Abstract

A method to expand the viewing window for the integral floating display by twofold through time multiplexing is proposed. The viewing window of the integral floating display can be expanded by enlarging the elemental image area for each elemental lens, by which the viewing angle of the integral imaging system is determined. Also, the difference between the effects of elemental image area expansion on the viewing characteristics of images reconstructed by the integral floating display and the integral imaging system is investigated. The experimental results verify the enhancement of the viewing window for the three-dimensional images displayed by the proposed scheme.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. T. Okoshi, Three-Dimensional Imaging Techniques (Academic, 1976).
  2. G. Lippmann, “La photographie integrale,” C. R. Acad. Sci. 146, 446-451 (1908).
  3. T. Okoshi, “Three-dimensional displays,” Proc. IEEE 68, 548-564 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S.-W. Min, M. Hahn, J. Kim, and B. Lee, “Three-dimensional electro-floating display system using an integral imaging method,” Opt. Express 13, 4358-4369 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. F. Okano, H. Hoshino, J. Arai, and I. Yuyama, “Real-time pickup method for a three-dimensional image based on integral photography,” Appl. Opt. 36, 1598-1603 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. H. Liao, M. Iwahara, Y. Katayama, N. Hata, and T. Dohi, “Three-dimensional display with a long viewing distance by use of integral photography,” Opt. Lett. 30, 613 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. S.-W. Min, S. Jung, J.-H. Park, and B. Lee, “Study for wide-viewing integral photography using an aspheric Fresnel-lens array,” Opt. Eng. 41, 2572-2576 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. Jung, J.-H. Park, H. Choi, and B. Lee, “Viewing-angle-enhanced integral three-dimensional imaging along all directions without mechanical movement,” Opt. Express 11, 1346-1356 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. Y. Kim, H. Choi, J. Kim, S.-W. Cho, Y. Kim, G. Park, and B. Lee, “Depth-enhanced integral imaging display system with electrically variable image planes using polymer-dispersed liquid-crystal layers,” Appl. Opt. 46, 3766-3773 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. J.-H. Park, H.-R. Kim, Y. Kim, J. Kim, J. Hong, S.-D. Lee, and B. Lee, “Depth-enhanced three-dimensional-two-dimensional convertible display based on modified integral imaging,” Opt. Lett. 29, 2734-2736 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. J. Hong, J.-H. Park, J. Kim, and B. Lee, “Analysis of image depth in integral imaging and its enhancement by correction to elemental images,” Proc. SPIE 5524, 387-395 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  12. D.-H. Shin, E.-S. Kim, and B. Lee, “Computational reconstruction technique of three-dimensional object in integral imaging using a lenslet array,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 8016-8018 (2005).
  13. D.-H. Shin, B. Lee, and E.-S. Kim, “Effect of illumination in an integral imaging system with large depth of focus,” Appl. Opt. 44, 7749-7753 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. H. Kakeya, “Autostereoscopic display with real-image virtual screen and light filters,” Proc. SPIE 4660, 349-357 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  15. H. Kakeya, “Real image based autostereoscopic display using LCD, mirrors, and lenses,” Proc. SPIE 5006, 99-107 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  16. H. Kakeya, N. Kobe, and H. Kasano, “Multiview autostereoscopic display with floating real image,” Proc. SPIE 5291, 255-264 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  17. H. Kakeya, “MOEVision: simple multiview display with clear floating image,” Proc. SPIE 6490, 64900J (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  18. H. Kakeya, “Formulation of coarse integral imaging and its applications,” Proc. SPIE 6803, 680317 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  19. D.-H. Shin, B. Lee, and E.-S. Kim, “Multidirectional curved integral imaging with large depth by additional use of a large-aperture lens,” Appl. Opt. 45, 7375-7381 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. J. Kim, S.-W. Min, and B. Lee, “Viewing region maximization of an integral floating display through location adjustment of viewing window,” Opt. Express 15, 13023-13034 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. J. Kim, Y. Kim, S.-W. Cho, S.-W. Min, and B. Lee, “Viewing-angle-enhanced floating display system based on integral imaging,” paper CTuN2-3 presented at Pacific Rim Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO-PR), Tokyo, Japan, 2005.
  22. J. Kim, S.-W. Min, and B. Lee, “Floated image mapping for integral floating display,” Opt. Express 16, 8549-8556 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

H. Kakeya, “Formulation of coarse integral imaging and its applications,” Proc. SPIE 6803, 680317 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Kim, S.-W. Min, and B. Lee, “Floated image mapping for integral floating display,” Opt. Express 16, 8549-8556 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

2006

2005

D.-H. Shin, E.-S. Kim, and B. Lee, “Computational reconstruction technique of three-dimensional object in integral imaging using a lenslet array,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 8016-8018 (2005).

J. Kim, Y. Kim, S.-W. Cho, S.-W. Min, and B. Lee, “Viewing-angle-enhanced floating display system based on integral imaging,” paper CTuN2-3 presented at Pacific Rim Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO-PR), Tokyo, Japan, 2005.

H. Liao, M. Iwahara, Y. Katayama, N. Hata, and T. Dohi, “Three-dimensional display with a long viewing distance by use of integral photography,” Opt. Lett. 30, 613 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-W. Min, M. Hahn, J. Kim, and B. Lee, “Three-dimensional electro-floating display system using an integral imaging method,” Opt. Express 13, 4358-4369 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D.-H. Shin, B. Lee, and E.-S. Kim, “Effect of illumination in an integral imaging system with large depth of focus,” Appl. Opt. 44, 7749-7753 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

J.-H. Park, H.-R. Kim, Y. Kim, J. Kim, J. Hong, S.-D. Lee, and B. Lee, “Depth-enhanced three-dimensional-two-dimensional convertible display based on modified integral imaging,” Opt. Lett. 29, 2734-2736 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Hong, J.-H. Park, J. Kim, and B. Lee, “Analysis of image depth in integral imaging and its enhancement by correction to elemental images,” Proc. SPIE 5524, 387-395 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Kakeya, N. Kobe, and H. Kasano, “Multiview autostereoscopic display with floating real image,” Proc. SPIE 5291, 255-264 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

2002

S.-W. Min, S. Jung, J.-H. Park, and B. Lee, “Study for wide-viewing integral photography using an aspheric Fresnel-lens array,” Opt. Eng. 41, 2572-2576 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. Kakeya, “Autostereoscopic display with real-image virtual screen and light filters,” Proc. SPIE 4660, 349-357 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1997

1980

T. Okoshi, “Three-dimensional displays,” Proc. IEEE 68, 548-564 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1976

T. Okoshi, Three-Dimensional Imaging Techniques (Academic, 1976).

1908

G. Lippmann, “La photographie integrale,” C. R. Acad. Sci. 146, 446-451 (1908).

Arai, J.

Cho, S.-W.

Y. Kim, H. Choi, J. Kim, S.-W. Cho, Y. Kim, G. Park, and B. Lee, “Depth-enhanced integral imaging display system with electrically variable image planes using polymer-dispersed liquid-crystal layers,” Appl. Opt. 46, 3766-3773 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Kim, Y. Kim, S.-W. Cho, S.-W. Min, and B. Lee, “Viewing-angle-enhanced floating display system based on integral imaging,” paper CTuN2-3 presented at Pacific Rim Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO-PR), Tokyo, Japan, 2005.

Choi, H.

Dohi, T.

Hahn, M.

Hata, N.

Hong, J.

J.-H. Park, H.-R. Kim, Y. Kim, J. Kim, J. Hong, S.-D. Lee, and B. Lee, “Depth-enhanced three-dimensional-two-dimensional convertible display based on modified integral imaging,” Opt. Lett. 29, 2734-2736 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Hong, J.-H. Park, J. Kim, and B. Lee, “Analysis of image depth in integral imaging and its enhancement by correction to elemental images,” Proc. SPIE 5524, 387-395 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hoshino, H.

Iwahara, M.

Jung, S.

S. Jung, J.-H. Park, H. Choi, and B. Lee, “Viewing-angle-enhanced integral three-dimensional imaging along all directions without mechanical movement,” Opt. Express 11, 1346-1356 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-W. Min, S. Jung, J.-H. Park, and B. Lee, “Study for wide-viewing integral photography using an aspheric Fresnel-lens array,” Opt. Eng. 41, 2572-2576 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kakeya, H.

H. Kakeya, “Formulation of coarse integral imaging and its applications,” Proc. SPIE 6803, 680317 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Kakeya, “MOEVision: simple multiview display with clear floating image,” Proc. SPIE 6490, 64900J (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Kakeya, N. Kobe, and H. Kasano, “Multiview autostereoscopic display with floating real image,” Proc. SPIE 5291, 255-264 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Kakeya, “Real image based autostereoscopic display using LCD, mirrors, and lenses,” Proc. SPIE 5006, 99-107 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Kakeya, “Autostereoscopic display with real-image virtual screen and light filters,” Proc. SPIE 4660, 349-357 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kasano, H.

H. Kakeya, N. Kobe, and H. Kasano, “Multiview autostereoscopic display with floating real image,” Proc. SPIE 5291, 255-264 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Katayama, Y.

Kim, E.-S.

Kim, H.-R.

Kim, J.

Kim, Y.

Kobe, N.

H. Kakeya, N. Kobe, and H. Kasano, “Multiview autostereoscopic display with floating real image,” Proc. SPIE 5291, 255-264 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lee, B.

J. Kim, S.-W. Min, and B. Lee, “Floated image mapping for integral floating display,” Opt. Express 16, 8549-8556 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Kim, H. Choi, J. Kim, S.-W. Cho, Y. Kim, G. Park, and B. Lee, “Depth-enhanced integral imaging display system with electrically variable image planes using polymer-dispersed liquid-crystal layers,” Appl. Opt. 46, 3766-3773 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Kim, S.-W. Min, and B. Lee, “Viewing region maximization of an integral floating display through location adjustment of viewing window,” Opt. Express 15, 13023-13034 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D.-H. Shin, B. Lee, and E.-S. Kim, “Multidirectional curved integral imaging with large depth by additional use of a large-aperture lens,” Appl. Opt. 45, 7375-7381 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Kim, Y. Kim, S.-W. Cho, S.-W. Min, and B. Lee, “Viewing-angle-enhanced floating display system based on integral imaging,” paper CTuN2-3 presented at Pacific Rim Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO-PR), Tokyo, Japan, 2005.

D.-H. Shin, E.-S. Kim, and B. Lee, “Computational reconstruction technique of three-dimensional object in integral imaging using a lenslet array,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 8016-8018 (2005).

D.-H. Shin, B. Lee, and E.-S. Kim, “Effect of illumination in an integral imaging system with large depth of focus,” Appl. Opt. 44, 7749-7753 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-W. Min, M. Hahn, J. Kim, and B. Lee, “Three-dimensional electro-floating display system using an integral imaging method,” Opt. Express 13, 4358-4369 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Hong, J.-H. Park, J. Kim, and B. Lee, “Analysis of image depth in integral imaging and its enhancement by correction to elemental images,” Proc. SPIE 5524, 387-395 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J.-H. Park, H.-R. Kim, Y. Kim, J. Kim, J. Hong, S.-D. Lee, and B. Lee, “Depth-enhanced three-dimensional-two-dimensional convertible display based on modified integral imaging,” Opt. Lett. 29, 2734-2736 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Jung, J.-H. Park, H. Choi, and B. Lee, “Viewing-angle-enhanced integral three-dimensional imaging along all directions without mechanical movement,” Opt. Express 11, 1346-1356 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-W. Min, S. Jung, J.-H. Park, and B. Lee, “Study for wide-viewing integral photography using an aspheric Fresnel-lens array,” Opt. Eng. 41, 2572-2576 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S.-D.

Liao, H.

Lippmann, G.

G. Lippmann, “La photographie integrale,” C. R. Acad. Sci. 146, 446-451 (1908).

Min, S.-W.

J. Kim, S.-W. Min, and B. Lee, “Floated image mapping for integral floating display,” Opt. Express 16, 8549-8556 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Kim, S.-W. Min, and B. Lee, “Viewing region maximization of an integral floating display through location adjustment of viewing window,” Opt. Express 15, 13023-13034 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Kim, Y. Kim, S.-W. Cho, S.-W. Min, and B. Lee, “Viewing-angle-enhanced floating display system based on integral imaging,” paper CTuN2-3 presented at Pacific Rim Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO-PR), Tokyo, Japan, 2005.

S.-W. Min, M. Hahn, J. Kim, and B. Lee, “Three-dimensional electro-floating display system using an integral imaging method,” Opt. Express 13, 4358-4369 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-W. Min, S. Jung, J.-H. Park, and B. Lee, “Study for wide-viewing integral photography using an aspheric Fresnel-lens array,” Opt. Eng. 41, 2572-2576 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Okano, F.

Okoshi, T.

T. Okoshi, “Three-dimensional displays,” Proc. IEEE 68, 548-564 (1980).
[CrossRef]

T. Okoshi, Three-Dimensional Imaging Techniques (Academic, 1976).

Park, G.

Park, J.-H.

J. Hong, J.-H. Park, J. Kim, and B. Lee, “Analysis of image depth in integral imaging and its enhancement by correction to elemental images,” Proc. SPIE 5524, 387-395 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J.-H. Park, H.-R. Kim, Y. Kim, J. Kim, J. Hong, S.-D. Lee, and B. Lee, “Depth-enhanced three-dimensional-two-dimensional convertible display based on modified integral imaging,” Opt. Lett. 29, 2734-2736 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Jung, J.-H. Park, H. Choi, and B. Lee, “Viewing-angle-enhanced integral three-dimensional imaging along all directions without mechanical movement,” Opt. Express 11, 1346-1356 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-W. Min, S. Jung, J.-H. Park, and B. Lee, “Study for wide-viewing integral photography using an aspheric Fresnel-lens array,” Opt. Eng. 41, 2572-2576 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Shin, D.-H.

Yuyama, I.

Appl. Opt.

C. R. Acad. Sci.

G. Lippmann, “La photographie integrale,” C. R. Acad. Sci. 146, 446-451 (1908).

Opt. Eng.

S.-W. Min, S. Jung, J.-H. Park, and B. Lee, “Study for wide-viewing integral photography using an aspheric Fresnel-lens array,” Opt. Eng. 41, 2572-2576 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Proc. IEEE

T. Okoshi, “Three-dimensional displays,” Proc. IEEE 68, 548-564 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

H. Kakeya, “Autostereoscopic display with real-image virtual screen and light filters,” Proc. SPIE 4660, 349-357 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. Kakeya, “Real image based autostereoscopic display using LCD, mirrors, and lenses,” Proc. SPIE 5006, 99-107 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Kakeya, N. Kobe, and H. Kasano, “Multiview autostereoscopic display with floating real image,” Proc. SPIE 5291, 255-264 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Kakeya, “MOEVision: simple multiview display with clear floating image,” Proc. SPIE 6490, 64900J (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Kakeya, “Formulation of coarse integral imaging and its applications,” Proc. SPIE 6803, 680317 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Hong, J.-H. Park, J. Kim, and B. Lee, “Analysis of image depth in integral imaging and its enhancement by correction to elemental images,” Proc. SPIE 5524, 387-395 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Other

D.-H. Shin, E.-S. Kim, and B. Lee, “Computational reconstruction technique of three-dimensional object in integral imaging using a lenslet array,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 8016-8018 (2005).

J. Kim, Y. Kim, S.-W. Cho, S.-W. Min, and B. Lee, “Viewing-angle-enhanced floating display system based on integral imaging,” paper CTuN2-3 presented at Pacific Rim Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO-PR), Tokyo, Japan, 2005.

T. Okoshi, Three-Dimensional Imaging Techniques (Academic, 1976).

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Structure of an integral floating display.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Integral floating system designed by following the maximization scheme of the viewing region.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Proposed geometry of an elemental image area.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Experimental results measuring the size of the viewing window.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Experimental setup.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Comparison of integral imaging systems with actual lens array and integral imaging system with imaginary lens array.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Elemental image sets for viewing window expansion.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Experimental results displayed using conventional design.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Experimental results displayed using proposed design.

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

1 g - 1 d i = 1 f i ,
s = φ i d i - g d i .
w i = s d i g = φ i d i - g g .
w f = w i b a + d i = φ i b ( d i - g ) g ( a + d i ) = φ i f f ( a + b ) - a b f i f f .
A e = ( φ i d i - g g ) 2 ,
A f = [ φ i f f ( a + b ) - a b f i f f ] 2 .
M = A f A e = [ f i ( b - f f ) f i f f ] 2 .

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