Abstract

We describe the fabrication and performance of diffractive filters designed for space-based x-ray and EUV solar observations. Unlike traditional thin film filters, diffractive filters can be made to have a high resistance against the destructive mechanical and acoustic loads of a satellite launch. The filters studied are made of plastic track-etched membranes that are metal-coated on one side only. They have all-through open cylindrical pores with diameters as small as 500nm, limiting their transmittance to very short wavelengths. The spectral transmittance of various diffractive filters with different pore parameters was measured from the soft x-ray to the near IR range (namely, from 11100nm).

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  4. A. V. Mitrofanov and P. Yu. Apel, “Porous plastic membranes used as extreme and far ultraviolet radiation diffraction filters,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 282, 542-545 (1989).
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    [CrossRef]
  7. J. John, P. Malinowski, P. Aparicio, G. Hellings, A. Lorenz, M. Germain, F. Semond, J.-Y. Duboz, A. Benmoussa, J.-H. Hochedez, U. Kroth, and M. Richter, “AlxGa1-xN focal plane arrays for imaging applications in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) wavelength range,” Proc. SPIE 6585, 658505 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. V. Mitrofanov, F. A. Pudonin, N. Starodubzev, and I. A. Zhitnik, “Spectral filtration of XUV-radiation with the help of thin-film filters in the TEREK-C solar telescope and the RES-C spectromheliograph,” Proc. SPIE 3406, 35-44(1998).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. V. Mitrofanov and P. Yu. Apel, “Ion track filters in imaging x-ray astronomy,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 245, 332-336 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  11. M. Konuma, Film Deposition by Plasma Techniques, Springer series on Atom and Plasmas (Springer-Verlag, 1992), Vol. 10.
  12. F. Scholze, B. Beckhoff, G. Brandt, R. Fliegauf, R. Klein, B. Meyer, D. Rost, D. Schmitz, and M. Veldkamp, “The new PTB-beamlines for high accuracy EUV reflectrometry at BESSY II,” Proc. SPIE 4146, 72-82 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  13. D. Bolsee, A. R. Webb, D. Gillotay, B. Dorschel, P. Knuschke, A. Krins, and I. Terenetskaya, “Laboratory facilities and recommendations for the characterization of biological ultraviolet dosimeters,” Appl. Opt. 39, 2813-2822 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  14. S. Yu. Zuev and A. V. Mitrofanov, “Measurements of parameters of optical elements for x-ray telescopes,” J. Surface Investigation 1, 81-83 (2002) (in Russian).
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    [CrossRef]
  16. A. V. Mitrofanov, P. Yu. Apel, I. V. Blonskaja, and O. L. Orelovich, “Diffraction filters based on polyimide and polyethylene naphthalate track membranes,” Tech. Phys. 51, 1229-1234 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  17. G. D. Malyuzhinets, “Progress in understanding of diffraction phenomena,” Sov. Phys. Usp. 69, 312-334 (1959) (in Russian).
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    [CrossRef]
  21. A. V. Mitrofanov and P. Yu. Apel, “X-ray diffraction filters made from track membranes,” Proceedings of XII Nanophysics and Nanoelectronics Symposium, Nizhnii Novgorod 2, 165 (2008) (in Russian). An English version will be available soon in the Bulletin of the Russian Academy of Sciences: Physics 73 (1) (Allerton Press, 2009, in press).
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  23. A. V. Vinogradov and I. V. Kozhevnikov, “Reflections and scattering of the soft x-ray radiation from the rough surface,” Proc. Lebedev Phys. Inst. Acad. Sci. 196, 34 (1989) (in Russian).

2008 (1)

A. V. Mitrofanov and P. Yu. Apel, “X-ray diffraction filters made from track membranes,” Proceedings of XII Nanophysics and Nanoelectronics Symposium, Nizhnii Novgorod 2, 165 (2008) (in Russian). An English version will be available soon in the Bulletin of the Russian Academy of Sciences: Physics 73 (1) (Allerton Press, 2009, in press).

2007 (1)

J. John, P. Malinowski, P. Aparicio, G. Hellings, A. Lorenz, M. Germain, F. Semond, J.-Y. Duboz, A. Benmoussa, J.-H. Hochedez, U. Kroth, and M. Richter, “AlxGa1-xN focal plane arrays for imaging applications in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) wavelength range,” Proc. SPIE 6585, 658505 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

A. V. Mitrofanov and P. Yu. Apel, “Ion track filters in imaging x-ray astronomy,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 245, 332-336 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. BenMoussa, J. F. Hochedez, U. Schühle, W. Schmutz, K. Haenen, Y. Stockman, A. Soltani, F. Scholze, U. Kroth, V. Mortet, A. Theissen, C. Laubis, M. Richter, S. Koller, J.-M. Defise, and S. Koizumi, “Diamond detectors for LYRA, the solar VUV radiometer on board PROBA2,” Diam. Relat. Mater. 15, 802 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Mitrofanov, P. Yu. Apel, I. V. Blonskaja, and O. L. Orelovich, “Diffraction filters based on polyimide and polyethylene naphthalate track membranes,” Tech. Phys. 51, 1229-1234 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 7th ed. (Cambridge University, 2005).

2004 (1)

J. Ciosek, “The main thesis of light transmittance law,” Proc. SPIE 5250, 554-559 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

S. Yu. Zuev and A. V. Mitrofanov, “Measurements of parameters of optical elements for x-ray telescopes,” J. Surface Investigation 1, 81-83 (2002) (in Russian).

2000 (2)

F. Scholze, B. Beckhoff, G. Brandt, R. Fliegauf, R. Klein, B. Meyer, D. Rost, D. Schmitz, and M. Veldkamp, “The new PTB-beamlines for high accuracy EUV reflectrometry at BESSY II,” Proc. SPIE 4146, 72-82 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Bolsee, A. R. Webb, D. Gillotay, B. Dorschel, P. Knuschke, A. Krins, and I. Terenetskaya, “Laboratory facilities and recommendations for the characterization of biological ultraviolet dosimeters,” Appl. Opt. 39, 2813-2822 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

A. V. Vinogradov, A. V. Popov, Yu. V. Kopylov, and A. N. Kurokhtin, Numerical Simulation of X-Ray Diffractive Optics (A&B Publishing House, 1999), pp. 1-56.

1998 (1)

A. V. Mitrofanov, F. A. Pudonin, N. Starodubzev, and I. A. Zhitnik, “Spectral filtration of XUV-radiation with the help of thin-film filters in the TEREK-C solar telescope and the RES-C spectromheliograph,” Proc. SPIE 3406, 35-44(1998).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

1992 (1)

M. Konuma, Film Deposition by Plasma Techniques, Springer series on Atom and Plasmas (Springer-Verlag, 1992), Vol. 10.

1991 (2)

A. V. Mitrofanov, F. A. Pudonin, P. Yu. Apel, and T. I. Gromova, “The ultraviolet transmittance of porous VUV and x-ray diffraction filters,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 308, 347-351 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. Gruntman, “Submicron structures-promising filters in EUV: a review,” Proc. SPIE 1549, 385-394 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1989 (2)

A. V. Mitrofanov and P. Yu. Apel, “Porous plastic membranes used as extreme and far ultraviolet radiation diffraction filters,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 282, 542-545 (1989).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Vinogradov and I. V. Kozhevnikov, “Reflections and scattering of the soft x-ray radiation from the rough surface,” Proc. Lebedev Phys. Inst. Acad. Sci. 196, 34 (1989) (in Russian).

1987 (1)

V. Tiit and R. A. Denisov, “Double vacuum monochromator and spectrophotometer,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 261, 99-100 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

C. Riedel and R. Spohr, “Statistical properties of etched nuclear tracks,” Radiat. Eff. 42, 69-75 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1959 (1)

G. D. Malyuzhinets, “Progress in understanding of diffraction phenomena,” Sov. Phys. Usp. 69, 312-334 (1959) (in Russian).

Anderson, E. H.

Aparicio, P.

J. John, P. Malinowski, P. Aparicio, G. Hellings, A. Lorenz, M. Germain, F. Semond, J.-Y. Duboz, A. Benmoussa, J.-H. Hochedez, U. Kroth, and M. Richter, “AlxGa1-xN focal plane arrays for imaging applications in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) wavelength range,” Proc. SPIE 6585, 658505 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Apel, P. Yu.

A. V. Mitrofanov and P. Yu. Apel, “X-ray diffraction filters made from track membranes,” Proceedings of XII Nanophysics and Nanoelectronics Symposium, Nizhnii Novgorod 2, 165 (2008) (in Russian). An English version will be available soon in the Bulletin of the Russian Academy of Sciences: Physics 73 (1) (Allerton Press, 2009, in press).

A. V. Mitrofanov and P. Yu. Apel, “Ion track filters in imaging x-ray astronomy,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 245, 332-336 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Mitrofanov, P. Yu. Apel, I. V. Blonskaja, and O. L. Orelovich, “Diffraction filters based on polyimide and polyethylene naphthalate track membranes,” Tech. Phys. 51, 1229-1234 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Mitrofanov, F. A. Pudonin, P. Yu. Apel, and T. I. Gromova, “The ultraviolet transmittance of porous VUV and x-ray diffraction filters,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 308, 347-351 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Mitrofanov and P. Yu. Apel, “Porous plastic membranes used as extreme and far ultraviolet radiation diffraction filters,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 282, 542-545 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Beckhoff, B.

F. Scholze, B. Beckhoff, G. Brandt, R. Fliegauf, R. Klein, B. Meyer, D. Rost, D. Schmitz, and M. Veldkamp, “The new PTB-beamlines for high accuracy EUV reflectrometry at BESSY II,” Proc. SPIE 4146, 72-82 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Benmoussa, A.

J. John, P. Malinowski, P. Aparicio, G. Hellings, A. Lorenz, M. Germain, F. Semond, J.-Y. Duboz, A. Benmoussa, J.-H. Hochedez, U. Kroth, and M. Richter, “AlxGa1-xN focal plane arrays for imaging applications in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) wavelength range,” Proc. SPIE 6585, 658505 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. BenMoussa, J. F. Hochedez, U. Schühle, W. Schmutz, K. Haenen, Y. Stockman, A. Soltani, F. Scholze, U. Kroth, V. Mortet, A. Theissen, C. Laubis, M. Richter, S. Koller, J.-M. Defise, and S. Koizumi, “Diamond detectors for LYRA, the solar VUV radiometer on board PROBA2,” Diam. Relat. Mater. 15, 802 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Blonskaja, I. V.

A. V. Mitrofanov, P. Yu. Apel, I. V. Blonskaja, and O. L. Orelovich, “Diffraction filters based on polyimide and polyethylene naphthalate track membranes,” Tech. Phys. 51, 1229-1234 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bolsee, D.

Born, M.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 7th ed. (Cambridge University, 2005).

Brandt, G.

F. Scholze, B. Beckhoff, G. Brandt, R. Fliegauf, R. Klein, B. Meyer, D. Rost, D. Schmitz, and M. Veldkamp, “The new PTB-beamlines for high accuracy EUV reflectrometry at BESSY II,” Proc. SPIE 4146, 72-82 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ciosek, J.

J. Ciosek, “The main thesis of light transmittance law,” Proc. SPIE 5250, 554-559 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Defise, J.-M.

A. BenMoussa, J. F. Hochedez, U. Schühle, W. Schmutz, K. Haenen, Y. Stockman, A. Soltani, F. Scholze, U. Kroth, V. Mortet, A. Theissen, C. Laubis, M. Richter, S. Koller, J.-M. Defise, and S. Koizumi, “Diamond detectors for LYRA, the solar VUV radiometer on board PROBA2,” Diam. Relat. Mater. 15, 802 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Denisov, R. A.

V. Tiit and R. A. Denisov, “Double vacuum monochromator and spectrophotometer,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 261, 99-100 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Dorschel, B.

Duboz, J.-Y.

J. John, P. Malinowski, P. Aparicio, G. Hellings, A. Lorenz, M. Germain, F. Semond, J.-Y. Duboz, A. Benmoussa, J.-H. Hochedez, U. Kroth, and M. Richter, “AlxGa1-xN focal plane arrays for imaging applications in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) wavelength range,” Proc. SPIE 6585, 658505 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fliegauf, R.

F. Scholze, B. Beckhoff, G. Brandt, R. Fliegauf, R. Klein, B. Meyer, D. Rost, D. Schmitz, and M. Veldkamp, “The new PTB-beamlines for high accuracy EUV reflectrometry at BESSY II,” Proc. SPIE 4146, 72-82 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Germain, M.

J. John, P. Malinowski, P. Aparicio, G. Hellings, A. Lorenz, M. Germain, F. Semond, J.-Y. Duboz, A. Benmoussa, J.-H. Hochedez, U. Kroth, and M. Richter, “AlxGa1-xN focal plane arrays for imaging applications in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) wavelength range,” Proc. SPIE 6585, 658505 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gillotay, D.

Gromova, T. I.

A. V. Mitrofanov, F. A. Pudonin, P. Yu. Apel, and T. I. Gromova, “The ultraviolet transmittance of porous VUV and x-ray diffraction filters,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 308, 347-351 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Gruntman, M.

M. Gruntman, “Submicron structures-promising filters in EUV: a review,” Proc. SPIE 1549, 385-394 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Haenen, K.

A. BenMoussa, J. F. Hochedez, U. Schühle, W. Schmutz, K. Haenen, Y. Stockman, A. Soltani, F. Scholze, U. Kroth, V. Mortet, A. Theissen, C. Laubis, M. Richter, S. Koller, J.-M. Defise, and S. Koizumi, “Diamond detectors for LYRA, the solar VUV radiometer on board PROBA2,” Diam. Relat. Mater. 15, 802 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hellings, G.

J. John, P. Malinowski, P. Aparicio, G. Hellings, A. Lorenz, M. Germain, F. Semond, J.-Y. Duboz, A. Benmoussa, J.-H. Hochedez, U. Kroth, and M. Richter, “AlxGa1-xN focal plane arrays for imaging applications in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) wavelength range,” Proc. SPIE 6585, 658505 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hochedez, J. F.

A. BenMoussa, J. F. Hochedez, U. Schühle, W. Schmutz, K. Haenen, Y. Stockman, A. Soltani, F. Scholze, U. Kroth, V. Mortet, A. Theissen, C. Laubis, M. Richter, S. Koller, J.-M. Defise, and S. Koizumi, “Diamond detectors for LYRA, the solar VUV radiometer on board PROBA2,” Diam. Relat. Mater. 15, 802 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hochedez, J.-H.

J. John, P. Malinowski, P. Aparicio, G. Hellings, A. Lorenz, M. Germain, F. Semond, J.-Y. Duboz, A. Benmoussa, J.-H. Hochedez, U. Kroth, and M. Richter, “AlxGa1-xN focal plane arrays for imaging applications in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) wavelength range,” Proc. SPIE 6585, 658505 (2007).
[CrossRef]

John, J.

J. John, P. Malinowski, P. Aparicio, G. Hellings, A. Lorenz, M. Germain, F. Semond, J.-Y. Duboz, A. Benmoussa, J.-H. Hochedez, U. Kroth, and M. Richter, “AlxGa1-xN focal plane arrays for imaging applications in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) wavelength range,” Proc. SPIE 6585, 658505 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Klein, R.

F. Scholze, B. Beckhoff, G. Brandt, R. Fliegauf, R. Klein, B. Meyer, D. Rost, D. Schmitz, and M. Veldkamp, “The new PTB-beamlines for high accuracy EUV reflectrometry at BESSY II,” Proc. SPIE 4146, 72-82 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Knuschke, P.

Koizumi, S.

A. BenMoussa, J. F. Hochedez, U. Schühle, W. Schmutz, K. Haenen, Y. Stockman, A. Soltani, F. Scholze, U. Kroth, V. Mortet, A. Theissen, C. Laubis, M. Richter, S. Koller, J.-M. Defise, and S. Koizumi, “Diamond detectors for LYRA, the solar VUV radiometer on board PROBA2,” Diam. Relat. Mater. 15, 802 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Koller, S.

A. BenMoussa, J. F. Hochedez, U. Schühle, W. Schmutz, K. Haenen, Y. Stockman, A. Soltani, F. Scholze, U. Kroth, V. Mortet, A. Theissen, C. Laubis, M. Richter, S. Koller, J.-M. Defise, and S. Koizumi, “Diamond detectors for LYRA, the solar VUV radiometer on board PROBA2,” Diam. Relat. Mater. 15, 802 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Konuma, M.

M. Konuma, Film Deposition by Plasma Techniques, Springer series on Atom and Plasmas (Springer-Verlag, 1992), Vol. 10.

Kopylov, Yu. V.

A. V. Vinogradov, A. V. Popov, Yu. V. Kopylov, and A. N. Kurokhtin, Numerical Simulation of X-Ray Diffractive Optics (A&B Publishing House, 1999), pp. 1-56.

Kozhevnikov, I. V.

A. V. Vinogradov and I. V. Kozhevnikov, “Reflections and scattering of the soft x-ray radiation from the rough surface,” Proc. Lebedev Phys. Inst. Acad. Sci. 196, 34 (1989) (in Russian).

Krins, A.

Kroth, U.

J. John, P. Malinowski, P. Aparicio, G. Hellings, A. Lorenz, M. Germain, F. Semond, J.-Y. Duboz, A. Benmoussa, J.-H. Hochedez, U. Kroth, and M. Richter, “AlxGa1-xN focal plane arrays for imaging applications in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) wavelength range,” Proc. SPIE 6585, 658505 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. BenMoussa, J. F. Hochedez, U. Schühle, W. Schmutz, K. Haenen, Y. Stockman, A. Soltani, F. Scholze, U. Kroth, V. Mortet, A. Theissen, C. Laubis, M. Richter, S. Koller, J.-M. Defise, and S. Koizumi, “Diamond detectors for LYRA, the solar VUV radiometer on board PROBA2,” Diam. Relat. Mater. 15, 802 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kurokhtin, A. N.

A. V. Vinogradov, A. V. Popov, Yu. V. Kopylov, and A. N. Kurokhtin, Numerical Simulation of X-Ray Diffractive Optics (A&B Publishing House, 1999), pp. 1-56.

Laubis, C.

A. BenMoussa, J. F. Hochedez, U. Schühle, W. Schmutz, K. Haenen, Y. Stockman, A. Soltani, F. Scholze, U. Kroth, V. Mortet, A. Theissen, C. Laubis, M. Richter, S. Koller, J.-M. Defise, and S. Koizumi, “Diamond detectors for LYRA, the solar VUV radiometer on board PROBA2,” Diam. Relat. Mater. 15, 802 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lorenz, A.

J. John, P. Malinowski, P. Aparicio, G. Hellings, A. Lorenz, M. Germain, F. Semond, J.-Y. Duboz, A. Benmoussa, J.-H. Hochedez, U. Kroth, and M. Richter, “AlxGa1-xN focal plane arrays for imaging applications in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) wavelength range,” Proc. SPIE 6585, 658505 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Malinowski, P.

J. John, P. Malinowski, P. Aparicio, G. Hellings, A. Lorenz, M. Germain, F. Semond, J.-Y. Duboz, A. Benmoussa, J.-H. Hochedez, U. Kroth, and M. Richter, “AlxGa1-xN focal plane arrays for imaging applications in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) wavelength range,” Proc. SPIE 6585, 658505 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Malyuzhinets, G. D.

G. D. Malyuzhinets, “Progress in understanding of diffraction phenomena,” Sov. Phys. Usp. 69, 312-334 (1959) (in Russian).

McComas, D. J.

Meyer, B.

F. Scholze, B. Beckhoff, G. Brandt, R. Fliegauf, R. Klein, B. Meyer, D. Rost, D. Schmitz, and M. Veldkamp, “The new PTB-beamlines for high accuracy EUV reflectrometry at BESSY II,” Proc. SPIE 4146, 72-82 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mitrofanov, A. V.

A. V. Mitrofanov and P. Yu. Apel, “X-ray diffraction filters made from track membranes,” Proceedings of XII Nanophysics and Nanoelectronics Symposium, Nizhnii Novgorod 2, 165 (2008) (in Russian). An English version will be available soon in the Bulletin of the Russian Academy of Sciences: Physics 73 (1) (Allerton Press, 2009, in press).

A. V. Mitrofanov and P. Yu. Apel, “Ion track filters in imaging x-ray astronomy,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 245, 332-336 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Mitrofanov, P. Yu. Apel, I. V. Blonskaja, and O. L. Orelovich, “Diffraction filters based on polyimide and polyethylene naphthalate track membranes,” Tech. Phys. 51, 1229-1234 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Yu. Zuev and A. V. Mitrofanov, “Measurements of parameters of optical elements for x-ray telescopes,” J. Surface Investigation 1, 81-83 (2002) (in Russian).

A. V. Mitrofanov, F. A. Pudonin, N. Starodubzev, and I. A. Zhitnik, “Spectral filtration of XUV-radiation with the help of thin-film filters in the TEREK-C solar telescope and the RES-C spectromheliograph,” Proc. SPIE 3406, 35-44(1998).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Mitrofanov, F. A. Pudonin, P. Yu. Apel, and T. I. Gromova, “The ultraviolet transmittance of porous VUV and x-ray diffraction filters,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 308, 347-351 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Mitrofanov and P. Yu. Apel, “Porous plastic membranes used as extreme and far ultraviolet radiation diffraction filters,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 282, 542-545 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Mortet, V.

A. BenMoussa, J. F. Hochedez, U. Schühle, W. Schmutz, K. Haenen, Y. Stockman, A. Soltani, F. Scholze, U. Kroth, V. Mortet, A. Theissen, C. Laubis, M. Richter, S. Koller, J.-M. Defise, and S. Koizumi, “Diamond detectors for LYRA, the solar VUV radiometer on board PROBA2,” Diam. Relat. Mater. 15, 802 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Orelovich, O. L.

A. V. Mitrofanov, P. Yu. Apel, I. V. Blonskaja, and O. L. Orelovich, “Diffraction filters based on polyimide and polyethylene naphthalate track membranes,” Tech. Phys. 51, 1229-1234 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Popov, A. V.

A. V. Vinogradov, A. V. Popov, Yu. V. Kopylov, and A. N. Kurokhtin, Numerical Simulation of X-Ray Diffractive Optics (A&B Publishing House, 1999), pp. 1-56.

Pudonin, F. A.

A. V. Mitrofanov, F. A. Pudonin, N. Starodubzev, and I. A. Zhitnik, “Spectral filtration of XUV-radiation with the help of thin-film filters in the TEREK-C solar telescope and the RES-C spectromheliograph,” Proc. SPIE 3406, 35-44(1998).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Mitrofanov, F. A. Pudonin, P. Yu. Apel, and T. I. Gromova, “The ultraviolet transmittance of porous VUV and x-ray diffraction filters,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 308, 347-351 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Richter, M.

J. John, P. Malinowski, P. Aparicio, G. Hellings, A. Lorenz, M. Germain, F. Semond, J.-Y. Duboz, A. Benmoussa, J.-H. Hochedez, U. Kroth, and M. Richter, “AlxGa1-xN focal plane arrays for imaging applications in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) wavelength range,” Proc. SPIE 6585, 658505 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. BenMoussa, J. F. Hochedez, U. Schühle, W. Schmutz, K. Haenen, Y. Stockman, A. Soltani, F. Scholze, U. Kroth, V. Mortet, A. Theissen, C. Laubis, M. Richter, S. Koller, J.-M. Defise, and S. Koizumi, “Diamond detectors for LYRA, the solar VUV radiometer on board PROBA2,” Diam. Relat. Mater. 15, 802 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Riedel, C.

C. Riedel and R. Spohr, “Statistical properties of etched nuclear tracks,” Radiat. Eff. 42, 69-75 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Rost, D.

F. Scholze, B. Beckhoff, G. Brandt, R. Fliegauf, R. Klein, B. Meyer, D. Rost, D. Schmitz, and M. Veldkamp, “The new PTB-beamlines for high accuracy EUV reflectrometry at BESSY II,” Proc. SPIE 4146, 72-82 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Schattenburg, M. L.

Schmitz, D.

F. Scholze, B. Beckhoff, G. Brandt, R. Fliegauf, R. Klein, B. Meyer, D. Rost, D. Schmitz, and M. Veldkamp, “The new PTB-beamlines for high accuracy EUV reflectrometry at BESSY II,” Proc. SPIE 4146, 72-82 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Schmutz, W.

A. BenMoussa, J. F. Hochedez, U. Schühle, W. Schmutz, K. Haenen, Y. Stockman, A. Soltani, F. Scholze, U. Kroth, V. Mortet, A. Theissen, C. Laubis, M. Richter, S. Koller, J.-M. Defise, and S. Koizumi, “Diamond detectors for LYRA, the solar VUV radiometer on board PROBA2,” Diam. Relat. Mater. 15, 802 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Scholze, F.

A. BenMoussa, J. F. Hochedez, U. Schühle, W. Schmutz, K. Haenen, Y. Stockman, A. Soltani, F. Scholze, U. Kroth, V. Mortet, A. Theissen, C. Laubis, M. Richter, S. Koller, J.-M. Defise, and S. Koizumi, “Diamond detectors for LYRA, the solar VUV radiometer on board PROBA2,” Diam. Relat. Mater. 15, 802 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Scholze, B. Beckhoff, G. Brandt, R. Fliegauf, R. Klein, B. Meyer, D. Rost, D. Schmitz, and M. Veldkamp, “The new PTB-beamlines for high accuracy EUV reflectrometry at BESSY II,” Proc. SPIE 4146, 72-82 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Schühle, U.

A. BenMoussa, J. F. Hochedez, U. Schühle, W. Schmutz, K. Haenen, Y. Stockman, A. Soltani, F. Scholze, U. Kroth, V. Mortet, A. Theissen, C. Laubis, M. Richter, S. Koller, J.-M. Defise, and S. Koizumi, “Diamond detectors for LYRA, the solar VUV radiometer on board PROBA2,” Diam. Relat. Mater. 15, 802 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Scime, E. E.

Semond, F.

J. John, P. Malinowski, P. Aparicio, G. Hellings, A. Lorenz, M. Germain, F. Semond, J.-Y. Duboz, A. Benmoussa, J.-H. Hochedez, U. Kroth, and M. Richter, “AlxGa1-xN focal plane arrays for imaging applications in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) wavelength range,” Proc. SPIE 6585, 658505 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Soltani, A.

A. BenMoussa, J. F. Hochedez, U. Schühle, W. Schmutz, K. Haenen, Y. Stockman, A. Soltani, F. Scholze, U. Kroth, V. Mortet, A. Theissen, C. Laubis, M. Richter, S. Koller, J.-M. Defise, and S. Koizumi, “Diamond detectors for LYRA, the solar VUV radiometer on board PROBA2,” Diam. Relat. Mater. 15, 802 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Spohr, R.

C. Riedel and R. Spohr, “Statistical properties of etched nuclear tracks,” Radiat. Eff. 42, 69-75 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Starodubzev, N.

A. V. Mitrofanov, F. A. Pudonin, N. Starodubzev, and I. A. Zhitnik, “Spectral filtration of XUV-radiation with the help of thin-film filters in the TEREK-C solar telescope and the RES-C spectromheliograph,” Proc. SPIE 3406, 35-44(1998).
[CrossRef]

Stockman, Y.

A. BenMoussa, J. F. Hochedez, U. Schühle, W. Schmutz, K. Haenen, Y. Stockman, A. Soltani, F. Scholze, U. Kroth, V. Mortet, A. Theissen, C. Laubis, M. Richter, S. Koller, J.-M. Defise, and S. Koizumi, “Diamond detectors for LYRA, the solar VUV radiometer on board PROBA2,” Diam. Relat. Mater. 15, 802 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Terenetskaya, I.

Theissen, A.

A. BenMoussa, J. F. Hochedez, U. Schühle, W. Schmutz, K. Haenen, Y. Stockman, A. Soltani, F. Scholze, U. Kroth, V. Mortet, A. Theissen, C. Laubis, M. Richter, S. Koller, J.-M. Defise, and S. Koizumi, “Diamond detectors for LYRA, the solar VUV radiometer on board PROBA2,” Diam. Relat. Mater. 15, 802 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tiit, V.

V. Tiit and R. A. Denisov, “Double vacuum monochromator and spectrophotometer,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 261, 99-100 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Veldkamp, M.

F. Scholze, B. Beckhoff, G. Brandt, R. Fliegauf, R. Klein, B. Meyer, D. Rost, D. Schmitz, and M. Veldkamp, “The new PTB-beamlines for high accuracy EUV reflectrometry at BESSY II,” Proc. SPIE 4146, 72-82 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Vinogradov, A. V.

A. V. Vinogradov, A. V. Popov, Yu. V. Kopylov, and A. N. Kurokhtin, Numerical Simulation of X-Ray Diffractive Optics (A&B Publishing House, 1999), pp. 1-56.

A. V. Vinogradov and I. V. Kozhevnikov, “Reflections and scattering of the soft x-ray radiation from the rough surface,” Proc. Lebedev Phys. Inst. Acad. Sci. 196, 34 (1989) (in Russian).

Webb, A. R.

Wolf, E.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 7th ed. (Cambridge University, 2005).

Zhitnik, I. A.

A. V. Mitrofanov, F. A. Pudonin, N. Starodubzev, and I. A. Zhitnik, “Spectral filtration of XUV-radiation with the help of thin-film filters in the TEREK-C solar telescope and the RES-C spectromheliograph,” Proc. SPIE 3406, 35-44(1998).
[CrossRef]

Zuev, S. Yu.

S. Yu. Zuev and A. V. Mitrofanov, “Measurements of parameters of optical elements for x-ray telescopes,” J. Surface Investigation 1, 81-83 (2002) (in Russian).

Appl. Opt. (2)

Diam. Relat. Mater. (1)

A. BenMoussa, J. F. Hochedez, U. Schühle, W. Schmutz, K. Haenen, Y. Stockman, A. Soltani, F. Scholze, U. Kroth, V. Mortet, A. Theissen, C. Laubis, M. Richter, S. Koller, J.-M. Defise, and S. Koizumi, “Diamond detectors for LYRA, the solar VUV radiometer on board PROBA2,” Diam. Relat. Mater. 15, 802 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Surface Investigation (1)

S. Yu. Zuev and A. V. Mitrofanov, “Measurements of parameters of optical elements for x-ray telescopes,” J. Surface Investigation 1, 81-83 (2002) (in Russian).

Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A (3)

V. Tiit and R. A. Denisov, “Double vacuum monochromator and spectrophotometer,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 261, 99-100 (1987).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Mitrofanov, F. A. Pudonin, P. Yu. Apel, and T. I. Gromova, “The ultraviolet transmittance of porous VUV and x-ray diffraction filters,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 308, 347-351 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Mitrofanov and P. Yu. Apel, “Porous plastic membranes used as extreme and far ultraviolet radiation diffraction filters,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 282, 542-545 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B (1)

A. V. Mitrofanov and P. Yu. Apel, “Ion track filters in imaging x-ray astronomy,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 245, 332-336 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Lebedev Phys. Inst. Acad. Sci. (1)

A. V. Vinogradov and I. V. Kozhevnikov, “Reflections and scattering of the soft x-ray radiation from the rough surface,” Proc. Lebedev Phys. Inst. Acad. Sci. 196, 34 (1989) (in Russian).

Proc. SPIE (5)

J. Ciosek, “The main thesis of light transmittance law,” Proc. SPIE 5250, 554-559 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. John, P. Malinowski, P. Aparicio, G. Hellings, A. Lorenz, M. Germain, F. Semond, J.-Y. Duboz, A. Benmoussa, J.-H. Hochedez, U. Kroth, and M. Richter, “AlxGa1-xN focal plane arrays for imaging applications in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) wavelength range,” Proc. SPIE 6585, 658505 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Mitrofanov, F. A. Pudonin, N. Starodubzev, and I. A. Zhitnik, “Spectral filtration of XUV-radiation with the help of thin-film filters in the TEREK-C solar telescope and the RES-C spectromheliograph,” Proc. SPIE 3406, 35-44(1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Gruntman, “Submicron structures-promising filters in EUV: a review,” Proc. SPIE 1549, 385-394 (1991).
[CrossRef]

F. Scholze, B. Beckhoff, G. Brandt, R. Fliegauf, R. Klein, B. Meyer, D. Rost, D. Schmitz, and M. Veldkamp, “The new PTB-beamlines for high accuracy EUV reflectrometry at BESSY II,” Proc. SPIE 4146, 72-82 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Radiat. Eff. (1)

C. Riedel and R. Spohr, “Statistical properties of etched nuclear tracks,” Radiat. Eff. 42, 69-75 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Sov. Phys. Usp. (1)

G. D. Malyuzhinets, “Progress in understanding of diffraction phenomena,” Sov. Phys. Usp. 69, 312-334 (1959) (in Russian).

Tech. Phys. (1)

A. V. Mitrofanov, P. Yu. Apel, I. V. Blonskaja, and O. L. Orelovich, “Diffraction filters based on polyimide and polyethylene naphthalate track membranes,” Tech. Phys. 51, 1229-1234 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Other (6)

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 7th ed. (Cambridge University, 2005).

A. V. Vinogradov, A. V. Popov, Yu. V. Kopylov, and A. N. Kurokhtin, Numerical Simulation of X-Ray Diffractive Optics (A&B Publishing House, 1999), pp. 1-56.

M. Konuma, Film Deposition by Plasma Techniques, Springer series on Atom and Plasmas (Springer-Verlag, 1992), Vol. 10.

http://snl.mit.edu/papers/SNL-Report2002.doc.

A. V. Mitrofanov and P. Yu. Apel, “X-ray diffraction filters made from track membranes,” Proceedings of XII Nanophysics and Nanoelectronics Symposium, Nizhnii Novgorod 2, 165 (2008) (in Russian). An English version will be available soon in the Bulletin of the Russian Academy of Sciences: Physics 73 (1) (Allerton Press, 2009, in press).

http://www-cxro.lbl.gov/optical_constants/.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic representation and pictures of a mounted porous filter.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

SEM micrographs of filters: (a), (b) “inner” surface of filter #4 at two different magnifications; (c) “outer” surface of the same filter #4, coated with Al layer; (d) cross section of filter #2 with Al coating on the “outer” surface.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Scattering pattern observed behind the filter.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Absolute transmittance T of filters #1–#4 as a function of the wavelength in the soft x-ray, EUV, and VUV ranges. Solid lines are exponential fits of experimental points. The plotted values for λ 0 are the experimental effective porosity P eff .

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Normalized transmittance T 1 of filters #1–4 as a function of the inverse Fresnel numbers 1 / F . The Fresnel number of a pore is defined as F = D 2 / λ L , where D is the effective diameter of the pores, L is the pore length or membrane’s thickness and λ is the wavelength. Formula (1) is represented as a solid line. The dashed curve is the exponential approximation [formula (2)].

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Measured dependence of the normalized transmittance T 1 for filters #1 and #2 as a function of the angular tilt to the direction of the incident beam at λ = 13.6 nm . Dashed and solid lines are the geometric optics approximations for “black” walls of a collimator, calculated from Eq. (4).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Wide-band spectrum of absolute transmittance of porous filters #1 and #2. Dashed lines are the exponential fits of experimental results at λ < λ UV . Data come from several teams, including MPS experimental data (points denoted as Udo #1 and Udo #2), IPM (NN points), and LPI results (indicated as the Spekol and TVM-8 points).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(a) Integrand part and (b) the results of the integration of Eq. (4), combining porous filters’ transmittance, diamond detector response, and solar irradiance for maximum solar cycle conditions.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Parameters of Porous Filters

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

T 1 R ( F ) = 1 J 0 2 ( π F 2 ) J 1 2 ( π F 2 ) ,
T 1 E = exp ( λ L / k D 2 ) = exp ( 1 / k F ) ,
T 1 ( α ) T 1 ( 0 ) = 1 π [ 2 arcsin 1 ( L D t g α ) 2 2 L D | t g α | 1 ( L D t g α ) 2 ] arctan D L α arctan D L .
i = 0 A E ( λ ) T ( λ ) D ( λ ) d λ ,

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