenslets. The signal-to-noise ratio is 140 for the central spots.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Typical snapshot wavefronts of the input turbulence (open loop) and of the residual turbulence after correction (closed loop).

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Residual error when the matched filter closes the loop with some turbulence, for different update rates of the matched filter. Wavefront errors are measured by a truth wavefront sensor. The center of gravity is radially thresholded here and the signal-to-noise ratio is 18 for the central spots.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Residual error when the matched filter closes the loop with some turbulence and Na layer fluctuations. (a) Temporal variation of the residual Z 11 (due to the Na variation and residual turbulence) as seen by the center of gravity and the matched filter. (b) Expected laser-guide-star-induced Z 11 measured without turbulence in open loop by the center of gravity and compared to the measured residual laser-guide-star-induced Z 11 given by the difference of the center of gravity and the matched-filter results in the above graph. Sodium variations are accelerated 17.5 × , the matched-filter update period is 0.5 s , and the signal-to-noise ratio is 140.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Typical Wavefront rms Errors Measured in Open Loop on the Bench by the Center of Gravity, the Dynamically Referenced Center of Gravity, and the Matched Filter a

Equations (31)

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θ ( r ) = r h 0 σ N a / 2 r h 0 + σ N a / 2 r σ N a h 0 2 .
Ψ S = exp ( i k s ) ,
Ψ Z = exp ( i k s Z ) ,
Ψ = Ψ S Ψ Z ,
δ = s s Z .
δ = 1 2 ( 1 h s 1 ρ ) r 2 1 8 ( 1 h s 3 1 ρ 3 ) r 4 .
δ x = ( 1 h s 1 ρ ) x 1 2 ( 1 h s 3 1 ρ 3 ) x 3
θ ( x ) = ( 1 h 0 σ N a / 2 1 h 0 + σ N a / 2 ) x 1 2 ( 1 ( h 0 σ N a / 2 ) 3 1 ( h 0 + σ N a / 2 ) 3 ) x 3 .
I ( θ x , θ y ) = I ( 0 ) + θ x I θ x + θ y I θ y = I ( 0 ) + θ x I x ( θ x , θ y ) + θ y I y ( θ x , θ y ) .
I ( θ ) I 0 = G θ .
θ = R ( I I 0 ) ,
θ = R c I .
x d = A sin ( 2 π f d t + ϕ ) ,
y d = A cos ( 2 π f d t + ϕ ) ,
P = 1 A 0 1 / f d I ( θ x + x d , θ y + y d ) x d d t ,
Q = 1 A 0 1 / f d I ( θ x + x d , θ y + y d ) y d d t .
P = A 2 f d [ cos ( ϕ ) I x ( θ x , θ y ) + sin ( ϕ ) I y ( θ x , θ y ) ] ,
Q = A 2 f d [ - sin ( ϕ ) I x ( θ x , θ y ) + cos ( ϕ ) I y ( θ x , θ y ) ] .
τ = 2 h 0 cos ( z ) c ,
ε ( ϕ ^ n ) = x LGS y PLL y LGS x PLL ,
ε ( ϕ ^ n ) = A sin ( ϕ ϕ ^ n ) A ( ϕ ϕ ^ n ) .
ϕ ^ n + 1 = 1 A ε ( ϕ ^ n ) T trig + ϕ ^ n .
P x = 1 N p = 1 N 1 A k = 1 4 x k I k = 1 N p = 1 N I east I west A I x T trig = G x ,
Q x = 1 N p = 1 N 1 A k = 1 4 y k I k = 1 N p = 1 N I north I south A I y T trig = G y .
x = [ sin ( ϕ ) , cos ( ϕ ) , sin ( ϕ ) , cos ( ϕ ) ] ,
y = [ cos ( ϕ ) , sin ( ϕ ) , cos ( ϕ ) , sin ( ϕ ) ] .
A filt = ( χ 2 + ζ 2 ) 1 / 2 ,
χ = 1 A x FSM x d + y FSM y d T trig ,
ζ = 1 A x FSM y d y FSM x d T trig .
snr = N N + n σ ro 2 .
DRCoG ( I ) = CoG ( I ) CoG ( I o ) .

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