Abstract

Phase shifters are a key component of nulling interferometry, one of the potential routes to enabling the measurement of faint exoplanet spectra. Here, three different achromatic phase shifters are evaluated experimentally in the mid-infrared, where such nulling interferometers may someday operate. The methods evaluated include the use of dispersive glasses, a through-focus field inversion, and field reversals on reflection from antisymmetric flat-mirror periscopes. All three approaches yielded deep, broadband, mid-infrared nulls, but the deepest broadband nulls were obtained with the periscope architecture. In the periscope system, average null depths of 4×105 were obtained with a 25% bandwidth, and 2×105 with a 20% bandwidth, at a central wavelength of 9.5μm. The best short term nulls at 20% bandwidth were approximately 9×106, in line with error budget predictions and the limits of the current generation of hardware.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. P. R. Lawson, O. P. Lay, S. R. Martin, R. D. Peters, R. O. Gappinger, A. Ksendzov, D. P. Scharf, A. J. Booth, C. A. Beichman, E. Serabyn, K. J. Johnston, and W. C. Danchi, “Terrestrial Planet Finder Interferometer: 2007-2008 progress and plans,” Proc. SPIE 7013, 70132N (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  2. C. S. Cockell, T. Herbst, A. Leger, M. Fridlund, T. Herbst, L. Kaltenegger, O. Absil, C. Beichman, W. Benz, M. Blanc, A. Brack, A. Chelli, L. Colangeli, H. Cottin, V. Coude du Foresto, W. Danchi, D. Defrere, J.-W. den Herder, C. Eiroa, J. Greaves, T. Henning, K. Johnston, H. Jones, L. Labadie, H. Lammer, R. Launhardt, P. Lawson, O. P. Lay, J.-M. LeDuigou, R. Liseau, F. Malbet, S. R. Martin, D. Mawet, D. Mourard, C. Moutou, L. Mugnier, F. Paresce, A. Quirrenbach, Y. Rabbia, J. A. Raven, H. J. A. Rottgering, D. Rouan, N. Santos, F. Selsis, E. Serabyn, H. Shibai, M. Tamura, E. Thiebaut, F. Westall, White, and J. Glenn, “Darwin--A mission to detect and search for life on extrasolar planets,” Astrobiology , available at http://arxiv.org/abs/0805.1873.
    [PubMed]
  3. O. P. Lay, “Removing instability noise in nulling interferometers,” Proc. SPIE 6268, 62681A (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. Martin, P. Szwaykowski, and F. Loya, “Testing exo-planet signal extraction using the Terrestrial Planet Finder Planet Detection Testbed,” Proc. SPIE 5905, 590508 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  5. E. Serabyn and M. M. Colavita, “Fully symmetric nulling beam combiners,” Appl. Opt. 40, 1668-1671 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  6. B. Mennesson, A. Leger, and M. Ollivier, “Direct detection and characterization of extrasolar planets: The Mariotti space interferometer,” Icarus 178, 570-588 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  7. E. Serabyn, “Nulling interferometry: symmetry requirements and experimental results,” Proc. SPIE 4006, 328-339 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  8. E. Serabyn, “Nulling interferometry progress,” Proc. SPIE 4838, 594-608 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. Angel, “Use of a 16 m telescope to detect earth-like planets,” in The Next Generation Space Telescope, P. Bely, C. Burrows, and G. Illingworth, eds. (Space Telescope Science Institute, 1989), p. 81.
  10. R. M. Morgan, J. H. Burge, and N. J. Woolf, “Final laboratory results of visible nulling with dielectric plates,” Proc. SPIE 4838, 644-655 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  11. P. Baudoz, J. Gay, and Y. Rabbia, “Interfero-coronagraphy: a tool for detection of faint companions,” Astron. Soc. Pac. Conf. Ser. 134, 254-261(1998).
  12. R. D. Peters, O. P. Lay, and M. Jeganathan, “Broadband phase and intensity compensation with a deformable mirror for an interferometric nuller,” Appl. Opt. 47, 3920-3926 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. D. Mawet, C. Hanot, C. Lenaerts, P. Riaud, D. Defrere, D. Vandormael, J. Loicq, K. Fleury, J.-Y. Plesseria, J. Surdej, and S. Habraken, “Fresnel rhombs as achromatic phase shifters for infrared nulling interferometry,” Opt. Express 15, 12850-12865 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. D. Rouan and D. Pelat, “The achromatic chessboard, a new concept of a phase shifter for nulling interferometry. I. Theory,” Astron. Astrophys. 484, 581-589 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  15. R. Samuele, J. K. Wallace, E. Schmidtlin, M. Shao, B. M. Levine, and S. Fregoso, “Experimental progress and results of a visible nulling coronagraph,” in Proceedings of IEEE Aerospace Conference (Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers, 2007), paper 1333.
  16. S. R. Martin, R. O. Gappinger, F. M. Loya, B. P. Mennesson, S. L. Crawford, and E. Serabyn, “A mid-infrared nuller for Terrestrial Planet Finder: design, progress, and results,” Proc. SPIE 5170, 144-154 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  17. P. Haguenauer and E. Serabyn, “Deep nulling of laser light with a single-mode-fiber beam combiner,” Appl Opt 45, 2749-2754 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. K. Ergenzinger, R. Flatscher, U. Johann, R. Vink, and Z. Sodnik, “EADS Astrium nulling interferometer breadboard for Darwin and GENIE,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Space Optics 2004 (European Space Agency, 2004), pp. 223-230.
  19. C. Buisset, X. Rejeaunier, Y. Rabbia, and M. Barillot, “Stable deep nulling in polychromatic unpolarized light with multiaxial beam combination,” Appl. Opt. 46, 7817-7822(2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. J. K. Wallace, G. Hardy, and E. Serabyn, “Deep and stable interferometric nulling of broadband light with implications for observing planets around nearby stars,” Nature 406, 700-702 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. B. Mennesson, S. L. Crawford, E. Serabyn, S. Martin, M. Creech-Eakman, and G. Hardy, “Laboratory performance of the Keck Interferometer nulling beam combiner,” in Towards Other Earths: Darwin/TPF and the Search for Extrasolar Terrestrial Planets (European Space Agency, 2003), Vol. SP-539, pp. 525-529.
  22. A. J. Booth, S. R. Martin, and F. Loya, “Exoplanet exploration program, planet detection test-bed: latest results of planet light detection in the presence of starlight,” Proc. SPIE 7013, 701320 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  23. B. Mennesson, P. Haguenauer, E. Serabyn, and K. Liewer, “Deep broad-band infrared nulling using a single-mode fiber beam combiner and baseline rotation,” Proc. SPIE 6268, 626830 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  24. J. K. Wallace, V. Babtiwale, R. Bartos, K. Brown, R. Gappinger, F. Loya, D. MacDonald, S. Martin, J. Negron, T. Truong, and G. Vasisht, “Mid-IR interferometric nulling for TPF,” Proc. SPIE 5491, 862-873 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  25. J. K. Wallace, R. Bartos, R. Gappinger, F. Loya, S. Moser, and J. Negron, “Progress in broadband infrared nulling technology for TPF,” Proc. SPIE 5905, 590505 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  26. R. O. Gappinger, J. K. Wallace, R. D. Bartos, D. R. MacDonald, and K. A. Brown, “Current progress on TPFI nulling architectures at Jet Propulsion Laboratory,” Proc. SPIE 5905, 590506(2005).
    [CrossRef]
  27. J. M. Bridges and A. L. Migdall, “Characterization of argon arc source in the infrared,” Metrologia 32, 625-628 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  28. B. Mennesson, M. Ollivier, and C. Ruilier, “Use of single-mode waveguides to correct the optical defects of a nulling interferometer,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 19, 596-602 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  29. A. Ksendzov, O. P. Lay, S. Martin, J. S. Sanghera, L. E. Busse, W. H. Kim, P. C. Pureza, V. Q. Nguyen, and I. D. Aggarwal, “Characterization of mid-infrared single-mode fibers as modal filters,” Appl. Opt. 46, 7957-7962 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. F. Brachet, A. Labeque, A. Leger, M. Ollivier, C. Lizambert, V. Hervier, B. Chazelas, B. Pellet, T. Lepine, and C. Valette, “Nulling interferometry for the Darwin mission: polychromatic laboratory test bench,” Proc. SPIE 5491, 991-998(2004).
    [CrossRef]
  31. O. Lay, S. Dubovitsky, R. Peters, J. Burger, W. Steier, S. Ahn, and H. Fetterman, “MSTAR: an absolute metrology system with submicrometer accuracy,” Proc. SPIE 5491, 1068-1078(2004).
    [CrossRef]
  32. E. Serabyn, A. J. Booth, M. M. Colavita, M. J. Creech-Eakman, S. L. Crawford, J. Garcia, R. L. Johnson Jr., E. Hovland, C. Koresko, E. R. Ligon III , S. R. Martin, B. P. Mennesson, J. D. Moore, D. L. Palmer, C. G. Paine, M. Shao, M. R. Swain, R. F. Smythe, and G. Vasisht, “The Keck Interferometer Nuller: system architecture and laboratory performance,” Proc. SPIE 5491, 806-815 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  33. J. Gay and Y. Rabbia, “Principe d'un coronagraphe interférentiel,” Comptes Rendus de l'Academie des Sciences Paris, Serie II b, Astronomical Techniques (1996), Vol. 322, pp. 265-271.
  34. L. G. Gouy, “Sur une propriété nouvelle des ondes lumineuses,” C. R. Acad. Sci. 110, 1251-1253, (1890).
  35. R. O. Gappinger, R. T. Diaz, S. R. Martin, F. M. Loya, and P. R. Lawson, “Current progress on TPF-I mid-infrared achromatic nulling at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory,” Proc. SPIE 6693, 669318 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  36. W. J. Tango and J. Davis, “Application of geometric phase techniques to stellar interferometry,” Appl. Opt. 35, 621-623(1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  37. W. Danchi and B. Lopez, “The Fourier-Kelvin Stellar Interferometer (FKSI)--A practical infrared space interferometer on the path to the discovery and characterization of Earth-like planets around nearby stars,” C. R. Phys. 8, 396-407(2007).

2008

P. R. Lawson, O. P. Lay, S. R. Martin, R. D. Peters, R. O. Gappinger, A. Ksendzov, D. P. Scharf, A. J. Booth, C. A. Beichman, E. Serabyn, K. J. Johnston, and W. C. Danchi, “Terrestrial Planet Finder Interferometer: 2007-2008 progress and plans,” Proc. SPIE 7013, 70132N (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. D. Peters, O. P. Lay, and M. Jeganathan, “Broadband phase and intensity compensation with a deformable mirror for an interferometric nuller,” Appl. Opt. 47, 3920-3926 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Rouan and D. Pelat, “The achromatic chessboard, a new concept of a phase shifter for nulling interferometry. I. Theory,” Astron. Astrophys. 484, 581-589 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Booth, S. R. Martin, and F. Loya, “Exoplanet exploration program, planet detection test-bed: latest results of planet light detection in the presence of starlight,” Proc. SPIE 7013, 701320 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

C. Buisset, X. Rejeaunier, Y. Rabbia, and M. Barillot, “Stable deep nulling in polychromatic unpolarized light with multiaxial beam combination,” Appl. Opt. 46, 7817-7822(2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ksendzov, O. P. Lay, S. Martin, J. S. Sanghera, L. E. Busse, W. H. Kim, P. C. Pureza, V. Q. Nguyen, and I. D. Aggarwal, “Characterization of mid-infrared single-mode fibers as modal filters,” Appl. Opt. 46, 7957-7962 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. O. Gappinger, R. T. Diaz, S. R. Martin, F. M. Loya, and P. R. Lawson, “Current progress on TPF-I mid-infrared achromatic nulling at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory,” Proc. SPIE 6693, 669318 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. Danchi and B. Lopez, “The Fourier-Kelvin Stellar Interferometer (FKSI)--A practical infrared space interferometer on the path to the discovery and characterization of Earth-like planets around nearby stars,” C. R. Phys. 8, 396-407(2007).

R. Samuele, J. K. Wallace, E. Schmidtlin, M. Shao, B. M. Levine, and S. Fregoso, “Experimental progress and results of a visible nulling coronagraph,” in Proceedings of IEEE Aerospace Conference (Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers, 2007), paper 1333.

D. Mawet, C. Hanot, C. Lenaerts, P. Riaud, D. Defrere, D. Vandormael, J. Loicq, K. Fleury, J.-Y. Plesseria, J. Surdej, and S. Habraken, “Fresnel rhombs as achromatic phase shifters for infrared nulling interferometry,” Opt. Express 15, 12850-12865 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

P. Haguenauer and E. Serabyn, “Deep nulling of laser light with a single-mode-fiber beam combiner,” Appl Opt 45, 2749-2754 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. P. Lay, “Removing instability noise in nulling interferometers,” Proc. SPIE 6268, 62681A (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. Mennesson, P. Haguenauer, E. Serabyn, and K. Liewer, “Deep broad-band infrared nulling using a single-mode fiber beam combiner and baseline rotation,” Proc. SPIE 6268, 626830 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

J. K. Wallace, R. Bartos, R. Gappinger, F. Loya, S. Moser, and J. Negron, “Progress in broadband infrared nulling technology for TPF,” Proc. SPIE 5905, 590505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. O. Gappinger, J. K. Wallace, R. D. Bartos, D. R. MacDonald, and K. A. Brown, “Current progress on TPFI nulling architectures at Jet Propulsion Laboratory,” Proc. SPIE 5905, 590506(2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Martin, P. Szwaykowski, and F. Loya, “Testing exo-planet signal extraction using the Terrestrial Planet Finder Planet Detection Testbed,” Proc. SPIE 5905, 590508 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. Mennesson, A. Leger, and M. Ollivier, “Direct detection and characterization of extrasolar planets: The Mariotti space interferometer,” Icarus 178, 570-588 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

K. Ergenzinger, R. Flatscher, U. Johann, R. Vink, and Z. Sodnik, “EADS Astrium nulling interferometer breadboard for Darwin and GENIE,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Space Optics 2004 (European Space Agency, 2004), pp. 223-230.

J. K. Wallace, V. Babtiwale, R. Bartos, K. Brown, R. Gappinger, F. Loya, D. MacDonald, S. Martin, J. Negron, T. Truong, and G. Vasisht, “Mid-IR interferometric nulling for TPF,” Proc. SPIE 5491, 862-873 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. Brachet, A. Labeque, A. Leger, M. Ollivier, C. Lizambert, V. Hervier, B. Chazelas, B. Pellet, T. Lepine, and C. Valette, “Nulling interferometry for the Darwin mission: polychromatic laboratory test bench,” Proc. SPIE 5491, 991-998(2004).
[CrossRef]

O. Lay, S. Dubovitsky, R. Peters, J. Burger, W. Steier, S. Ahn, and H. Fetterman, “MSTAR: an absolute metrology system with submicrometer accuracy,” Proc. SPIE 5491, 1068-1078(2004).
[CrossRef]

E. Serabyn, A. J. Booth, M. M. Colavita, M. J. Creech-Eakman, S. L. Crawford, J. Garcia, R. L. Johnson Jr., E. Hovland, C. Koresko, E. R. Ligon III , S. R. Martin, B. P. Mennesson, J. D. Moore, D. L. Palmer, C. G. Paine, M. Shao, M. R. Swain, R. F. Smythe, and G. Vasisht, “The Keck Interferometer Nuller: system architecture and laboratory performance,” Proc. SPIE 5491, 806-815 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

B. Mennesson, S. L. Crawford, E. Serabyn, S. Martin, M. Creech-Eakman, and G. Hardy, “Laboratory performance of the Keck Interferometer nulling beam combiner,” in Towards Other Earths: Darwin/TPF and the Search for Extrasolar Terrestrial Planets (European Space Agency, 2003), Vol. SP-539, pp. 525-529.

S. R. Martin, R. O. Gappinger, F. M. Loya, B. P. Mennesson, S. L. Crawford, and E. Serabyn, “A mid-infrared nuller for Terrestrial Planet Finder: design, progress, and results,” Proc. SPIE 5170, 144-154 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Morgan, J. H. Burge, and N. J. Woolf, “Final laboratory results of visible nulling with dielectric plates,” Proc. SPIE 4838, 644-655 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. Serabyn, “Nulling interferometry progress,” Proc. SPIE 4838, 594-608 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

B. Mennesson, M. Ollivier, and C. Ruilier, “Use of single-mode waveguides to correct the optical defects of a nulling interferometer,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 19, 596-602 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

2000

E. Serabyn, “Nulling interferometry: symmetry requirements and experimental results,” Proc. SPIE 4006, 328-339 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Wallace, G. Hardy, and E. Serabyn, “Deep and stable interferometric nulling of broadband light with implications for observing planets around nearby stars,” Nature 406, 700-702 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998

P. Baudoz, J. Gay, and Y. Rabbia, “Interfero-coronagraphy: a tool for detection of faint companions,” Astron. Soc. Pac. Conf. Ser. 134, 254-261(1998).

1996

J. M. Bridges and A. L. Migdall, “Characterization of argon arc source in the infrared,” Metrologia 32, 625-628 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Gay and Y. Rabbia, “Principe d'un coronagraphe interférentiel,” Comptes Rendus de l'Academie des Sciences Paris, Serie II b, Astronomical Techniques (1996), Vol. 322, pp. 265-271.

W. J. Tango and J. Davis, “Application of geometric phase techniques to stellar interferometry,” Appl. Opt. 35, 621-623(1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989

R. Angel, “Use of a 16 m telescope to detect earth-like planets,” in The Next Generation Space Telescope, P. Bely, C. Burrows, and G. Illingworth, eds. (Space Telescope Science Institute, 1989), p. 81.

1890

L. G. Gouy, “Sur une propriété nouvelle des ondes lumineuses,” C. R. Acad. Sci. 110, 1251-1253, (1890).

Absil, O.

C. S. Cockell, T. Herbst, A. Leger, M. Fridlund, T. Herbst, L. Kaltenegger, O. Absil, C. Beichman, W. Benz, M. Blanc, A. Brack, A. Chelli, L. Colangeli, H. Cottin, V. Coude du Foresto, W. Danchi, D. Defrere, J.-W. den Herder, C. Eiroa, J. Greaves, T. Henning, K. Johnston, H. Jones, L. Labadie, H. Lammer, R. Launhardt, P. Lawson, O. P. Lay, J.-M. LeDuigou, R. Liseau, F. Malbet, S. R. Martin, D. Mawet, D. Mourard, C. Moutou, L. Mugnier, F. Paresce, A. Quirrenbach, Y. Rabbia, J. A. Raven, H. J. A. Rottgering, D. Rouan, N. Santos, F. Selsis, E. Serabyn, H. Shibai, M. Tamura, E. Thiebaut, F. Westall, White, and J. Glenn, “Darwin--A mission to detect and search for life on extrasolar planets,” Astrobiology , available at http://arxiv.org/abs/0805.1873.
[PubMed]

Aggarwal, I. D.

Ahn, S.

O. Lay, S. Dubovitsky, R. Peters, J. Burger, W. Steier, S. Ahn, and H. Fetterman, “MSTAR: an absolute metrology system with submicrometer accuracy,” Proc. SPIE 5491, 1068-1078(2004).
[CrossRef]

Angel, R.

R. Angel, “Use of a 16 m telescope to detect earth-like planets,” in The Next Generation Space Telescope, P. Bely, C. Burrows, and G. Illingworth, eds. (Space Telescope Science Institute, 1989), p. 81.

Babtiwale, V.

J. K. Wallace, V. Babtiwale, R. Bartos, K. Brown, R. Gappinger, F. Loya, D. MacDonald, S. Martin, J. Negron, T. Truong, and G. Vasisht, “Mid-IR interferometric nulling for TPF,” Proc. SPIE 5491, 862-873 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Barillot, M.

Bartos, R.

J. K. Wallace, R. Bartos, R. Gappinger, F. Loya, S. Moser, and J. Negron, “Progress in broadband infrared nulling technology for TPF,” Proc. SPIE 5905, 590505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Wallace, V. Babtiwale, R. Bartos, K. Brown, R. Gappinger, F. Loya, D. MacDonald, S. Martin, J. Negron, T. Truong, and G. Vasisht, “Mid-IR interferometric nulling for TPF,” Proc. SPIE 5491, 862-873 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bartos, R. D.

R. O. Gappinger, J. K. Wallace, R. D. Bartos, D. R. MacDonald, and K. A. Brown, “Current progress on TPFI nulling architectures at Jet Propulsion Laboratory,” Proc. SPIE 5905, 590506(2005).
[CrossRef]

Baudoz, P.

P. Baudoz, J. Gay, and Y. Rabbia, “Interfero-coronagraphy: a tool for detection of faint companions,” Astron. Soc. Pac. Conf. Ser. 134, 254-261(1998).

Beichman, C.

C. S. Cockell, T. Herbst, A. Leger, M. Fridlund, T. Herbst, L. Kaltenegger, O. Absil, C. Beichman, W. Benz, M. Blanc, A. Brack, A. Chelli, L. Colangeli, H. Cottin, V. Coude du Foresto, W. Danchi, D. Defrere, J.-W. den Herder, C. Eiroa, J. Greaves, T. Henning, K. Johnston, H. Jones, L. Labadie, H. Lammer, R. Launhardt, P. Lawson, O. P. Lay, J.-M. LeDuigou, R. Liseau, F. Malbet, S. R. Martin, D. Mawet, D. Mourard, C. Moutou, L. Mugnier, F. Paresce, A. Quirrenbach, Y. Rabbia, J. A. Raven, H. J. A. Rottgering, D. Rouan, N. Santos, F. Selsis, E. Serabyn, H. Shibai, M. Tamura, E. Thiebaut, F. Westall, White, and J. Glenn, “Darwin--A mission to detect and search for life on extrasolar planets,” Astrobiology , available at http://arxiv.org/abs/0805.1873.
[PubMed]

Beichman, C. A.

P. R. Lawson, O. P. Lay, S. R. Martin, R. D. Peters, R. O. Gappinger, A. Ksendzov, D. P. Scharf, A. J. Booth, C. A. Beichman, E. Serabyn, K. J. Johnston, and W. C. Danchi, “Terrestrial Planet Finder Interferometer: 2007-2008 progress and plans,” Proc. SPIE 7013, 70132N (2008).
[CrossRef]

Benz, W.

C. S. Cockell, T. Herbst, A. Leger, M. Fridlund, T. Herbst, L. Kaltenegger, O. Absil, C. Beichman, W. Benz, M. Blanc, A. Brack, A. Chelli, L. Colangeli, H. Cottin, V. Coude du Foresto, W. Danchi, D. Defrere, J.-W. den Herder, C. Eiroa, J. Greaves, T. Henning, K. Johnston, H. Jones, L. Labadie, H. Lammer, R. Launhardt, P. Lawson, O. P. Lay, J.-M. LeDuigou, R. Liseau, F. Malbet, S. R. Martin, D. Mawet, D. Mourard, C. Moutou, L. Mugnier, F. Paresce, A. Quirrenbach, Y. Rabbia, J. A. Raven, H. J. A. Rottgering, D. Rouan, N. Santos, F. Selsis, E. Serabyn, H. Shibai, M. Tamura, E. Thiebaut, F. Westall, White, and J. Glenn, “Darwin--A mission to detect and search for life on extrasolar planets,” Astrobiology , available at http://arxiv.org/abs/0805.1873.
[PubMed]

Blanc, M.

C. S. Cockell, T. Herbst, A. Leger, M. Fridlund, T. Herbst, L. Kaltenegger, O. Absil, C. Beichman, W. Benz, M. Blanc, A. Brack, A. Chelli, L. Colangeli, H. Cottin, V. Coude du Foresto, W. Danchi, D. Defrere, J.-W. den Herder, C. Eiroa, J. Greaves, T. Henning, K. Johnston, H. Jones, L. Labadie, H. Lammer, R. Launhardt, P. Lawson, O. P. Lay, J.-M. LeDuigou, R. Liseau, F. Malbet, S. R. Martin, D. Mawet, D. Mourard, C. Moutou, L. Mugnier, F. Paresce, A. Quirrenbach, Y. Rabbia, J. A. Raven, H. J. A. Rottgering, D. Rouan, N. Santos, F. Selsis, E. Serabyn, H. Shibai, M. Tamura, E. Thiebaut, F. Westall, White, and J. Glenn, “Darwin--A mission to detect and search for life on extrasolar planets,” Astrobiology , available at http://arxiv.org/abs/0805.1873.
[PubMed]

Booth, A. J.

P. R. Lawson, O. P. Lay, S. R. Martin, R. D. Peters, R. O. Gappinger, A. Ksendzov, D. P. Scharf, A. J. Booth, C. A. Beichman, E. Serabyn, K. J. Johnston, and W. C. Danchi, “Terrestrial Planet Finder Interferometer: 2007-2008 progress and plans,” Proc. SPIE 7013, 70132N (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Booth, S. R. Martin, and F. Loya, “Exoplanet exploration program, planet detection test-bed: latest results of planet light detection in the presence of starlight,” Proc. SPIE 7013, 701320 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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E. Serabyn, A. J. Booth, M. M. Colavita, M. J. Creech-Eakman, S. L. Crawford, J. Garcia, R. L. Johnson Jr., E. Hovland, C. Koresko, E. R. Ligon III , S. R. Martin, B. P. Mennesson, J. D. Moore, D. L. Palmer, C. G. Paine, M. Shao, M. R. Swain, R. F. Smythe, and G. Vasisht, “The Keck Interferometer Nuller: system architecture and laboratory performance,” Proc. SPIE 5491, 806-815 (2004).
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O. Lay, S. Dubovitsky, R. Peters, J. Burger, W. Steier, S. Ahn, and H. Fetterman, “MSTAR: an absolute metrology system with submicrometer accuracy,” Proc. SPIE 5491, 1068-1078(2004).
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P. R. Lawson, O. P. Lay, S. R. Martin, R. D. Peters, R. O. Gappinger, A. Ksendzov, D. P. Scharf, A. J. Booth, C. A. Beichman, E. Serabyn, K. J. Johnston, and W. C. Danchi, “Terrestrial Planet Finder Interferometer: 2007-2008 progress and plans,” Proc. SPIE 7013, 70132N (2008).
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C. S. Cockell, T. Herbst, A. Leger, M. Fridlund, T. Herbst, L. Kaltenegger, O. Absil, C. Beichman, W. Benz, M. Blanc, A. Brack, A. Chelli, L. Colangeli, H. Cottin, V. Coude du Foresto, W. Danchi, D. Defrere, J.-W. den Herder, C. Eiroa, J. Greaves, T. Henning, K. Johnston, H. Jones, L. Labadie, H. Lammer, R. Launhardt, P. Lawson, O. P. Lay, J.-M. LeDuigou, R. Liseau, F. Malbet, S. R. Martin, D. Mawet, D. Mourard, C. Moutou, L. Mugnier, F. Paresce, A. Quirrenbach, Y. Rabbia, J. A. Raven, H. J. A. Rottgering, D. Rouan, N. Santos, F. Selsis, E. Serabyn, H. Shibai, M. Tamura, E. Thiebaut, F. Westall, White, and J. Glenn, “Darwin--A mission to detect and search for life on extrasolar planets,” Astrobiology , available at http://arxiv.org/abs/0805.1873.
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Lepine, T.

F. Brachet, A. Labeque, A. Leger, M. Ollivier, C. Lizambert, V. Hervier, B. Chazelas, B. Pellet, T. Lepine, and C. Valette, “Nulling interferometry for the Darwin mission: polychromatic laboratory test bench,” Proc. SPIE 5491, 991-998(2004).
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B. Mennesson, P. Haguenauer, E. Serabyn, and K. Liewer, “Deep broad-band infrared nulling using a single-mode fiber beam combiner and baseline rotation,” Proc. SPIE 6268, 626830 (2006).
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Liseau, R.

C. S. Cockell, T. Herbst, A. Leger, M. Fridlund, T. Herbst, L. Kaltenegger, O. Absil, C. Beichman, W. Benz, M. Blanc, A. Brack, A. Chelli, L. Colangeli, H. Cottin, V. Coude du Foresto, W. Danchi, D. Defrere, J.-W. den Herder, C. Eiroa, J. Greaves, T. Henning, K. Johnston, H. Jones, L. Labadie, H. Lammer, R. Launhardt, P. Lawson, O. P. Lay, J.-M. LeDuigou, R. Liseau, F. Malbet, S. R. Martin, D. Mawet, D. Mourard, C. Moutou, L. Mugnier, F. Paresce, A. Quirrenbach, Y. Rabbia, J. A. Raven, H. J. A. Rottgering, D. Rouan, N. Santos, F. Selsis, E. Serabyn, H. Shibai, M. Tamura, E. Thiebaut, F. Westall, White, and J. Glenn, “Darwin--A mission to detect and search for life on extrasolar planets,” Astrobiology , available at http://arxiv.org/abs/0805.1873.
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F. Brachet, A. Labeque, A. Leger, M. Ollivier, C. Lizambert, V. Hervier, B. Chazelas, B. Pellet, T. Lepine, and C. Valette, “Nulling interferometry for the Darwin mission: polychromatic laboratory test bench,” Proc. SPIE 5491, 991-998(2004).
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Lopez, B.

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A. J. Booth, S. R. Martin, and F. Loya, “Exoplanet exploration program, planet detection test-bed: latest results of planet light detection in the presence of starlight,” Proc. SPIE 7013, 701320 (2008).
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R. O. Gappinger, R. T. Diaz, S. R. Martin, F. M. Loya, and P. R. Lawson, “Current progress on TPF-I mid-infrared achromatic nulling at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory,” Proc. SPIE 6693, 669318 (2007).
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MacDonald, D.

J. K. Wallace, V. Babtiwale, R. Bartos, K. Brown, R. Gappinger, F. Loya, D. MacDonald, S. Martin, J. Negron, T. Truong, and G. Vasisht, “Mid-IR interferometric nulling for TPF,” Proc. SPIE 5491, 862-873 (2004).
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C. S. Cockell, T. Herbst, A. Leger, M. Fridlund, T. Herbst, L. Kaltenegger, O. Absil, C. Beichman, W. Benz, M. Blanc, A. Brack, A. Chelli, L. Colangeli, H. Cottin, V. Coude du Foresto, W. Danchi, D. Defrere, J.-W. den Herder, C. Eiroa, J. Greaves, T. Henning, K. Johnston, H. Jones, L. Labadie, H. Lammer, R. Launhardt, P. Lawson, O. P. Lay, J.-M. LeDuigou, R. Liseau, F. Malbet, S. R. Martin, D. Mawet, D. Mourard, C. Moutou, L. Mugnier, F. Paresce, A. Quirrenbach, Y. Rabbia, J. A. Raven, H. J. A. Rottgering, D. Rouan, N. Santos, F. Selsis, E. Serabyn, H. Shibai, M. Tamura, E. Thiebaut, F. Westall, White, and J. Glenn, “Darwin--A mission to detect and search for life on extrasolar planets,” Astrobiology , available at http://arxiv.org/abs/0805.1873.
[PubMed]

Scharf, D. P.

P. R. Lawson, O. P. Lay, S. R. Martin, R. D. Peters, R. O. Gappinger, A. Ksendzov, D. P. Scharf, A. J. Booth, C. A. Beichman, E. Serabyn, K. J. Johnston, and W. C. Danchi, “Terrestrial Planet Finder Interferometer: 2007-2008 progress and plans,” Proc. SPIE 7013, 70132N (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schmidtlin, E.

R. Samuele, J. K. Wallace, E. Schmidtlin, M. Shao, B. M. Levine, and S. Fregoso, “Experimental progress and results of a visible nulling coronagraph,” in Proceedings of IEEE Aerospace Conference (Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers, 2007), paper 1333.

Selsis, F.

C. S. Cockell, T. Herbst, A. Leger, M. Fridlund, T. Herbst, L. Kaltenegger, O. Absil, C. Beichman, W. Benz, M. Blanc, A. Brack, A. Chelli, L. Colangeli, H. Cottin, V. Coude du Foresto, W. Danchi, D. Defrere, J.-W. den Herder, C. Eiroa, J. Greaves, T. Henning, K. Johnston, H. Jones, L. Labadie, H. Lammer, R. Launhardt, P. Lawson, O. P. Lay, J.-M. LeDuigou, R. Liseau, F. Malbet, S. R. Martin, D. Mawet, D. Mourard, C. Moutou, L. Mugnier, F. Paresce, A. Quirrenbach, Y. Rabbia, J. A. Raven, H. J. A. Rottgering, D. Rouan, N. Santos, F. Selsis, E. Serabyn, H. Shibai, M. Tamura, E. Thiebaut, F. Westall, White, and J. Glenn, “Darwin--A mission to detect and search for life on extrasolar planets,” Astrobiology , available at http://arxiv.org/abs/0805.1873.
[PubMed]

Serabyn, E.

P. R. Lawson, O. P. Lay, S. R. Martin, R. D. Peters, R. O. Gappinger, A. Ksendzov, D. P. Scharf, A. J. Booth, C. A. Beichman, E. Serabyn, K. J. Johnston, and W. C. Danchi, “Terrestrial Planet Finder Interferometer: 2007-2008 progress and plans,” Proc. SPIE 7013, 70132N (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Haguenauer and E. Serabyn, “Deep nulling of laser light with a single-mode-fiber beam combiner,” Appl Opt 45, 2749-2754 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Mennesson, P. Haguenauer, E. Serabyn, and K. Liewer, “Deep broad-band infrared nulling using a single-mode fiber beam combiner and baseline rotation,” Proc. SPIE 6268, 626830 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. Serabyn, A. J. Booth, M. M. Colavita, M. J. Creech-Eakman, S. L. Crawford, J. Garcia, R. L. Johnson Jr., E. Hovland, C. Koresko, E. R. Ligon III , S. R. Martin, B. P. Mennesson, J. D. Moore, D. L. Palmer, C. G. Paine, M. Shao, M. R. Swain, R. F. Smythe, and G. Vasisht, “The Keck Interferometer Nuller: system architecture and laboratory performance,” Proc. SPIE 5491, 806-815 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. Mennesson, S. L. Crawford, E. Serabyn, S. Martin, M. Creech-Eakman, and G. Hardy, “Laboratory performance of the Keck Interferometer nulling beam combiner,” in Towards Other Earths: Darwin/TPF and the Search for Extrasolar Terrestrial Planets (European Space Agency, 2003), Vol. SP-539, pp. 525-529.

S. R. Martin, R. O. Gappinger, F. M. Loya, B. P. Mennesson, S. L. Crawford, and E. Serabyn, “A mid-infrared nuller for Terrestrial Planet Finder: design, progress, and results,” Proc. SPIE 5170, 144-154 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. Serabyn, “Nulling interferometry progress,” Proc. SPIE 4838, 594-608 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. Serabyn and M. M. Colavita, “Fully symmetric nulling beam combiners,” Appl. Opt. 40, 1668-1671 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. Serabyn, “Nulling interferometry: symmetry requirements and experimental results,” Proc. SPIE 4006, 328-339 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Wallace, G. Hardy, and E. Serabyn, “Deep and stable interferometric nulling of broadband light with implications for observing planets around nearby stars,” Nature 406, 700-702 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. S. Cockell, T. Herbst, A. Leger, M. Fridlund, T. Herbst, L. Kaltenegger, O. Absil, C. Beichman, W. Benz, M. Blanc, A. Brack, A. Chelli, L. Colangeli, H. Cottin, V. Coude du Foresto, W. Danchi, D. Defrere, J.-W. den Herder, C. Eiroa, J. Greaves, T. Henning, K. Johnston, H. Jones, L. Labadie, H. Lammer, R. Launhardt, P. Lawson, O. P. Lay, J.-M. LeDuigou, R. Liseau, F. Malbet, S. R. Martin, D. Mawet, D. Mourard, C. Moutou, L. Mugnier, F. Paresce, A. Quirrenbach, Y. Rabbia, J. A. Raven, H. J. A. Rottgering, D. Rouan, N. Santos, F. Selsis, E. Serabyn, H. Shibai, M. Tamura, E. Thiebaut, F. Westall, White, and J. Glenn, “Darwin--A mission to detect and search for life on extrasolar planets,” Astrobiology , available at http://arxiv.org/abs/0805.1873.
[PubMed]

Shao, M.

R. Samuele, J. K. Wallace, E. Schmidtlin, M. Shao, B. M. Levine, and S. Fregoso, “Experimental progress and results of a visible nulling coronagraph,” in Proceedings of IEEE Aerospace Conference (Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers, 2007), paper 1333.

E. Serabyn, A. J. Booth, M. M. Colavita, M. J. Creech-Eakman, S. L. Crawford, J. Garcia, R. L. Johnson Jr., E. Hovland, C. Koresko, E. R. Ligon III , S. R. Martin, B. P. Mennesson, J. D. Moore, D. L. Palmer, C. G. Paine, M. Shao, M. R. Swain, R. F. Smythe, and G. Vasisht, “The Keck Interferometer Nuller: system architecture and laboratory performance,” Proc. SPIE 5491, 806-815 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shibai, H.

C. S. Cockell, T. Herbst, A. Leger, M. Fridlund, T. Herbst, L. Kaltenegger, O. Absil, C. Beichman, W. Benz, M. Blanc, A. Brack, A. Chelli, L. Colangeli, H. Cottin, V. Coude du Foresto, W. Danchi, D. Defrere, J.-W. den Herder, C. Eiroa, J. Greaves, T. Henning, K. Johnston, H. Jones, L. Labadie, H. Lammer, R. Launhardt, P. Lawson, O. P. Lay, J.-M. LeDuigou, R. Liseau, F. Malbet, S. R. Martin, D. Mawet, D. Mourard, C. Moutou, L. Mugnier, F. Paresce, A. Quirrenbach, Y. Rabbia, J. A. Raven, H. J. A. Rottgering, D. Rouan, N. Santos, F. Selsis, E. Serabyn, H. Shibai, M. Tamura, E. Thiebaut, F. Westall, White, and J. Glenn, “Darwin--A mission to detect and search for life on extrasolar planets,” Astrobiology , available at http://arxiv.org/abs/0805.1873.
[PubMed]

Smythe, R. F.

E. Serabyn, A. J. Booth, M. M. Colavita, M. J. Creech-Eakman, S. L. Crawford, J. Garcia, R. L. Johnson Jr., E. Hovland, C. Koresko, E. R. Ligon III , S. R. Martin, B. P. Mennesson, J. D. Moore, D. L. Palmer, C. G. Paine, M. Shao, M. R. Swain, R. F. Smythe, and G. Vasisht, “The Keck Interferometer Nuller: system architecture and laboratory performance,” Proc. SPIE 5491, 806-815 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sodnik, Z.

K. Ergenzinger, R. Flatscher, U. Johann, R. Vink, and Z. Sodnik, “EADS Astrium nulling interferometer breadboard for Darwin and GENIE,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Space Optics 2004 (European Space Agency, 2004), pp. 223-230.

Steier, W.

O. Lay, S. Dubovitsky, R. Peters, J. Burger, W. Steier, S. Ahn, and H. Fetterman, “MSTAR: an absolute metrology system with submicrometer accuracy,” Proc. SPIE 5491, 1068-1078(2004).
[CrossRef]

Surdej, J.

Swain, M. R.

E. Serabyn, A. J. Booth, M. M. Colavita, M. J. Creech-Eakman, S. L. Crawford, J. Garcia, R. L. Johnson Jr., E. Hovland, C. Koresko, E. R. Ligon III , S. R. Martin, B. P. Mennesson, J. D. Moore, D. L. Palmer, C. G. Paine, M. Shao, M. R. Swain, R. F. Smythe, and G. Vasisht, “The Keck Interferometer Nuller: system architecture and laboratory performance,” Proc. SPIE 5491, 806-815 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Szwaykowski, P.

S. Martin, P. Szwaykowski, and F. Loya, “Testing exo-planet signal extraction using the Terrestrial Planet Finder Planet Detection Testbed,” Proc. SPIE 5905, 590508 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tamura, M.

C. S. Cockell, T. Herbst, A. Leger, M. Fridlund, T. Herbst, L. Kaltenegger, O. Absil, C. Beichman, W. Benz, M. Blanc, A. Brack, A. Chelli, L. Colangeli, H. Cottin, V. Coude du Foresto, W. Danchi, D. Defrere, J.-W. den Herder, C. Eiroa, J. Greaves, T. Henning, K. Johnston, H. Jones, L. Labadie, H. Lammer, R. Launhardt, P. Lawson, O. P. Lay, J.-M. LeDuigou, R. Liseau, F. Malbet, S. R. Martin, D. Mawet, D. Mourard, C. Moutou, L. Mugnier, F. Paresce, A. Quirrenbach, Y. Rabbia, J. A. Raven, H. J. A. Rottgering, D. Rouan, N. Santos, F. Selsis, E. Serabyn, H. Shibai, M. Tamura, E. Thiebaut, F. Westall, White, and J. Glenn, “Darwin--A mission to detect and search for life on extrasolar planets,” Astrobiology , available at http://arxiv.org/abs/0805.1873.
[PubMed]

Tango, W. J.

Thiebaut, E.

C. S. Cockell, T. Herbst, A. Leger, M. Fridlund, T. Herbst, L. Kaltenegger, O. Absil, C. Beichman, W. Benz, M. Blanc, A. Brack, A. Chelli, L. Colangeli, H. Cottin, V. Coude du Foresto, W. Danchi, D. Defrere, J.-W. den Herder, C. Eiroa, J. Greaves, T. Henning, K. Johnston, H. Jones, L. Labadie, H. Lammer, R. Launhardt, P. Lawson, O. P. Lay, J.-M. LeDuigou, R. Liseau, F. Malbet, S. R. Martin, D. Mawet, D. Mourard, C. Moutou, L. Mugnier, F. Paresce, A. Quirrenbach, Y. Rabbia, J. A. Raven, H. J. A. Rottgering, D. Rouan, N. Santos, F. Selsis, E. Serabyn, H. Shibai, M. Tamura, E. Thiebaut, F. Westall, White, and J. Glenn, “Darwin--A mission to detect and search for life on extrasolar planets,” Astrobiology , available at http://arxiv.org/abs/0805.1873.
[PubMed]

Truong, T.

J. K. Wallace, V. Babtiwale, R. Bartos, K. Brown, R. Gappinger, F. Loya, D. MacDonald, S. Martin, J. Negron, T. Truong, and G. Vasisht, “Mid-IR interferometric nulling for TPF,” Proc. SPIE 5491, 862-873 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Valette, C.

F. Brachet, A. Labeque, A. Leger, M. Ollivier, C. Lizambert, V. Hervier, B. Chazelas, B. Pellet, T. Lepine, and C. Valette, “Nulling interferometry for the Darwin mission: polychromatic laboratory test bench,” Proc. SPIE 5491, 991-998(2004).
[CrossRef]

Vandormael, D.

Vasisht, G.

J. K. Wallace, V. Babtiwale, R. Bartos, K. Brown, R. Gappinger, F. Loya, D. MacDonald, S. Martin, J. Negron, T. Truong, and G. Vasisht, “Mid-IR interferometric nulling for TPF,” Proc. SPIE 5491, 862-873 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. Serabyn, A. J. Booth, M. M. Colavita, M. J. Creech-Eakman, S. L. Crawford, J. Garcia, R. L. Johnson Jr., E. Hovland, C. Koresko, E. R. Ligon III , S. R. Martin, B. P. Mennesson, J. D. Moore, D. L. Palmer, C. G. Paine, M. Shao, M. R. Swain, R. F. Smythe, and G. Vasisht, “The Keck Interferometer Nuller: system architecture and laboratory performance,” Proc. SPIE 5491, 806-815 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Vink, R.

K. Ergenzinger, R. Flatscher, U. Johann, R. Vink, and Z. Sodnik, “EADS Astrium nulling interferometer breadboard for Darwin and GENIE,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Space Optics 2004 (European Space Agency, 2004), pp. 223-230.

Wallace, J. K.

R. Samuele, J. K. Wallace, E. Schmidtlin, M. Shao, B. M. Levine, and S. Fregoso, “Experimental progress and results of a visible nulling coronagraph,” in Proceedings of IEEE Aerospace Conference (Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers, 2007), paper 1333.

J. K. Wallace, R. Bartos, R. Gappinger, F. Loya, S. Moser, and J. Negron, “Progress in broadband infrared nulling technology for TPF,” Proc. SPIE 5905, 590505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. O. Gappinger, J. K. Wallace, R. D. Bartos, D. R. MacDonald, and K. A. Brown, “Current progress on TPFI nulling architectures at Jet Propulsion Laboratory,” Proc. SPIE 5905, 590506(2005).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Wallace, V. Babtiwale, R. Bartos, K. Brown, R. Gappinger, F. Loya, D. MacDonald, S. Martin, J. Negron, T. Truong, and G. Vasisht, “Mid-IR interferometric nulling for TPF,” Proc. SPIE 5491, 862-873 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Wallace, G. Hardy, and E. Serabyn, “Deep and stable interferometric nulling of broadband light with implications for observing planets around nearby stars,” Nature 406, 700-702 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Westall, F.

C. S. Cockell, T. Herbst, A. Leger, M. Fridlund, T. Herbst, L. Kaltenegger, O. Absil, C. Beichman, W. Benz, M. Blanc, A. Brack, A. Chelli, L. Colangeli, H. Cottin, V. Coude du Foresto, W. Danchi, D. Defrere, J.-W. den Herder, C. Eiroa, J. Greaves, T. Henning, K. Johnston, H. Jones, L. Labadie, H. Lammer, R. Launhardt, P. Lawson, O. P. Lay, J.-M. LeDuigou, R. Liseau, F. Malbet, S. R. Martin, D. Mawet, D. Mourard, C. Moutou, L. Mugnier, F. Paresce, A. Quirrenbach, Y. Rabbia, J. A. Raven, H. J. A. Rottgering, D. Rouan, N. Santos, F. Selsis, E. Serabyn, H. Shibai, M. Tamura, E. Thiebaut, F. Westall, White, and J. Glenn, “Darwin--A mission to detect and search for life on extrasolar planets,” Astrobiology , available at http://arxiv.org/abs/0805.1873.
[PubMed]

White,

C. S. Cockell, T. Herbst, A. Leger, M. Fridlund, T. Herbst, L. Kaltenegger, O. Absil, C. Beichman, W. Benz, M. Blanc, A. Brack, A. Chelli, L. Colangeli, H. Cottin, V. Coude du Foresto, W. Danchi, D. Defrere, J.-W. den Herder, C. Eiroa, J. Greaves, T. Henning, K. Johnston, H. Jones, L. Labadie, H. Lammer, R. Launhardt, P. Lawson, O. P. Lay, J.-M. LeDuigou, R. Liseau, F. Malbet, S. R. Martin, D. Mawet, D. Mourard, C. Moutou, L. Mugnier, F. Paresce, A. Quirrenbach, Y. Rabbia, J. A. Raven, H. J. A. Rottgering, D. Rouan, N. Santos, F. Selsis, E. Serabyn, H. Shibai, M. Tamura, E. Thiebaut, F. Westall, White, and J. Glenn, “Darwin--A mission to detect and search for life on extrasolar planets,” Astrobiology , available at http://arxiv.org/abs/0805.1873.
[PubMed]

Woolf, N. J.

R. M. Morgan, J. H. Burge, and N. J. Woolf, “Final laboratory results of visible nulling with dielectric plates,” Proc. SPIE 4838, 644-655 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl Opt

P. Haguenauer and E. Serabyn, “Deep nulling of laser light with a single-mode-fiber beam combiner,” Appl Opt 45, 2749-2754 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt.

Astrobiology

C. S. Cockell, T. Herbst, A. Leger, M. Fridlund, T. Herbst, L. Kaltenegger, O. Absil, C. Beichman, W. Benz, M. Blanc, A. Brack, A. Chelli, L. Colangeli, H. Cottin, V. Coude du Foresto, W. Danchi, D. Defrere, J.-W. den Herder, C. Eiroa, J. Greaves, T. Henning, K. Johnston, H. Jones, L. Labadie, H. Lammer, R. Launhardt, P. Lawson, O. P. Lay, J.-M. LeDuigou, R. Liseau, F. Malbet, S. R. Martin, D. Mawet, D. Mourard, C. Moutou, L. Mugnier, F. Paresce, A. Quirrenbach, Y. Rabbia, J. A. Raven, H. J. A. Rottgering, D. Rouan, N. Santos, F. Selsis, E. Serabyn, H. Shibai, M. Tamura, E. Thiebaut, F. Westall, White, and J. Glenn, “Darwin--A mission to detect and search for life on extrasolar planets,” Astrobiology , available at http://arxiv.org/abs/0805.1873.
[PubMed]

Astron. Astrophys.

D. Rouan and D. Pelat, “The achromatic chessboard, a new concept of a phase shifter for nulling interferometry. I. Theory,” Astron. Astrophys. 484, 581-589 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Acad. Sci.

L. G. Gouy, “Sur une propriété nouvelle des ondes lumineuses,” C. R. Acad. Sci. 110, 1251-1253, (1890).

Icarus

B. Mennesson, A. Leger, and M. Ollivier, “Direct detection and characterization of extrasolar planets: The Mariotti space interferometer,” Icarus 178, 570-588 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A.

B. Mennesson, M. Ollivier, and C. Ruilier, “Use of single-mode waveguides to correct the optical defects of a nulling interferometer,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 19, 596-602 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Metrologia

J. M. Bridges and A. L. Migdall, “Characterization of argon arc source in the infrared,” Metrologia 32, 625-628 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nature

J. K. Wallace, G. Hardy, and E. Serabyn, “Deep and stable interferometric nulling of broadband light with implications for observing planets around nearby stars,” Nature 406, 700-702 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

Proc. SPIE

P. R. Lawson, O. P. Lay, S. R. Martin, R. D. Peters, R. O. Gappinger, A. Ksendzov, D. P. Scharf, A. J. Booth, C. A. Beichman, E. Serabyn, K. J. Johnston, and W. C. Danchi, “Terrestrial Planet Finder Interferometer: 2007-2008 progress and plans,” Proc. SPIE 7013, 70132N (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Martin, R. O. Gappinger, F. M. Loya, B. P. Mennesson, S. L. Crawford, and E. Serabyn, “A mid-infrared nuller for Terrestrial Planet Finder: design, progress, and results,” Proc. SPIE 5170, 144-154 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. Serabyn, “Nulling interferometry: symmetry requirements and experimental results,” Proc. SPIE 4006, 328-339 (2000).
[CrossRef]

E. Serabyn, “Nulling interferometry progress,” Proc. SPIE 4838, 594-608 (2003).
[CrossRef]

O. P. Lay, “Removing instability noise in nulling interferometers,” Proc. SPIE 6268, 62681A (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Martin, P. Szwaykowski, and F. Loya, “Testing exo-planet signal extraction using the Terrestrial Planet Finder Planet Detection Testbed,” Proc. SPIE 5905, 590508 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Morgan, J. H. Burge, and N. J. Woolf, “Final laboratory results of visible nulling with dielectric plates,” Proc. SPIE 4838, 644-655 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Booth, S. R. Martin, and F. Loya, “Exoplanet exploration program, planet detection test-bed: latest results of planet light detection in the presence of starlight,” Proc. SPIE 7013, 701320 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Mennesson, P. Haguenauer, E. Serabyn, and K. Liewer, “Deep broad-band infrared nulling using a single-mode fiber beam combiner and baseline rotation,” Proc. SPIE 6268, 626830 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Wallace, V. Babtiwale, R. Bartos, K. Brown, R. Gappinger, F. Loya, D. MacDonald, S. Martin, J. Negron, T. Truong, and G. Vasisht, “Mid-IR interferometric nulling for TPF,” Proc. SPIE 5491, 862-873 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Wallace, R. Bartos, R. Gappinger, F. Loya, S. Moser, and J. Negron, “Progress in broadband infrared nulling technology for TPF,” Proc. SPIE 5905, 590505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. O. Gappinger, J. K. Wallace, R. D. Bartos, D. R. MacDonald, and K. A. Brown, “Current progress on TPFI nulling architectures at Jet Propulsion Laboratory,” Proc. SPIE 5905, 590506(2005).
[CrossRef]

R. O. Gappinger, R. T. Diaz, S. R. Martin, F. M. Loya, and P. R. Lawson, “Current progress on TPF-I mid-infrared achromatic nulling at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory,” Proc. SPIE 6693, 669318 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Brachet, A. Labeque, A. Leger, M. Ollivier, C. Lizambert, V. Hervier, B. Chazelas, B. Pellet, T. Lepine, and C. Valette, “Nulling interferometry for the Darwin mission: polychromatic laboratory test bench,” Proc. SPIE 5491, 991-998(2004).
[CrossRef]

O. Lay, S. Dubovitsky, R. Peters, J. Burger, W. Steier, S. Ahn, and H. Fetterman, “MSTAR: an absolute metrology system with submicrometer accuracy,” Proc. SPIE 5491, 1068-1078(2004).
[CrossRef]

E. Serabyn, A. J. Booth, M. M. Colavita, M. J. Creech-Eakman, S. L. Crawford, J. Garcia, R. L. Johnson Jr., E. Hovland, C. Koresko, E. R. Ligon III , S. R. Martin, B. P. Mennesson, J. D. Moore, D. L. Palmer, C. G. Paine, M. Shao, M. R. Swain, R. F. Smythe, and G. Vasisht, “The Keck Interferometer Nuller: system architecture and laboratory performance,” Proc. SPIE 5491, 806-815 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Other

J. Gay and Y. Rabbia, “Principe d'un coronagraphe interférentiel,” Comptes Rendus de l'Academie des Sciences Paris, Serie II b, Astronomical Techniques (1996), Vol. 322, pp. 265-271.

W. Danchi and B. Lopez, “The Fourier-Kelvin Stellar Interferometer (FKSI)--A practical infrared space interferometer on the path to the discovery and characterization of Earth-like planets around nearby stars,” C. R. Phys. 8, 396-407(2007).

B. Mennesson, S. L. Crawford, E. Serabyn, S. Martin, M. Creech-Eakman, and G. Hardy, “Laboratory performance of the Keck Interferometer nulling beam combiner,” in Towards Other Earths: Darwin/TPF and the Search for Extrasolar Terrestrial Planets (European Space Agency, 2003), Vol. SP-539, pp. 525-529.

P. Baudoz, J. Gay, and Y. Rabbia, “Interfero-coronagraphy: a tool for detection of faint companions,” Astron. Soc. Pac. Conf. Ser. 134, 254-261(1998).

R. Angel, “Use of a 16 m telescope to detect earth-like planets,” in The Next Generation Space Telescope, P. Bely, C. Burrows, and G. Illingworth, eds. (Space Telescope Science Institute, 1989), p. 81.

K. Ergenzinger, R. Flatscher, U. Johann, R. Vink, and Z. Sodnik, “EADS Astrium nulling interferometer breadboard for Darwin and GENIE,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Space Optics 2004 (European Space Agency, 2004), pp. 223-230.

R. Samuele, J. K. Wallace, E. Schmidtlin, M. Shao, B. M. Levine, and S. Fregoso, “Experimental progress and results of a visible nulling coronagraph,” in Proceedings of IEEE Aerospace Conference (Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers, 2007), paper 1333.

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Source and input spatial filter layout. CO 2 laser and broadband source are co-aligned into the pinhole and single-mode fiber. Output of the source module is the input to the nuller.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Phase plate nuller layout. One phase plate in each beam is rotated to optimize the differential glass thickness to generate quasi-achromatic phase shift.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Dual-glass phase plate adjustment via rotation stages. One plate of each glass type is rotated.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Through-focus nuller layout. Matched focal length parabolic mirrors provide the mechanism for the Gouy phase shift. The microbolometer array is used to view the infrared beam during alignment.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Electric field (pupil) inversion in the periscope nulling architecture.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Periscope nuller layout. Note, the metrology beam enters from the top (back side of Beam splitter 1) and exits to a separate detector (not shown) from the back side of Beam splitter 2.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Photograph of the periscope nulling interferometer including Beam splitter 1 and the field flip mirrors in the periscope monolith.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Null depth versus differential glass thickness. Bandwidth for calculation is 25% centered at 9.45 μm .

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Metrology data showing path length stability. The upper trace shows the raw, unprocessed metrology signal, indicating the real-time path length stability. The lower trace shows the cumulative rms path difference as a function of vibration frequency.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Null fringe measurement using a bandpass filter with a full width at half-maximum width of 20%, centered at 9.45 μm . The fringe signal is normalized to the constructive peak signal.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Null fringe measurement for 25% bandwidth, centered at 9.45 μm .

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Electronic noise on the periscope nuller. The vertical scale is the same as the null measurements. This is the signal measured by the detector and electronics with the infrared source blocked.

Tables (2)

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Table 1 Experimental Results for Various Achromatic Nulling Testbed Architectures

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Table 2 Contributing Factors for Single-Polarization Null Depth on Periscope Nuller

Equations (1)

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N = 1 4 [ ( Δ Φ ) 2 + ( Δ Φ λ ) 2 + ( Δ Φ s p ) 2 + π 2 4 ( θ dia λ sh / b ) 2 + ( δ I ) 2 + ( δ I λ ) + ( α rot ) 2 ] ,

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